Conceptual metaphor in English popular - Research Explorer

Loading...
CONCEPTUAL METAPHOR IN ENGLISH POPULAR TECHNOLOGY AND GREEK TRANSLATION

A thesis submitted to the University of Manchester for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Faculty of Humanities

2010

DAFNI PAPADOUDI

SCHOOL OF LANGUAGES, LINGUISTICS AND CULTURES

Table of Contents Chapter 1 Introduction ............................................................................................ 13 1.1 The Culture of Technology ........................................................................ 13 1.2 Popular Technology Discourse .................................................................. 16 1.3 Aims and Overview of the Thesis .............................................................. 19 Chapter 2 Metaphor, Technology and Translation ................................................. 23 2.1 The Contemporary Theory of Metaphor .................................................... 23 2.1.1 Universality and Variation ................................................................. 38 2.1.2 Further Linguistic Phenomena Associated with Metaphor ................ 41 2.2 Metaphor in Discourse ............................................................................... 44 2.3 Metaphor and Technology ......................................................................... 49 2.4 Metaphor and Translation .......................................................................... 53 2.5 Conclusion .................................................................................................. 66 Chapter 3 Methodology .......................................................................................... 68 3.1 Selection and Description of Data .............................................................. 69 3.2 Procedures for Data Analysis ..................................................................... 73 3.2.1 Analysis of English Data .................................................................... 74 3.2.1.1 Methods for Metaphor Identification ............................................. 74 3.2.1.2 Methods for Metaphor Interpretation ............................................. 75 3.2.1.3 Methods for Metaphor Explanation ............................................... 78 3.2.2 Analysis of Greek Data ...................................................................... 79 3.3 Conclusion .................................................................................................. 80 Chapter 4 Analysis of Conceptual Metaphor in the English Texts ......................... 82 TECHNOLOGY IS A PERSON ........................................................................... 84 4.1 TECHNOLOGY ACTIVITY IS HUMAN ACTIVITY ...................................... 84 4.1.1 4.1.2 TECHNOLOGY LIFECYCLE IS HUMAN LIFECYCLE .................................. 88 4.1.3 TECHNOLOGY IS A PERSON WITH EMOTIONS ........................................ 89 TECHNOLOGY IS A PERSON WITH GENDER ............................................ 90 4.1.4 4.1.5 PARTS OF TECHNOLOGY ARE HUMAN BODY PARTS .............................. 91 4.1.6 TECHNOLOGY RELATIONS ARE KINSHIP RELATIONS ............................. 93 4.1.7 TECHNOLOGY IS A PERSON WITH PERSONALITY ................................... 95 4.1.8 TECHNOLOGY IS A PERSON WITH PHYSICAL APPEARANCE .................... 96 4.1.9 TECHNOLOGY IS A PERSON WITH ROLES/OCCUPATIONS ....................... 97 4.1.10 Conclusion .......................................................................................... 99 4.2 TECHNOLOGY IS A LIVING ORGANISM ........................................................ 101 4.2.1 TECHNOLOGY IS AN ANIMAL .............................................................. 101 4.2.2 TECHNOLOGY IS A PLANT................................................................... 104 4.2.3 THE CONDITION OF TECHNOLOGY IS THE HEALTH OF A LIVING ORGANISM ......................................................................................................... 106 4.2.4 THE CONDITION OF TECHNOLOGY IS THE LIFE OF A LIVING ORGANISM 107 THE FUNCTION OF TECHNOLOGY IS THE FUNCTION OF A LIVING 4.2.5 ORGANISM ......................................................................................................... 109 4.2.6 Conclusion ........................................................................................ 110 4.3 TECHNOLOGY IS A MACHINE ...................................................................... 112 4.3.1 TECHNOLOGY IS A VEHICLE ............................................................... 113 4.3.1.1 TECHNOLOGY IS AN AUTOMOBILE.................................................. 113 4.3.1.2 TECHNOLOGY IS A BUS ................................................................... 118

2

4.3.1.3 TECHNOLOGY IS A SHIP .................................................................. 118 4.3.2 Conclusion ....................................................................................... 119 4.4 TECHNOLOGY IS COMPETITION .................................................................. 121 4.4.1 TECHNOLOGY IS A RACE .................................................................... 123 4.4.2 TECHNOLOGY IS A BATTLE ................................................................ 126 4.4.3 TECHNOLOGY IS A BOXING MATCH .................................................... 127 4.4.4 Conclusion ....................................................................................... 129 4.5 TECHNOLOGY IS SECURITY ........................................................................ 130 4.5.1 TECHNOLOGY IS A FORTRESS ............................................................. 130 4.5.2 TECHNOLOGY IS COMBAT .................................................................. 131 4.5.3 TECHNOLOGY IS DEFENCE ................................................................. 132 4.5.4 TECHNOLOGY IS UNDER ATTACK ....................................................... 133 4.5.5 TECHNOLOGY IS ESPIONAGE .............................................................. 134 4.5.6 TECHNOLOGY IS INVASION ................................................................ 135 4.5.7 Conclusion ....................................................................................... 135 TECHNOLOGY IS LIFESTYLE ....................................................................... 137 4.6 4.6.1 TECHNOLOGY IS AN IDEAL ................................................................. 137 4.6.2 TECHNOLOGY IS FASHION .................................................................. 139 4.6.2.1 TECHNOLOGY IS CLOTHING............................................................ 140 4.6.3 Conclusion ....................................................................................... 142 4.7 TECHNOLOGY IS REVOLUTION ................................................................... 143 4.7.1 Conclusion ....................................................................................... 144 TECHNOLOGY IS PROGRESS ........................................................................ 145 4.8 4.8.1 Conclusion ....................................................................................... 148 4.9 TECHNOLOGY IS AN OBJECT OF DESIRE ...................................................... 149 4.9.1 Conclusion ....................................................................................... 150 4.10 TECHNOLOGY IS A TOY .............................................................................. 151 4.10.1 Conclusion ....................................................................................... 152 4.11 TECHNOLOGY IS FOOD/COOKING ............................................................... 153 4.11.1 Conclusion ....................................................................................... 155 4.12 TECHNOLOGY IS SUPERNATURAL ............................................................... 155 4.12.1 Conclusion ....................................................................................... 158 4.13 TECHNOLOGY IS EXPERIENCE .................................................................... 158 4.13.1 Conclusion ....................................................................................... 161 4.14 VIRTUAL SPACE IS PHYSICAL SPACE ........................................................... 161 4.14.1 VIRTUAL PROCESS IS PHYSICAL PROCESS ........................................... 163 4.14.2 VIRTUAL MOVEMENT IS PHYSICAL MOVEMENT .................................. 164 IMAGE-SCHEMAS ............................................................................... 165 4.14.3 4.14.3.1 VIRTUAL SPACE IS A SURFACE ................................................... 165 4.14.3.2 VIRTUAL SPACE IS A CONTAINER ............................................... 166 4.14.4 HIGHWAY .......................................................................................... 166 4.14.5 Conclusion ....................................................................................... 167 4.15 Discussion ................................................................................................ 168 4.15.1 Conclusion ....................................................................................... 178 Chapter 5 Analysis of Conceptual Metaphor in Greek Translation ..................... 181 5.1 Metaphors Common to the Source and Target Texts .............................. 183 5.1.1 The PERSON metaphor ...................................................................... 184 5.1.1.1 The ACTIVITY submetaphor .......................................................... 184 5.1.1.2 The LIFECYCLE submetaphor ........................................................ 185 5.1.1.3 The GENDER submetaphor ............................................................ 186

3

5.1.1.4 The HUMAN BODY submetaphor ................................................... 186 5.1.1.5 The KINSHIP submetaphor............................................................. 187 5.1.1.6 The PERSONALITY submetaphor ................................................... 187 5.1.1.7 The PHYSICAL APPEARANCE submetaphor .................................... 188 5.1.1.8 The ROLE/OCCUPATION submetaphor ........................................... 189 5.1.2 The LIVING ORGANISM metaphor ...................................................... 189 5.1.2.1 The ANIMAL submetaphor............................................................. 190 5.1.2.2 The PLANT submetaphor ............................................................... 191 5.1.2.3 The HEALTH/ILLNESS submetaphor ............................................... 191 5.1.2.4 The LIFE/DEATH submetaphor ....................................................... 191 5.1.2.5 The FUNCTION submetaphor ......................................................... 192 5.1.3 The MACHINE metaphor .................................................................... 192 5.1.3.1 The AUTOMOBILE submetaphor .................................................... 193 5.1.3.2 The SHIP submetaphor .................................................................. 195 5.1.4 The COMPETITION metaphor ............................................................. 196 5.1.4.1 The BATTLE submetaphor ............................................................. 196 5.1.4.2 The BOXING MATCH submetaphor ................................................ 197 5.1.5 The SECURITY metaphor ................................................................... 198 5.1.5.1 The FORTRESS submetaphor ......................................................... 198 5.1.5.2 The COMBAT submetaphor ........................................................... 198 5.1.5.3 The DEFENCE submetaphor ........................................................... 199 5.1.5.4 The ATTACK submetaphor ............................................................ 199 5.1.5.5 The ESPIONAGE submetaphor ....................................................... 200 5.1.5.6 The INVASION submetaphor .......................................................... 201 5.1.6 The LIFESTYLE metaphor .................................................................. 201 5.1.6.1 The IDEAL submetaphor ............................................................... 201 5.1.6.2 The FASHION submetaphor ........................................................... 202 5.1.6.2.1 The CLOTHING submetaphor ................................................... 203 5.1.7 The REVOLUTION metaphor .............................................................. 204 5.1.8 The PROGRESS metaphor................................................................... 205 5.1.9 The OBJECT OF DESIRE metaphor ...................................................... 206 5.1.10 The TOY metaphor ............................................................................ 207 5.1.11 The FOOD/COOKING metaphor .......................................................... 208 5.1.12 The SUPERNATURAL metaphor.......................................................... 209 5.1.13 The EXPERIENCE metaphor ............................................................... 210 5.1.14 The PHYSICAL SPACE metaphor ........................................................ 212 5.1.14.1 The PHYSICAL PROCESS submetaphor ....................................... 212 5.1.14.2 The PHYSICAL MOVEMENT submetaphor .................................. 213 5.1.14.3 Image-schemas of SURFACE and CONTAINER ........................... 214 5.1.14.4 The HIGHWAY submetaphor...................................................... 215 5.2 Metaphorical Expressions Elaborated in the Target Text ........................ 215 5.2.1 The PERSON metaphor ...................................................................... 216 5.2.2 The LIVING ORGANISM metaphor ...................................................... 216 5.2.3 The MACHINE metaphor .................................................................... 217 5.2.4 The COMPETITION metaphor ............................................................. 218 5.2.5 The SECURITY metaphor ................................................................... 218 5.2.6 The LIFESTYLE metaphor .................................................................. 219 5.2.7 The REVOLUTION metaphor .............................................................. 219 5.2.8 The PROGRESS metaphor................................................................... 220 5.2.9 The OBJECT OF DESIRE metaphor ...................................................... 220

4

5.2.10 The TOY metaphor ............................................................................ 220 5.2.11 The FOOD/COOKING metaphor .......................................................... 221 5.2.12 The EXPERIENCE metaphor ............................................................... 221 5.2.13 The SUPERNATURAL metaphor ......................................................... 221 5.2.14 The PHYSICAL SPACE metaphor ........................................................ 222 5.3 Shift of Submetaphor Category in the Target Text .................................. 222 5.3.1 The PERSON metaphor ...................................................................... 224 5.3.2 The LIVING ORGANISM metaphor ...................................................... 226 5.3.3 The MACHINE metaphor.................................................................... 227 5.3.4 The COMPETITION metaphor ............................................................. 228 5.3.5 The SECURITY metaphor ................................................................... 229 5.3.6 The LIFESTYLE metaphor .................................................................. 230 5.3.7 The PHYSICAL SPACE metaphor ........................................................ 230 5.4 Shift of Metaphor Category in the Target Text........................................ 231 5.4.1 The PERSON metaphor ...................................................................... 232 5.4.1.1 The ACTIVITY submetaphor .......................................................... 233 5.4.1.2 The HUMAN LIFECYCLE submetaphor ........................................... 236 5.4.1.3 The HUMAN BODY submetaphor ................................................... 237 5.4.1.4 The PERSONALITY submetaphor ................................................... 239 5.4.1.5 The PHYSICAL APPEARANCE submetaphor .................................... 240 5.4.2 The LIVING ORGANISM metaphor ...................................................... 241 5.4.2.1 The ANIMAL submetaphor ............................................................ 242 5.4.2.2 The PLANT submetaphor ............................................................... 244 5.4.2.3 The HEALTH/ILLNESS submetaphor .............................................. 245 5.4.2.4 The LIFE/DEATH submetaphor....................................................... 247 5.4.3 The MACHINE metaphor.................................................................... 248 5.4.3.1 The AUTOMOBILE submetaphor .................................................... 250 5.4.3.2 The BUS submetaphor ................................................................... 252 5.4.4 The COMPETITION metaphor ............................................................. 252 5.4.4.1 The RACE submetaphor ................................................................ 254 5.4.4.2 The BATTLE submetaphor ............................................................. 254 5.4.5 The SECURITY metaphor ................................................................... 255 5.4.5.1 The COMBAT submetaphor ........................................................... 255 5.4.5.2 The DEFENCE submetaphor........................................................... 255 5.4.5.3 The ATTACK submetaphor ............................................................ 256 5.4.6 The PROGRESS metaphor .................................................................. 257 5.4.7 The REVOLUTION metaphor .............................................................. 258 5.4.8 The LIFESTYLE metaphor .................................................................. 258 5.4.8.1 The IDEAL submetaphor ............................................................... 259 5.4.8.2 The FASHION submetaphor ........................................................... 259 5.4.8.3 The CLOTHING submetaphor ......................................................... 260 5.4.9 The OBJECT OF DESIRE metaphor ...................................................... 261 5.4.10 The TOY metaphor ............................................................................ 261 5.4.11 The FOOD/COOKING metaphor .......................................................... 261 5.4.12 The EXPERIENCE metaphor ............................................................... 263 5.4.13 The SUPERNATURAL metaphor ......................................................... 264 5.4.14 The PHYSICAL SPACE metaphor ........................................................ 265 5.4.14.1 The PHYSICAL PROCESS submetaphor ....................................... 266 5.4.14.2 The PHYSICAL MOVEMENT submetaphor .................................. 268 5.4.14.3 The CONTAINER submetaphor................................................... 268

5

5.5

Non-Figurative Rendition of Metaphorical Expressions in the Target Text 269 5.6 Omission of Metaphorical Expressions in the Target Text ...................... 270 5.7 No Translation Provided in the Target Text............................................. 271 5.8 Addition of Metaphorical Expressions in the Target Text. ...................... 272 5.9 Discussion ................................................................................................ 273 5.9.1 Similarities and Differences ............................................................. 273 5.9.2 Translation Strategies ....................................................................... 279 5.9.3 Translation Effects ........................................................................... 281 5.9.4 Conclusion ........................................................................................ 282 Chapter 6 Conclusion ............................................................................................ 284 Chapter 7 Bibliography ......................................................................................... 289 7.1.1 Dataset .............................................................................................. 289 7.1.2 References ........................................................................................ 293

Final word count: 94,946

6

List of Tables Table 1 Categories of conceptual metaphors in the English texts ............................. 83 Table 2 The PERSON metaphor ................................................................................... 84 Table 3 The LIVING ORGANISM metaphor ................................................................. 101 Table 4 The MACHINE metaphor............................................................................... 112 Table 5 The COMPETITION metaphor ........................................................................ 121 Table 6 Relation of the generic-level metaphor and specific-level metaphors of competition............................................................................................................... 129 Table 7 The SECURITY metaphor .............................................................................. 130 Table 8 The LIFESTYLE metaphor ............................................................................. 137 Table 9 The PHYSICAL SPACE metaphor ................................................................... 162 Table 10Total of Metaphorical Expressions and Frequency of Occurrence in Dataset .................................................................................................................................. 169 Table 11 Distribution of metaphor categories in the data ........................................ 172 Table 12 Liakopoulos’ (2002) (left column) and Christidou et al.’s (2004) findings (right column)........................................................................................................... 173 Table 13 Shifts of submetaphor in the PERSON metaphor ........................................ 224 Table 14 Shifts of submetaphor in the LIVING ORGANISM metaphor........................ 226 Table 15 Shifts of submetaphor in the COMPETITION metaphor ............................... 228 Table 16 Shifts of submetaphor in the SECURITY metaphor ..................................... 229 Table 17 Shifts of submetaphor in the PHYSICAL SPACE metaphor .......................... 231 Table 18 Shifts of metaphor in the PERSON metaphor.............................................. 233 Table 19 Shifts of metaphor in the LIVING ORGANISM metaphor ............................. 242 Table 20 Shifts of metaphor in the MACHINE metaphor ........................................... 249 Table 21 Shifts of metaphor in the COMPETITION metaphor .................................... 253 Table 22 Shifts of metaphor in the SECURITY metaphor .......................................... 255 Table 23 Shifts of metaphor in the PROGRESS metaphor .......................................... 257 Table 24 Shifts of metaphor in the LIFESTYLE metaphor ......................................... 258 Table 25 Shifts of metaphor in the FOOD/COOKING metaphor ................................. 262 Table 26 Shifts of metaphor in the EXPERIENCE metaphor ...................................... 263 Table 27 Shifts of metaphor in the SUPERNATURAL metaphor ................................. 264 Table 28 Shifts of metaphor in the SUPERNATURAL metaphor ................................. 266 Table 29 Comparison of metaphors between English and Greek texts ................... 275

List of Figures Figure 1 Logos of Mozilla Firefox, Thunderbird and Sunbird ................................ 102

7

List of Abbreviations BNC

British National Corpus

CA

Computer Active

COCA

Corpus of Contemporary American English

CTH

Cognitive Translation Hypothesis

DMC

Different Mapping Conditions

ELT

English Language Teaching

HNC

Hellenic National Corpus

MIP

Metaphor Identification Procedure

OS

Operating System

PC

Personal Computer

PCM

PC Magazine

PCW

PC World

PSP

Sony Playstation

SL

Source Language

SMC

Similar Mapping Conditions

ST

Source Text

TL

Target Language

TT

Target Text

WWW

World Wide Web

VHS

Video Home System

8

Abstract The University of Manchester Dafni Papadoudi Doctor of Philosophy Conceptual metaphor in English popular technology and Greek translation 2010 This research project studies the metaphorical conceptualisation of technology in English popular technology magazines and in translation in the respective Greek editions. The focus is on the cognitive linguistic view of metaphor initially presented by Lakoff and Johnson (1980), on the metaphor identification procedure (Pragglejaz Group 2007), and critical metaphor analysis (Charteris-Black 2004). The analysis of the English data identifies 14 main metaphors and 29 submetaphors which contribute to the structure of the target domain of technology. It distinguishes between conventional and novel metaphors, and common and original metaphorical expressions, motivated by correlations in experience between diverse source domains and by the widespread diffusion and impact of technology. The English data also provide insight into the functions of these metaphors in popular technology discourse and reveal evidence to thinking, values and attitudes about technology in the English language. The analysis of the Greek data examines similarities and differences in the conceptualisations between the English and Greek languages and cultures, and finds similarities in the categories of metaphors, frequency of and preference for metaphor use in the source and target languages, and in the majority of metaphorical expressions. Similarities are based on common experiences stemming from experiential co-occurrence or experiential similarity, and on translated experience. Differences are restricted to specific-level metaphors and expressions, motivated by alternative conceptualisations of terminology, cultural specificity and preferential conceptualisations. A set of translation strategies and a number of possible translation effects are also identified. These strategies and effects add to the possibilities of translation variations and the range of translation options, and are used to draw conclusions regarding the similarities and differences between the English and Greek languages and cultures. Consequently, through the identification and description of metaphors in technology magazines and in translation, the study attempts to highlight aspects of the culture of technology, which views technology as a cultural artefact and a producer of its own culture.

9

Declaration No portion of the work referred to in the thesis has been submitted in support of an application for another degree or qualification of this or any other university or other institute of learning.

Copyright statement The author of the thesis (including any appendices and/or schedules to this thesis) owns certain copyright or related rights in it (the ‘Copyright’) and she has given The University of Manchester certain rights to use such Copyright, including for administrative purposes.

Copies of this thesis, either in full or in extracts and whether in hard or electronic copy, may be made only in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 (as amended) and regulations issued under it or, where appropriate, in accordance with licensing agreements which the University has from time to time. This page must form part any such copies made.

The ownership of certain Copyright, patents, designs, trade marks and other intellectual property (the ‘Intellectual Property’) and any reproductions of copyright works in the thesis, for example graphs and tables (‘Reproductions’), which may be described in this thesis, may not be owned by the author and may be owned by third parties. Such Intellectual Property and Reproductions cannot and must not be made available for use without the prior written permission of the owner(s) of the relevant Intellectual Property and/or Reproductions.

Further information on the conditions under which disclosure, publication and commercialisation of this thesis, the Copyright and any Intellectual Property and/or Reproductions described in it may take place is available in the University IP Policy (see http://www.campus.manchester.ac.uk/medialibrary/policies/intellectualproperty. pdf), in any relevant Thesis restriction declarations deposited in the University Library,

The

University

Library’s

regulations

(see

http://www.manchester.ac.uk/library/aboutus/regulations) and in The University’s policy on presentation of Theses.

10

Acknowledgements I would like to thank, first and foremost, my supervisor Dr. Maeve Olohan for her valuable guidance, help and support all these years.

I would like to show my gratitude to Dr. James St. André and Professor Stephen Milner for their insightful comments and feedback in the research panels.

Many thanks go to the Greek editors in chief, Stefanos Karagos (PC Magazine), Ioannis Goranitis (T3), Dimitris Ioannides (Computer Active), and Petros Papathanasiou (PC World), for their cooperation and help in providing the data for this project.

I would like to thank the Greek State Scholarships Foundation (Ι.Κ.Υ.) for the financial support of this research project.

I am indebted to my friends and colleagues who in different ways helped and supported me throughout these years: Dr. Lukasz Kaczmarek, Dr. Konstantinos Kritsis, Dr. Elina Varoutsa, and Dr. Giorgos Voulgaris. Congratulations to all of you for becoming doctors!

I would like to show my gratitude to Dr. Katerina Steele-Skia for believing in me and always finding the time and energy to boost my morale!

I wish to thank my parents, Konstantinos and Sofia, and my sister, Fryni, for their love, untiring support and belief in me.

I would like to thank my friends in Manchester and Greece for all the good times, and their help and support through the bad times: Valia Akasiadou, Natasa Koumentakou, Marina Mantzouki, Iris Nomikou, Katerina Pippou, Filippos Routsis, Konstantinos Sipsas, Terese Solheim, Stamos Triantafyllos, and Eva Fragioudaki.

11

…στους γονείς µου, και στον Τάσο.

12

Chapter 1 Introduction ‘I remember the first time I ever saw a personal computer. […] I had a very limited idea of what a computer actually was – as did we all. I thought it was a kind of elaborate adding machine. […] Then, as our ability to manipulate numbers with these machines became more sophisticated, we wondered what might happen if we made the numbers stand for something else, like for instance the letters of the alphabet. Bingo! An extraordinary, world-changing breakthrough! […] It was a typewriter! The next breakthrough came when we started to make these numbers […] stand for the picture elements of a graphic display. Pixels. Aha! we thought. This machine turns out to be much more exciting even than a typewriter. It’s a television! With a type-writer stuck in front of it! And now we have the World Wide Web […] and we have yet another exciting new model. It’s a brochure. A huge, all-singing, all-dancing, hopping, beeping, flash-ridden brochure.’ – Douglas Adams

1.1

The Culture of Technology

The study is based on the observation that a new kind of culture has emerged following the development of computer technology and its integration into everyday life. Since its beginnings, computer technology has been the subject of various discourses, scientific and otherwise, and as technology has progressed, so discussions around this theme have multiplied. These discussions have involved a wide range of perspectives, views and ideas, including political, economic, scientific, cultural, social, and even linguistic. Nowadays, it is understood and well established that computer technology is embedded in developed (mostly Western) societies and in their respective lifestyles, thus affecting them and being affected by them, or even determining and being determined by them, in an interactive process (Green 2001:43). Technology (as a whole, comprising devices, applications and values) has pervaded various activities and practices of everyday life. Computers are widely used in professional environments and constitute one of the tools on which people most rely everyday. Computers have also been domesticated in the home environment, and their use is expanding into the information and entertainment realms as well. With the advent of the Internet, computers provide a whole new world, though virtual,

13

where people can meet and interact (in real time), they can provide and/or use services, communicate knowledge and ideas, play, have fun, diminish space and time boundaries, travel through digital images to faraway places, and have many more experiences, depending on the interest and usage of the individual user. Therefore, following the development of computer technology and its integration in everyday life, and arising from the interaction of technology and culture, we find the ‘culture of technology’ (Pacey 1983), otherwise referred to as ‘technoculture’ (Penley and Ross 1991; Aronowitz et al. 1996; Green 2001), involving a certain kind of mentality, complete with sets of rules and regulations, values, principles, ideologies, practices and meanings. Technology and its advancement is closely linked to and influenced by societal, economic, political and cultural life; as such, this concept is studied not only in the departments of science and technology but also in the departments of humanities and social sciences (Bauchspies et al. 2006). From a sociological perspective, technology has acquired a dual perspective: on the one hand, a technical aspect, which includes all scientific knowledge, methodology, specialised skills regarding the creation, engineering, design, use and maintenance of technology; and on the other hand, a societal aspect, ‘as an embodiment of social relations’ (Bakardjieva 2005:7), which has arisen following the creation, diffusion and use of technology. Technology is discussed in terms of what it really is when it leaves the laboratories and is released into the wilderness of society, one having to interact with the other. Once it is in the market, it ceases to be ‘culturally neutral’ (Pacey 1983:3). It is regarded as part of life and it becomes a symbol in society, depending on how people use that technology, what it means to them to use it, the context in which technology is used and the purposes for which it is employed (Bauchspies et al. 2006:85).

The more people, as individuals and as social groups of any form, come into contact with technology, the more they tend to personalise it by putting it to uses according to their needs and priorities, thus inculturating it into each relevant environment of human activity and interaction. This is what Green refers to as ‘domestication of technologies’ (2001:43), implying the integration of information and communication technologies into the household. The process of domestication undergoes a series of phases (Silverstone et al. 1992:20-6), from the household’s decision to adopt a

14

technology into the home (‘appropriation’) and making any relevant changes to the domestic environment to accommodate the technology (‘objectification’), to the technology becoming an active part of the household members’ life (‘incorporation’), and finally, being used otherwise for forming relationships between the household and the outside world, as a symbol of status for example (Green 2001:44-45). This process results in both the domestication of technology and the ‘technologising’ of the household (Green 2001:43).

In discussing the culture of technology, researchers in cultural studies find it hard to provide a concrete and all-inclusive definition. Their point of agreement is that technology is regarded ‘as part of life, not something to be kept in a separate compartment’ (Pacey 1983:3). Aronowitz et al. (1996) conclude that culture, science and technology are interrelated; they affect and influence each other, to the point that each one absorbs features from the other two in its practices and ideologies, thus shaping them anew. Furthermore, in understanding technology, they purport that since a culture uses technologies in its cultural activities to the extent that these technologies have become part and parcel of these activities, then such a culture is considered as ‘technoculture’, although the ways of utilising and beliefs regarding technology may vary from one culture to another. As Aronowitz et al. argue, ‘what technologies have made explicit is that cultural boundaries have always been more or less permeable, and cultural objects both transmit cultural beliefs and practices yet remain indeterminate’ (1996:11, emphasis in the original). The complexity of technology and its relations to science and culture are approached in terms of its ontology, i.e. what technology is; pragmatics, i.e. what technology is capable of doing; and phenomenology, i.e. how technology affects our experience without taking

into

consideration

its

efficiency

or

functionality

(ibid.:15).

The

phenomenological approach also relates to the fact that technocultures do not utilise technologies just for the sake of what these technologies can do, but also for what they represent and the effects that derive from this, and which we enjoy, exploit, and experience in general. For instance, technologies have often been used by (generally Western) cultures to promote change and progress or utilised as mechanisms of domination by one culture over another. Therefore, ‘technology is not simply a system to be deployed […], rather, it constitutes what we refer to as “culture” itself’ (ibid.:21). 15

An illustration of the above is provided by the case of the Sony Walkman. In order to understand the complex role of the Walkman in everyday life as a technocultural artefact, Du Gay et al. (1997) introduce five cultural practices - representation, identity, production, consumption and regulation - which constitute the model of the ‘circuit of culture’. The authors suggest that the ‘circuit of culture’ provides a comprehensive model for studying any cultural text or artefact in terms of ‘how it is represented, what social identities are associated with it, how it is produced and consumed, and what mechanisms regulate its distribution’ (Bell 2001:70). This study points to the conclusion that the Walkman constitutes a cultural artefact and at the same time bears its own distinct culture, including the cultural practices and the meanings associated with it (Du Gay et al. 1997:10). Therefore, ‘technoculture’ refers to the interaction between technology and culture, and the ways technology influences culture and is affected by culture in turn, as in a cyclical interaction.

1.2

Popular Technology Discourse

It can be argued that the culture of technology is also dependent on and influenced by the plethora of technical discourses that contribute to technology’s representation, production and regulation. The most typical forms of technical discourse are manuals, research papers, reports, and specifications (Sprent 1995:127-143). Such texts fall under the informative text type, where emphasis is placed on the communicative function rather than the aesthetic aspect of communication (Reiss 2000:38). They involve communication at the level of science, and the information they contain can be ‘measured accurately’ and have quite ‘literal’, ‘obvious’ or ‘commonsense’ meanings (Katan 2004:44-45).

However, I would like to draw attention to an important subclass of technical discourse that also contributes to the diffusion of specialised knowledge: popular science and technology writing, which are addressed to a general, less professional public. The ‘popularisation of science’ or otherwise referred to as ‘the popular presentation of science’ (Goldsmith 1986:1) has its traces in the 19th century as an attempt to place science at the centre of the cultural system and to be acknowledged as a source of knowledge and power, through the circulation of books, journals, and

16

magazines (Bensaude-Vincent 2001:103). During these times, popular science was seen as an ‘alternative practice to science proper’ employed for the dissemination of science to a general public who were regarded as a ‘mass of consumers’ (2001:101104). It was not until the mid-20th century that popular science acquired the label ‘popularised’, and an increasing gap emerged between academic science and popular science and between scientists and the public. Since then it has been falsely considered that popularisations are intended for the ignorant masses, but even experts may be considered as a lay audience in some other field the moment they ‘step outside their limited specialism’ (Myers 2003:268, Paul 2004:36). The popularisation of science has aroused much debate as to whether it can be considered as a valid discourse of science. It has often been regarded as ‘“appropriate simplification” – a necessary (albeit low status) educational activity of simplifying science for non-specialists’, or as ‘pollution’ and ‘distortion’ of science written by non-experts (Hilgartner 1990:519). In this so-called dominant view of popularisation, a distinction has been made between ‘real’ science and knowledge versus ‘popularised’ science and knowledge (ibid.:520). Discourse studies have questioned this view of popularisation and claim that there are no clear-cut boundaries as to what constitutes ‘real’ science and ‘popularised’ science (Myers 2003, Hilgartner 1990), that ‘popularisation is a matter of degree’ (Hilgartner 1990:528), and that there is much flexibility in assigning the label ‘popularised’ to a text, since it is highly dependent on criteria such as the audience, intentions, and register. Scholars (e.g. Goldsmith 1986, Lewenstein 1992, Paul 2004) are in agreement that popularisations play a significant role in attempting to bridge the gap between scientists and the public. Popularisations have proved to be valuable in the scientific research process (Goldsmith 1986:13-14), in the diffusion of scientific ideas, and as a method of ‘getting the word out’ and engaging people with the respective field (Paul 2004:48,50). While the function of a technical text is to ‘inform and persuade’ (Burnett 1997:7, Mancuso 1990:34) the target audience in a ‘factual and forthright’ manner (Baker 1961:3), the function of popularisations is to inform and entertain (Corbett 2006:756, Engberg 2006:680-681), by employing a number of popularising features. These features include humour, personalisation, irony, informal jargon,

17

contingency, questions, metaphor, marked lexis and appeals to the reader (Giannoni 2008:215-6). In parallel to popular science discourse, I would like to put forward the term popular technology discourse which would encompass the popularisation of information and communication technology, and include texts that provide up-to-date information on the latest technology trends, guides to using technology such as the Internet and guides to maintaining a ‘healthy’ computer, among others. Like popular science, popular technology texts assist in diffusing information on technologies to a much wider audience than simply to technological experts. They inform and entertain, and may ‘provide a continuing education process for the readers’ (Goldsmith 1986:33). They may contribute to and facilitate ‘technological literacy’ in terms of the ability to understand, use, and be a connoisseur of computer technology, but also in terms of the ability to absorb, use, understand, and interpret information communicated through printed material, electronic media, images and sounds, as well as the ability to navigate through the plethora of information with highly interpretative and critical skills (Kahn and Kellner 2005:246). In Kahn and Kellner’s notion: ‘Technoliteracy must help teach people to become more ethical producers, as well as consumers, and thus it can help to redesign and reconstruct modern technology towards making it more applicable to people’s needs and not just their manufactured desires’ (2005:246). Thus, in this context, technological literacy (or technoliteracy) is removed from the restriction of acquiring skills and fluency in information and communication technologies, and has opened up to include further skills with a focus on digital technologies, and their role in social and cultural settings. In addition, it is argued that, as with popular science texts, popular technology texts are places that accommodate social representations of technology (Farr 1993, Gaskell 1999). This aspect is particularly of interest here, because popular technology discourse may provide insights into the conceptions and representations about technology that have contributed to shaping technology’s culture so far, and those that are currently underway. Central to the formation of social representations of technology is metaphor (Christidou et al. 2004:349), which is one of the popularising features employed for informing and entertaining the target audience. Metaphor is

18

also fundamental in developing computer design, creating computer terminology and making computer technology comprehensible to users. Thus, metaphor is viewed as constitutive in constructing ways of conceiving and talking about technology, which relies on physical and cultural experiences.

1.3

Aims and Overview of the Thesis

The starting point of this study is the hypothesis that this culture of technology, as meanings and ideologies, values and knowledge, is expressed through language in technology texts, and is transferred through translation from one linguistic community and culture to another. Thus, while technology may be global as a series of products and advancements, its uses and people’s perceptions of it may have more of a local character, which may emerge in the ways we talk and write about technology. Given the fact that the English language has a near monopoly in creating computer language, it can be argued that English-speaking countries not only develop technology as devices, applications, machinery, but they also develop particular ways of perceiving it via the use of metaphors. Thus, through the process of translating metaphors of technology, the target language and culture may import particular ways of conceiving and talking about technology. The present study singles out popular technology magazines as a reliable, widespread, specialised medium of producing, reproducing and diffusing up-to-date information on computer technology to a mass audience, regarding complex technology issues such as hacking attacks, information on the latest trends in hardware and software products, reviews of the effectiveness of tested technologies, and contributions on recent and forthcoming developments in the area. Further information on the selection and description of popular technology magazines is presented in Methodology (Chapter 3). The project aims to bring to the foreground the use of conceptual metaphor as a means of meaning construction for technology and to ascertain what kind of source domains are involved in the structure of the target domain of technology. It seeks to examine whether these conceptualisations transfer similar descriptions and perceptions of technology from English to Greek, or whether they preserve a ‘local

19

colour’, given that each language reflects its respective culture. In order to address these aims, the following research questions are proposed: 1. What does conceptual metaphor reveal about the domain of technology in popular technology magazines? a. In what ways is technology metaphorically conceptualised in the English texts? b. What does conceptual metaphor reveal about thinking and talking about technology in the English texts? 2. Is conceptual metaphor shared in the Greek translations of technology magazines? a. What are the similarities and differences in the ways technology is conceptualised in technology magazines between English and Greek? b. What reasons may account for these similarities and differences? i. Do the similarities reflect a common experiential basis or do they reveal influences from the English language and way of thinking? ii. Can cultural specificity account for the differences? Therefore, the first objective is to explore the use of metaphor in the context of English-language popular technology magazines and to ascertain its role in the representation of technology. The second objective is to examine the translation of metaphor in the Greek versions of the technology magazines, to look at similarities and differences, and to investigate possible reasons that may account for these. By addressing these aims and objectives, the study ultimately seeks to highlight social and cultural aspects of technology alongside technical and specialised aspects.

The thesis is structured in four chapters. Chapter 2 introduces the central themes of this study - metaphor, technology and translation - and establishes the ways each interacts with the others. In particular, it examines the theory of conceptual metaphor and establishes the metalanguage to be used in the study. It looks at the functions that metaphor can serve in discourse and describes the current approaches to analysing metaphor in discourse with a view to developing an approach appropriate for studying metaphor in the present context of technology. The chapter also investigates the relationship between technology and metaphor and its role in the domain of

20

technology. Lastly, it reviews traditional and cognitive approaches to translating metaphor, with the aim of setting forth a typology of translation strategies to be operationalised in the analysis.

Chapter 3 provides an overview of the methodology followed in the study. It describes the discourse approach undertaken for the analysis of English metaphors and their Greek translations. It sets out the criteria for selecting the data for investigation and provides a description of the data. The chapter presents the procedures followed for the analysis of the English data, including methods for identifying, describing and categorising the metaphors, and the methodology followed for the analysis of the Greek data, including methods of matching English and Greek expressions and identifying translation strategies.

Chapter 4 presents the analysis of the conceptual metaphors encountered in the English texts. It describes the types of metaphor category identified, distinguishes between conventional and novel metaphors and between original and common metaphorical expressions, and discusses a range of examples, with a view to revealing entailments and knowledge structures specific to the English-speaking cultures, and with the aim of highlighting social and cultural facets of technology. The analysis is followed by a discussion, which addresses the functions that these metaphors serve in the data investigated.

Chapter 5 presents the analysis of the metaphors in the Greek translations, based on the translation strategies identified in the Greek texts. The analysis provides a description of the translation strategies followed by examples of similarities and differences between the English and the Greek texts. Following the analysis, the discussion addresses the presence of conceptual metaphor in the Greek translations and the similarities and differences identified between the English and the Greek texts, and reflects on the translation strategies and translation effects.

Chapter 6 brings the thesis to a close with an evaluation of the research and its findings. It reflects on the aims and objectives, and examines the strengths and limitations of the study. It considers the study’s contribution to the field of

21

translation studies and provides suggestions for further research in the domain of metaphor translation.

22

Chapter 2 Metaphor, Technology and Translation The present chapter sets out to establish a theoretical framework that would facilitate the study of the metaphorical conceptualisation of the domain of technology and its translation into another language and culture, in this case from English into Greek. For this purpose, it is necessary to examine the theory of conceptual metaphor, the role of conceptual metaphor in discourse, the relationship between metaphor and technology, and the issue of metaphor within translation studies.

Section 2.1 of the present discussion focuses on the cognitive linguistic view of metaphor adopted in the study, with the aim of reviewing the metaphor theory, establishing an operational terminology for metaphors and types of categorisation, and underlining aspects of universality and cultural variation that can be used in the analysis of technology metaphors in the selected pair of languages. Section 2.2 examines the various functions that metaphor can serve in discourse, and introduces approaches to researching metaphor in discourse. Section 2.3 investigates the relationship between metaphor and technology, and its threefold role as a tool for communicating about technology, developing computer design and contributing to the specialised language of the field. Lastly, section 2.4 reviews the issue of metaphor as it is traditionally addressed in translation studies, but returns to the translation of metaphor from a cognitive perspective; the section discusses recent translation approaches and sets forth a set of translation strategies that can be made operational in the analysis of the translation procedures followed in the Greek data.

2.1

The Contemporary Theory of Metaphor

From Aristotle to the present day, various views on metaphor have been put forward by poets, literary critics, philosophers and linguists. Three notions mainly prevail in the traditional view of metaphor: metaphor presents deviation from common and mainstream use of language; it involves a semantic shift of meaning; and it focuses on some kind of similarity, resemblance, or analogy between the literal referent and the referent conveyed figuratively (Moore 1982:1,9). Metaphor is thus regarded as a matter of language that brings together and compares two entities based on the idea

23

that a pre-existing similarity exists between the two. Pre-existing similarities may justify the production of a variety of metaphorical expressions, such as the expression ‘the roses on her cheeks’ to refer to the pink skin on a person’s cheeks (Kövecses 2002:67-68). However, this is not always the case; what pre-existing similarity can we identify in the entities of the expressions digesting food and digesting ideas, to borrow another example from Kövecses (2002:69)? Although one might perceive a similarity between the expressions, there is no actual pre-existing similarity between ideas and food. We use the domain of food to structure the domains of ideas, based on our need to understand abstract concepts in terms of more concrete, direct experiences to which we can better relate.

Cognitive linguistics, as a field of study that views language in relation to cognition, offers a useful perspective on metaphor. For cognitive linguists, ‘language is in the service of constructing and communicating meaning,’ and its study ‘offers a window into the mind’ (Fauconnier 1999:96). Language is ‘the tip of a spectacular cognitive iceberg’ (ibid.), whose structure, use and organisation is influenced by a number of factors outside language – environmental, biological, psychological, developmental, historical and socio-cultural (Langacker 1999:15-16). The study of conceptual metaphor was initiated by George Lakoff and Mark Johnson with their seminal work Metaphors We Live By (1980/2003). During the past three decades, the theory has been further explored and advanced in subsequent work by Lakoff and Johnson as well as other scholars, including Mark Turner (1987), Raymond Gibbs (1994, 1999), Jonathan Charteris-Black (2003, 2004), Zoltán Kövecses (2002, 2005), Ning Yu (1998), Alice Deignan (2005), and Elena Semino (2008).

Lakoff and Johnson offered a new view of metaphor as a basic cognitive function that helps us to comprehend the world and to structure abstract concepts. In their view, the human ‘conceptual system, in terms of which we both think and act, is fundamentally metaphorical in nature’ (Lakoff and Johnson 1980/2003:3); this gave rise to the ‘cognitive linguistic view of metaphor’, also called the contemporary theory of metaphor (Lakoff 1993), which approaches metaphor as a thought process and a manner of organising and articulating experience. Departing from the notion of concepts – how we construct concepts, how these concepts direct and dominate our 24

functioning, our perception of reality, the world, personal interactions, society, culture – Lakoff and Johnson challenged the idea that metaphor is ‘characteristic of language alone’ and argued that metaphor provides understanding of concepts, is grounded in embodied experience rather than similarity, and is ‘pervasive in everyday life, not just in language, but in thought and action’ (Lakoff and Johnson 1980/2003:3). As the authors put it, ‘the essence of metaphor is understanding and experiencing one kind of thing in terms of another’ (1980/2003:5, emphasis in the original).

Thus, conceptual metaphor refers to comprehending one conceptual domain in terms of another conceptual domain. These domains are described as source domain and target domain. The target domain is usually the more abstract domain that we are trying to make sense of, while the source domain is usually the more physical domain that we employ in order to understand the target domain. Conceptual metaphor is otherwise understood as a cross-domain mapping, or a set of mappings or correspondences. This means that constituent conceptual elements of the source domain are mapped onto respective elements of the target domain (Kövecses 2002:6). Mappings between a source and a target domain reveal how we conceptualise one domain in terms of another through the metaphorical expressions we use. One of the most prominent features of the contemporary theory of metaphor is that it separates the notion of conceptual metaphor from the notion of metaphorical expression (Lakoff 1993). A metaphorical expression is a linguistic expression (word, phrase, or sentence) that is produced from a cross-domain mapping and is manifested on the level of language. Thus, conceptual metaphor is ‘a set of ontological correspondences that characterize epistemic correspondences’ (Lakoff 1993). Ontological correspondences refer to the entities mapped from the source to the target domain, while epistemic correspondences refer to the knowledge mapped from the source to the target domain to form metaphorical entailments or inferences. These involve rich, everyday knowledge from the source domain that is mapped onto the target domain, beyond the basic mappings. This knowledge is not explicitly stated but can be inferred from the mappings and can help us to further understand a target domain.

25

In the present study, conceptual metaphors are named with small capital letters indicating concepts rather than words, in the form of

TARGET IS SOURCE,

while

metaphorical expressions are italicised or bold. For example, the conceptual metaphor

LOVE IS A JOURNEY

links the source domain journey and the target domain

love. We employ our experience and knowledge of journeys to conceptualise love. The basic mappings are the lovers corresponding to travellers, the love relationship corresponding to the vehicle, the purpose of the relationship corresponding to the destination, difficulties in a relationship corresponding to obstacles found during travelling, and so forth. The conceptual metaphor LOVE IS A JOURNEY is manifested in the English language with various metaphorical expressions such as the following (Lakoff 1993:207): LOVE IS A JOURNEY

Our relationship has hit a dead-end street. Look how far we’ve come. The relationship is not going anywhere. We may have to bail out of this relationship.

In the above metaphorical expressions, much focus is placed on the relationship as vehicle. From our knowledge about vehicles we can acquire a better understanding of the relationship. The entailments involved occur from the condition of the vehicle; this means that if a vehicle breaks down, the travellers may try to fix the vehicle, find other means to reach their destinations, or stay there and do nothing. Transferring such knowledge to the love relationship, we find that if a relationship is falling apart, the lovers may try to make it work, leave the relationship, or just remain in the relationship without any purpose.

The relationship between a source and a target domain is not random but ‘grounded in systematic correlations with our experience’ (Lakoff and Johnson 1980/2003:61); that is, it is motivated by our experiences and the knowledge that we make use of in order to construct and provide meanings. The production of conceptual metaphors is motivated by an experiential basis, our embodied experiences. This means that metaphors occur from everyday knowledge about our own bodies and our physical interaction with the world, and the experiences we acquire from such interaction. Experiential correlations may be of two types: 26

experiential co-occurrence or experiential similarity (Haser 2005). The former is based on the co-occurrence of different experiences; for example, the metaphor MORE IS UP

is grounded in the co-occurrence of the experience of increasing in

quantity and the experience of increasing in height. The second type of correlation is based on perceived similarities between different experiences; for example, the metaphor

LIFE IS A GAMBLING GAME

is grounded in the perception of similarities

between actions we perform in life and gambling.

Moreover, the relationship between a source and a target domain is not exclusive. On the one hand, a source domain may be applied to numerous target domains. This relationship is termed ‘scope of source’ (Kövecses 2005: 122-123) or ‘multivalency’ (Goatly 2007: 164). The scope of sources relates to a certain source domain being associated with a set of target domains, which also may vary cross-culturally (EMOTION IS HEAT, ARGUMENT IS HEAT). In multivalency, the same source is mapped onto different targets which may point to the targets sharing common grounds or may suggest equivalence between the target domains (HAPPINESS CONTROL IS ABOVE).

IS HIGH, POWER

/

On the other hand, a target domain may be conceptualised by

several source domains. This relationship is termed ‘range of target’ (Kövecses 2005: 122) or ‘diversification’ (Goatly 2007: 197). The range of targets involves a set of source domains that is conventionally associated with a certain target domain within a language, which may vary cross-culturally (HAPPINESS IS UP, HAPPINESS IS LIGHT). In diversification, the target domain remains the same but the source domains are different. Diversification of sources may either share common grounds, as in the metaphors

EMOTION IS LIQUID

grounds, as in the metaphors

and

EMOTION IS WEATHER

or may have different

EDUCATION IS A JOURNEY OF EXPLORATION

EDUCATION IS A PROCESS OF INTERNAL GROWTH

and

(Goatly 2007: 197). These aspects

are also discussed in metaphor variation (section 2.1.1).

Mappings between a source and a target domain cannot be total; they are only partial. Otherwise source and target domains would be one and the same without needing one to understand the other. In order to comprehend one conceptual domain in terms of another, we bring to focus only those aspects of the source domain that may be applied to the target, and accordingly conceal others that seem irrelevant with regard to the target domain we are conceptualising. In Lakoff and Johnson’s terms, this 27

bringing into and out of focus is called ‘highlighting’ and ‘hiding’ (1980:10-13). For example, in the TIME IS MONEY metaphor, time is perceived as a valuable commodity (1980:7-9), as in the expressions: TIME IS MONEY

You’re wasting my time. I’ve invested a lot of time in her. You’re running out of time.

We can understand the value of time in relation to the value of money; time, like money, is wasted, invested and people can also run out of time, like money. However, other aspects of money are hidden in relation to time; time, once wasted, invested, spent or given cannot be retrieved, returned or saved, as money can. We have only partial mappings of the structure of money onto the structure of time.

Complementary to highlighting and hiding is the idea of the main meaning focus (or foci). Kövecses suggests that ‘each source domain is designated to play a specific role’ when applied to a number of targets (2002:110). He describes this role as follows (ibid.): Each source is associated with a particular meaning focus (or foci) that is (or are) mapped onto the target. This meaning focus is conventionally fixed and agreed-on within a speech community; it is typical of most cases of the source; and it is characteristic of the source only. The target inherits the main meaning focus (or foci) of the source. Accordingly, the selection of a source domain is not random but, because the source domain has certain prominent characteristics and knowledge, these render it as a plausible candidate for use. Thus, the main meaning focus may be inferred from the most typical and prominent conceptual material that the source domain contributes to the target domain. This idea seems useful in our study in considering the translation of conceptual metaphors from one language into another. By focusing on the main meaning focus, it is possible to produce corresponding conceptual metaphors, even if the two languages make use of different source domains. For example, consider one language conceptualising time as money, and another language conceptualising time as food. If the two source domains share a common meaning focus of regarding money and food as valuable commodities, then we may conclude that the

TIME IS

28

MONEY

and the

TIME IS FOOD

metaphors act as corresponding metaphors that may

give rise to corresponding linguistic expressions, even though the source domains differ.

In their initial study, Lakoff and Johnson (1980) provided a typology of metaphors involving three types of metaphor: structural, orientational, and ontological. However, in the afterword of the second edition of the book, the authors deem this distinction to be ‘artificial’ since all metaphors may be said to be structural and ontological,

while

some

metaphors

are

also

orientational

(Lakoff

and

Johnson2003:264-265). Despite the artificiality of the distinction, conceptual metaphors continue to be described in terms of their structural, ontological or orientational functions. In structural metaphors, the source domain provides knowledge structure for the target domain. In the

TIME IS MONEY

metaphor, time is

understood as a valuable commodity, like money, and specifically as a precious thing that should be appropriately exploited rather than wasted. Structural metaphors are tied to the culture that gives rise to them, and the context in which they appear (Lakoff and Johnson 1980/2003:9,12). This means that a number of factors that play an important role in the structure and organisation of knowledge within a community – environmental, biological, psychological, developmental, historical and sociocultural – may give rise to structural metaphors and account for their understanding and interpretation.

Orientational metaphors include spatial orientations, such as up-down, in-out, frontback, on-off, deep-shallow, central-peripheral. These spatial orientations occur from the interaction of our body with our physical environment, and are based on our physical and cultural experience (Lakoff and Johnson 1980/2003:14). Orientational metaphors provide coherence in conceptualising abstract concepts, in that they are conceptualised in a uniform manner (Kövecses 2002:36). Consider the following pairs of metaphors, which are counterparts: UP/LESS IS DOWN,

HAPPY IS UP/SAD IS DOWN

and

MORE IS

and the relevant expressions (in Lakoff and Johnson 1980:15):

HAPPY IS UP/SAD IS DOWN

That boosted my spirits. / I fell into a depression. My spirits rose. / My spirits sank.

29

MORE IS UP/LESS IS DOWN

My income rose last year. / His income fell last year. His draft number is high. / If you’re too hot, turn the heat down.

The pair of metaphors

HAPPY IS UP/SAD IS DOWN

occurs from our experience; when

we feel happy, our posture is upright, while when feeling sad our posture sags. The MORE IS UP/LESS IS DOWN

metaphor is understood in terms of another experience: that

of putting substances within containers; the more of a substance is added, the more the level rises. In consequent work of Johnson (1987) orientational metaphors have been subsumed under the concept of image schemas, which are described in the following section.

Ontological metaphors assign an ontological status to abstract concepts. We envisage and formulate our experiences, such as events, actions, activities and states, in terms of physical objects (the human body included), substances and containers. Abstract entities, events and actions are metaphorically conceptualised as physical objects; activities are conceptualised as substances; and states, physical/nonphysical areas, and undelineated physical objects are conceptualised as containers (Kövecses 2002:35). For example:

Source domains

Target domains

PHYSICAL OBJECT

NONPHYSICAL/ABSTRACT ENTITIES (the EVENTS (going ACTIONS

mind),

to the race),

(give someone a call)

SUBSTANCE

ACTIVITIES (a

CONTAINER

STATES (in

lot of running in the game)

love),

PHYSICAL/NONPHYSICAL SURFACES (in UNDELINEATED PHYSICAL OBJECTS (a

the visual field),

clearing in the forest)

A rather obvious form of ontological metaphor is personification, where a physical object is perceived as a person, as in the following examples:

30

Inflation is eating up our profits. Cancer finally caught up with him.

Personification allows the understanding of inanimate entities, events, forces of nature in terms of human characteristics and activities (Lakoff and Johnson 1980/2003:33, Lakoff and Turner 1989:72). Such conceptualisations allow us to understand abstract concepts even better because they make use of a source domain we are all so familiar with – our very selves.

Furthermore, Kövecses (2002) suggests that conceptual metaphors may be classified in various ways, apart from their cognitive function, and proposes a number of classifications that are said to play a significant role in the cognitive linguistic view. The following paragraphs outline distinctions of metaphors according to their nature, levels of generality and their degree of conventionality (Kövecses 2002:29). These classifications are considered as essential for the description of metaphors in the analysis of the English data, and for drawing conclusions about similarities and differences between the source language and target language metaphors.

In distinguishing metaphors by their nature, two categories can be considered: metaphors that are based on knowledge structure and metaphors based on image structure. In the former, knowledge from one domain is mapped onto another, as in structural and ontological metaphors. The latter involve image-schema metaphors, examples of which are the orientational metaphors. Image-schema metaphors have been elaborated by Johnson (1987), who defines them as ‘a recurring, dynamic pattern of our perceptual interactions and motor programs that gives coherence and structure to our experience’ (1987:xiv). Image schemas (or image schemata) are considered as preconceptual schematic structures that arise from our embodied experiences, physical movement and interaction with the environment and objects, and are central in our perception. These include the image schemas of

UP-DOWN,

FRONT-BACK, PART-WHOLE, CENTRE-PERIPHERY, CONTAINER, PATH, LINK, FORCE, SCALARITY, BALANCE,

and others. Johnson points out that image schemas are not

‘rich, concrete images or mental pictures’ but ‘structures that organise our mental representations at a more general and abstract level (1987:24). He gives an example of the CONTAINER schema, which is activated in the English language when talking 31

about everyday experience: ‘You wake out of a deep sleep and peer out from beneath the covers into your room […] climb into your robe, stretch out your limbs, and walk in a daze out of the bedroom and into the bathroom’ (1987:30).

Conceptual metaphors can also be categorised based on their level of generality. They can be specific-level or generic-level metaphors (Kövecses 2002:38). Specificlevel metaphors are metaphors that contain a great degree of detail and knowledge. Generic-level metaphors contain a small amount of detail and can provide the structure for the development of specific-level metaphors. They are the image schemas that have little detailed structures but, if filled with more detail, they provide structure and give rise to specific-level ones. For example, the specific-level metaphor LIFE IS A JOURNEY is based on the MOTION image schema, which essentially involves an initial location, movement along a path, and a final destination.

A system of generic-level metaphors, largely based on image schemas, is the Event Structure metaphor. This system, studied by Lakoff and his students (1993), provides an understanding of how events are structured in the English language. The target domain of events, including the notions of states, changes, processes, actions, causes, purposes and means, is conceptualised via the source domains of space, motion and force. The Event Structure metaphor is presented as follows: •

States are locations (bounded regions in space).



Changes are movements (into or out of bounded regions).



Causes are forces.



Actions are self-propelled movements.



Purposes are destinations.



Means are paths to destinations.



Difficulties are impediments to motion.



Expected progress is a travel schedule; a schedule is a virtual traveller, who reaches pre-arranged destinations at pre-arranged times.



External events are large, moving objects (things, fluids, horses).



Long-term, purposeful activities are journeys.

32

The Event Structure metaphor accounts for abstract reasoning in terms of, and based on, spatial reasoning. It provides evidence for the metaphorical conceptualisation of many common abstract concepts (time, state, change, causation, action, purpose, and means) in the English language and shows that mappings are largely based on bodily experience. The Event Structure metaphor is a rich and complex metaphor involving numerous entailments, such as DIFFERENT PATH

A DIFFERENT MEANS FOR ACHIEVING A PURPOSE IS A

(Do it this way),

are moving ahead), and

MAKING PROGRESS IS FORWARD MOVEMENT

AMOUNT OF PROGRESS IS DISTANCE MOVED

(We

(We’ve come a

long way) (examples from Lakoff 1993:221).

Conceptual metaphors are often organised in hierarchical structures in which ‘lower’ mappings inherit the structure of ‘higher’ mappings. An example of Inheritance hierarchies is a specific event in life that inherits the structure of events in general (Lakoff 1993:223-225): Level 1: The Event Structure metaphor (PURPOSES ARE DESTINATIONS) Level 2: A PURPOSEFUL LIFE IS A JOURNEY Level 3: LOVE IS A JOURNEY, A CAREER IS A JOURNEY

In this hierarchy with three levels, it is observed that life is a special case of events, and, in turn, love and career are special cases of life events. Therefore, the metaphors of

LOVE IS A JOURNEY

and

A CAREER IS A JOURNEY

PURPOSEFUL LIFE IS A JOURNEY, DESTINATIONS

inherit the structure of

which draws from the metaphor

A

PURPOSES ARE

from the Event Structure metaphor.

Moreover, conventionality is another distinction of metaphor, which addresses the question of ‘how well worn or how deeply entrenched a metaphor is in everyday use by ordinary people for everyday purposes’ (Kövecses 2002:29). Conventionality is a matter of degree, and just as there are conventional metaphors, there are also unconventional or novel metaphors. In broad terms, conventional metaphors are metaphors commonly used in everyday language for structuring a culture’s conceptual system, while novel or less conventional metaphors are creative extensions of conventional metaphors, on which they depend for interpretation, and are usually found in literary works (Kövecses 2002:30, 2006:127).

33

Determining a metaphor’s degree of conventionality and classifying it as conventional and/or novel can be problematic for the reason that it is not possible to be objective and absolute. As Charteris-Black (2004:17) points out, we cannot define a clear boundary between conventional and non-conventional metaphors because individuals may not share similar experiences of language. This point is echoed in the literature, which contains various different descriptions as to what may constitute conventional or novel metaphor. For instance, Miall (1982) suggests that a metaphor can be regarded as novel when it is expressed in an original way, when it provides an original view of the domains in question, and when it presents the relations between two domains in a new way (1982:32). This description may seem all good and acceptable, but it also prompts questions such as ‘what is meant by original and new?’ and ‘who can determine what qualifies as such?’, which take us back to the point that conventionality and novelty are matters of individual experiences of language.

On the other hand, researchers seem to suggest their own definitions to accommodate metaphor in the contexts in which they are working, often using a broader definition of metaphor or specifying distinct cases of conventional and novel metaphors and expressions. For ascertaining a metaphor’s conventionality or novelty, some scholars have proposed evaluating its metaphorical expressions against dictionaries and large corpora of natural language (e.g. Charteris-Black 2004, Semino 2008). For instance, Semino (2008:18-19) states that: […] for the purposes of my analyses, I mostly operate with a broad distinction between conventional and novel metaphorical expressions. I regard metaphorical expressions as conventional when the relevant metaphorical meaning has become lexicalized, so that it is normally included in dictionaries alongside metaphorical (basic) meanings. […] Conversely, I regard metaphorical expressions as novel, creative or innovative when the relevant metaphorical meaning has not become lexicalized, and is therefore not included in dictionaries. Although Semino above makes mention of metaphorical expressions, she stresses the necessity that the issue of conventionality/novelty concerns both levels of metaphor: conceptual mappings and their linguistic expressions. Lakoff and Turner (1989) use the terms ‘idiosyncracy of language’ and ‘idiosyncracy of thought’ to distinguish between novel metaphorical expressions and novel conceptual mappings (1989:50).

34

According to Lakoff and Turner (1989:50), conventional metaphors may be expressed by both conventional and novel expressions, whereas novel metaphors may be expressed only by novel expressions, given that unconventional thinking entails unconventional language. Although in agreement with Lakoff and Turner’s distinction between unconventional language and unconventional thought, I would argue that unconventional thinking may also entail conventional language. As Semino (2008:53) rightly points out, if a conventional expression is transposed to fit a different context, then this expression would be regarded as novel within the new context, but it would also retain its conventionality in some respect. Therefore, it may be argued that conventional or novel metaphors may involve both conventional and novel expressions.

The distinction between conventionality and novelty is made based on the metaphor’s significance within discourse. On the one hand, conventional metaphors and metaphorical expressions are particularly important because they help researchers to gain access to conventional, widely accepted representations of the world (e.g. life, society, politics) and ideologies (beliefs, values, actions, attitudes). On the other hand,

novel metaphors may also provide insight into how we

conceptualise our experiences, but they work by shifting the perspective towards understanding a particular target domain in terms of a new source domain with which it was not combined before. In terms of novel metaphorical expressions, they may provide new ways of expressing our experiences within a conventional or new mode of thought (Gibbs 1994: 7). Accordingly, it is assumed that conventional metaphors and expressions may reveal more shared representations and ideologies about technology, while novel metaphors and expressions may lead to more imaginative representations of technology that may be specific to the source or target culture, or that may come to take the place of the more conventional metaphors.

Definitions of conventional and novel metaphors put forward a line of thinking that suggests that maybe there is no all-encompassing definition that can accommodate the study of metaphor from every possible perspective, for any possible purpose, and related to any possible text, context and discourse. In line with Semino (2008), in the following section, I will outline the definition of conventionality and novelty developed for the purposes of analysing metaphor within the context of technology 35

in the present study. Before proceeding, for the purpose of not confusing conceptual metaphors and metaphorical expressions, I must make clear that I will be using the terms conventional and novel to describe conceptual metaphors, and the terms common and original to refer to metaphorical expressions. Conventional metaphors and common expressions are said to be incorporated into, and frequently used in a language to the extent that people rarely become aware of their semantic tension (Charteris-Black 2004:21). In addition to the natural language, the technical lexicon may also be regarded as the common everyday language of the field given the context of technology. This lexicon includes numerous lexical items that are well-entrenched in everyday use and have occurred through the creation of terminology, as well as through the application of conceptual metaphors to the design of many technological inventions. Thus in this context, metaphors and expressions commonly used both in technical and everyday language may be regarded as conventional and common, each in its own right. Following this assumption, I consider four types of conventional metaphor and common metaphorical expression: 1. Metaphors and metaphorical expressions that occur from established technology terminology, including similarity-creating metaphors as part of the terminology; for example, the

LIVING ORGANISM

metaphor and the expression antivirus and

antispyware tools cannot clean infections. 2. Metaphors and their respective expressions that have been identified in previous research as typical conceptualisations of technology; for example, the SPACE

PHYSICAL

metaphor and the expression enter the site.

3. Metaphors with source domains that are regarded as common in metaphorical conceptualisations, and that involve commonly used metaphorical expressions in technical and/or everyday language; for example, the source domain of the human body and the expression the read/write head. 4. Metaphors with source domains that may be regarded as novel but that involve commonly used metaphorical expressions in technical and/or everyday language; for example, the source domain of lifestyle and the expression way of life. At this point I would like to draw attention to the case of similarity-creating metaphors mentioned in type 1 above. Similarity-creating metaphors are not based on known similarities between source and target domains, but the metaphor creates 36

the similarities and makes the target look similar to the source (Indurkhya 1992:275). Similarity-creating metaphors have been identified in the literature as a basis for developing computer design and creating terms (Section 2.3), and as an approach for translating conceptual metaphors (Section 2.4). Hence, similarity-creating metaphors are usually classified as conventional, but may be classified as novel when they are not part of the established terminology. Furthermore, a novel metaphor is described as a new and creative combination of source and target domains, for example the metaphor WORK OF ART,

LOVE IS A COLLABORATIVE

which imaginatively describes the domain of love as a joint work of

art (Lakoff and Johnson 1980:139-143). An original metaphorical expression has been described as: 1) a creative exploitation of a conventional metaphor, such as the song lyric We’re driving in the fast lane of the freeway of love, which is considered as a new and imaginative use of the conventional

LOVE IS A JOURNEY

metaphor

(Lakoff 1993:210); 2) a completely new expression that has never been used in a language community developed from a novel metaphor; or 3) a commonly used expression that appears in a specific context without using one of its conventional meanings (Semino 2008:43,53). Following these descriptions, I consider four types of novel metaphor and original expression: 1. Completely novel metaphors, based on similarity-creating metaphors that involve original source domains and: a. original metaphorical expressions; for example, the novel metaphor LIFESTYLE

including the original expression AntiVir has a retro look, or

b. common expressions expressing new meanings in the context of technology; for example, the novel metaphor

LIFESTYLE

including the

common expression lost its mojo. 2. Metaphorical expressions that extend from established technology terminology; for example, the expression (a)sleep extending from the term hibernate. 3. Metaphorical expressions as extensions of typical conceptualisations of technology; for example, the expression congestion on the router extending from the HIGHWAY submetaphor.

37

4. Metaphorical expressions as extensions of common source domains, including ‘unused’ and secondary parts of conventional metaphors; for example, the expression lungs extending from the source domain of the human body. Methods for distinguishing common from original expressions will be outlined in Chapter 3.

2.1.1

Universality and Variation

Universality and variation of metaphor refer to the interaction between metaphor (as thought and language) and culture. Questions typically debated in the cognitive linguistics literature concern the sharing of conceptual metaphors across languages and cultures, the extent to which metaphors constitute or reflect our understanding of culture, and the role played by culture in metaphor choices (e.g. Quinn and Holland 1987, Quinn 1991, Lakoff 1993, Gibbs 1994, Yu 1998, Kövecses 2005, Kövecses and Koller 2006).

It has been argued that some conceptual metaphors are universal, others widespread, and some culture-specific. In support of the universality in metaphor, Lakoff (1993) suggests that the Event Structure metaphor may be regarded as a candidate for a metaphorical universal because it is based on an image-schematic structure that emerges from bodily experiences that are common to all people. Along these lines is Yu’s (1998) research on the contemporary theory of metaphor. Yu’s aim is to contribute to the conceptual metaphor theory from a Chinese perspective and help place the theory into a wider cross-cultural perspective. He looks at how emotion metaphors, the

TIME IS SPACE

metaphor, and the Event Structure metaphor are

structured in Chinese, looking for differences and similarities. He finds that with regard to emotions, there are similarities between English and Chinese that are grounded in the common human bodily reactions to the emotions, while there are also differences, which are mainly due to different cultural perceptions (1998:237). As far as the concept of time and the Event Structure metaphor are concerned, he finds strong parallels in the Chinese language that corroborate Lakoff’s proposal of these metaphors as universals. However, he suggests that the more specific-level a

38

metaphor is, the more likely it is to display diversity or differences across languages and cultures.

Convincing cases for variation in metaphors are made by Kövecses (2005) and Goatly (2007). Kövecses, in line with the notion of universal or near-universal metaphors motivated by correlations in bodily experience, also offers a balanced account of diversity. He distinguishes between cross-cultural and within-culture variation, involving social, regional, style, subcultural and individual dimensions (2005:58-60). Given that the study’s interest lies within cross-cultural variation, I shall not develop any further Kövecses’ dimension of within-culture variation. Crosscultural variation involves (2005:67-87): 1. Congruent metaphors, which present differences at specific-level metaphors of the same generic-level metaphor. 2. Alternative metaphors, which present differences in the scope of source domains for a particular target domain, and in the range of targets for a particular source domain. 3. Preferential conceptualisation, which shows cultural preferences towards particular

metaphors

even

though

they

are

shared

between

two

languages/cultures. 4. Unique metaphors, which involve both culturally unique source and target domains.

Thus, cross-cultural variation affects the source domain, which may be interpreted differently from culture to culture, the linguistic expressions that may present a variety of patterns (involving word forms, literal meanings, figurative meanings), and potential entailments that may be used in a different way. As main causes for crosscultural variation Kövecses suggests differential experience (cultural context, communicative situation, social and personal history, human concerns) and differential cognitive preferences and styles (experiential focus, metaphor and metonymy) (2006:167-172).

A proponent of non-universality in conceptual metaphor, Goatly (2007) argues that conceptual metaphor may be constructed by universal bodily experiences but in conjunction with cultural experiences that may bring about cultural variations within 39

particular metaphors. This seems to be in agreement with Yu’s observation of cultural perceptions that may emerge in and influence specific-level metaphors, thereby accounting for diversity between Chinese and English metaphors. Goatly distinguishes between six possibilities that could account for variation (2007:256): 1. No such target concept exists in one culture/language as exists in another, or the target concept is not quite identical in the two cultures. 2. No such source concept exists in one culture/language as exists in another, or the prototypical source concept has cultural variation at the basic category level in different cultures. 3. Source and target both co-vary, and apparently identical sources and targets in fact differ. 4. The same target and source concepts exist in both/all cultures, but they are paired differently, or paired in one language and not in another. 5. Although there is an identity, because the mappings are only partial, different grounds are explored in different languages, including different emotional grounds. 6. Though source and target are paired similarly at some general level, they are differentiated at a more specific level.

Both writers seem to be moving along similar lines and complementing each other on the possibilities that could account for variation. However, Kövecses and Goatly diverge on two points: Kövecses emphasizes that different languages/cultures may prefer to use one source domain over another, even if they may share the set of source domains for the same target domain, while Goatly does not consider the possibility of showing preference towards a different source domain. The second difference is that Kövecses emphasizes that the range of targets and the scope of sources may vary from one culture to another, while Goatly considers multivalency and diversification within a particular language/culture.

In connection with the current study, it is hypothesised that metaphors conceptualising technology in different languages/cultures may present similarities, given the context of technology that is common to both cultures, but that metaphors may also present variation, given that cultural experiences may point towards different mappings and expressions. Thus, it is assumed that similarities in metaphors 40

and expressions between English and Greek texts may be motivated by correlations in experience (experiential co-occurrence, experiential similarity) or may be influenced by the English language. It is argued that the influence of the English language can be manifested at the linguistic and/or the conceptual level. The influence of the English language at the linguistic level concerns translations of metaphorical expressions that usually cling to the source text (ST) expression and reveal misunderstanding. The influence of the English language at the conceptual level is termed here as translated experience; this refers to particular thinking inherent in the English metaphors which could be transferred into Greek because the target language/culture has knowledge of that experience from other contexts. For example, the metaphor

TECHNOLOGY IS LIFESTYLE

could be transferred into Greek

because the concept of lifestyle exists in Greek reality, although it is usually associated with the domains of fashion, wealth, luxury automobiles and the like. Differences in metaphors and expressions between the two languages may be motivated by cultural specificity or by the translators’ personal preferences (preferential conceptualisation), and may display differences at the specific level, differences in the combinations of target and source domains (diversification of sources) based on cultural specificity, or differences in metaphorical mappings and entailments.

2.1.2

Further Linguistic Phenomena Associated with Metaphor

In the previous sections the conceptual metaphor theory was reviewed with the aim of drawing attention to those aspects that will provide a framework for the analysis of metaphors of technology. In the following section, a number of linguistic phenomena – metonymy, simile, idiom, paragon and wordplay – are discussed in brief because they are related to metaphors and often operate in conjunction. Thus, they are expected to arise in the data under investigation to complement and enhance the metaphorical conceptualisations of technology by adding humorous effects and cultural references. This discussion serves to provide definitions of these linguistic phenomena in order that they can be incorporated into the analysis as complementary features to metaphor.

41

Metonymy is closely related to metaphor as another trope of structuring thought, and is equally significant in motivating metaphorical thought. It frequently interacts with metaphor, given that many metaphors and expressions are essentially based on metonymic relations, but differs distinctly in one sense in relation to metaphor. In metaphor there are two distinct conceptual domains involved in understanding: a source domain and a target domain; in metonymy there is a single conceptual domain involved, where a certain aspect of an entity is used to represent or stand for the particular entity. Extensive research on metonymy has pointed to a variety of metonymic categories (e.g. Kövecses and Koller 2006, Kövecses and Radden 1998) as well as combinations of metaphor and metonymy (e.g. Deignan 2005, Goatly 2007). Traditionally metonymies are of the type

PART FOR WHOLE,

CONTAINER FOR CONTENT

(I drank two bottles of wine),

(Paris is in an uproar),

PLACE FOR EVENT

such as

PLACE FOR INHABITANTS

(I’ve been watching Wimbledon all

afternoon), or PLACE FOR THE INSTITUTION (Wall Street is in panic).

Other culturally specific types of metonymy include paragons, ideals, salient examples, typical examples, and stereotypes (Lakoff 1987:70-91). These are representations of ideals or anti-ideals which organise a substantial part of cultural knowledge associated with particular ideals, such as ideal jobs, ideal house, ideal spouse (Lakoff 1987: 87-88). They act as models of knowledge which may influence people and guide their actions, since they can be used for making comparisons and accordingly as models for behaviour. For example, Nelson Mandela represents a paragon in terms of political leaders (Evans and Green 2006: 274). As such, they may be regarded as some of the ‘basic conceptual mechanisms underlying thought’ (Lakoff 2001:196).

A simile is another linguistic phenomenon involving metaphoricity that commonly features alongside metaphors. It is an explicit comparison between two entities from different conceptual domains communicated by expressions such as like, as, as if, compare, resemble (Semino 2008:16), or may also be a fixed phrase with the pattern as white as snow, as clear as crystal and so forth. Although metaphors and similes seem to be quite alike, there is a philosophical distinction to be made: metaphors are falsifications and are literally impossible or untrue, whereas similes are literally possible or true, even if they can appear to be inappropriate or unclear (Knowles and 42

Moon 2006:8). In addition, it has been observed that similes are preferred in structuring original metaphorical expressions in scientific discourse because they make the metaphor visible and guide the readers’ interpretation (Knudsen 2005:375376).

Idioms are figures of speech that have been conventionalised in a language, and whose meaning is derived from the entire expression rather than from the literal interpretation of the individual words in the expression, for example kick the bucket. They are related to metaphor for their interpretation, some of which may be more or less clear in their meaning, and others more obscure and difficult to interpret. They can also relate to metonymy, where parts of an entity used in the idiom may convey connotations or aspects of their meanings, for example two heads are better than one (Knowles and Moon 2006:51). Idioms are connected to culture, and their construction and interpretation often relies heavily on cultural knowledge and references. However, some idioms may be more universal than others, or may be shared by more than one language and culture as meanings rather than expressions. Many idioms are motivated by conceptual images in combination with knowledge of the underlying conceptual metaphors (Lakoff 1987:451, Gibbs and O’Brien 1990:62).

Wordplay is another linguistic phenomenon that, like metaphor, brings together meanings and conceptual domains. Delabastita (1996:128, emphasis in original) defines wordplay as: […] the general name for the various textual phenomena in which structural features of the language(s) used are exploited in order to bring about a communicatively significant confrontation of two (or more) linguistic structures with more or less similar forms and more or less different meanings. Thus, wordplay contrasts linguistic structures with similar forms but different meanings. Wordplay can take the forms of homonymy (identical sounds and spelling), homophony (identical sounds but different spelling), homography (different sounds but identical spelling), and paronymy (slight differences in sound and spelling), and may even combine linguistic features from two or even more languages (Delabastita 1996:128,131). Wordplay is not only a linguistic but also a

43

cognitive phenomenon, in that it contrasts two different meanings, as well as two different domains of human knowledge and experience (Alexieva 1997:152). By bringing together two different meanings, it also alludes to the conceptual domains associated with them, and the greater the distance between the domains, the stronger the effect of the pun (ibid.:138).

Given that much of the construction of the specialised language of technology relies on metaphors, it may come as no surprise that wordplay is encountered in the data. Wordplay may give rise to a humorous aspect of technology by combining and clashing terms from technology and a domain of human knowledge and experience. An example of such wordplay is the title of a research paper ‘Phish and Chips: Traditional and new recipes for attacking EMV’ (Adida et al. 2009), which examines existing and new security issues affecting electronic payments. This wordplay focuses on the domain of traditional English food/cooking and the domain of security technology, by contrasting the meaning of fish and chips as food and recipe with phish and chips as a means of stealing credit card details (phishing) and the technology embedded into credit cards for securing payments (chips). Hence the wordplay can be very culture-specific even though it may involve linguistic features, such as technology terms, that also exist in another language.

2.2

Metaphor in Discourse

Given that the interest of the study lies in the use of metaphor in the context of technology magazines, this section addresses the functions of metaphor in discourse and approaches undertaken for researching metaphor in discourse.

According to the conceptual metaphor theory, the most basic function of metaphor is that it helps us to structure abstract and vague concepts so that we may acquire a better understanding of the world. Metaphor in naturally occurring discourse is used in representing and communicating aspects of reality, knowledge and new ideas. Depending on the communicative purpose, metaphor serves a range of functions, such as persuading, reasoning, evaluating, making value judgements, entertaining, explaining, challenging perspectives, offering new views of reality and so forth.

44

Semino (2008:31) relates these representational metaphor functions to Halliday’s (1978) ‘ideational’, ‘interpersonal’ and ‘textual’ functions of language.

In particular, the ‘ideational’ function relates to the metaphor’s role in representing and constructing aspects of reality. Charteris-Black (2004), for example, examines metaphors in financial reporting and finds that the economy is represented as a living organism with fluctuating states of mental and physical health, while economic problems are conceptualised as natural disasters. In addition, Charteris-Black suggests that it is typical of financial reporting to use animate metaphors when financial reporters want to represent themselves as expert analysts, while when they seem to lack knowledge of factors affecting the market, they turn to inanimate metaphors, thereby concealing the agency of financial actors while exaggerating the severity of market conditions.

The ‘interpersonal’ function involves the use of metaphors in the construction of interpersonal relationships between author and reader. For instance, Slingerland et al. (2007) analyse the use of conceptual metaphors in the American and Chinese press regarding the collision of an American surveillance airplane with a Chinese fighterjet over international waters. They argue that differences in metaphorical conceptualisations of the incident evoked different emotional reactions and accounted for the difficulties of settling the matter by the two parties involved.

The ‘textual’ function is related to the use of metaphor in contributing to the coherent structuring of a text. A metaphor can constitute the backbone of the text, while the recurrence of particular metaphorical expressions adds to the text’s internal coherence (Semino 2008:32). For example, Csábi (2001) focuses on the conceptualisation of America in Puritan prose works, and develops an exposition of the way Puritans understood their immigration experience. She employs a multitextual approach by examining texts from different authors of a single period in literature. In spite of this diversity in texts regarding content, audience and context, her study reveals that such texts are structured by similar conceptual metaphors. As a basis for this study, she uses similar images of America as they appear in Puritan texts; that is, the shared knowledge and cultural experience that shape the way of thinking among Puritans. From her analysis she finds that the conceptualisation of 45

America is considerably similar despite the diverse texts, and that a principle metaphor prevails:

THE SETTLEMENT OF AMERICA IS THE MOVEMENT OF THE JEWS

FROM EGYPT TO ISRAEL,

which can be divided into three sub-metaphors: 1) AMERICA

IS THE PROMISED LAND,

2)

AMERICA IS A WILDERNESS,

ENACTING A BUSINESS DEAL

and 3)

GOING TO AMERICA IS

(2001:198).

Furthermore, in relation to metaphor function in discourse, considerable interest has been given recently to the ideological use of metaphor. Ideology can be viewed as a set of beliefs shared by a particular social group (van Dijk 1998:8), as ‘a world view, a largely unconscious theory of the way the world works accepted as commonsense’ (Fowler 1985, my emphasis), or as a ‘temporarily stable implicit social assumption that shifting group members take for granted in their everyday social practices’, which provides a more precise and dynamic description of ideology (Beaton 2007:11, emphasis in original). Related to such views of ideology is the theory of social representations, which are defined as shared sets of beliefs and ideas used as explanatory devices for establishing an order to enable people to orientate themselves in their material and social world and to make meaning of it, by making familiar the unfamiliar (Moscovici 1984:17,19). The theory of social representations has been used in research of the public’s understanding of science and technology in the mass media and in relation to how metaphors contribute to the creation of social representations. Christidou et al. (2004), for example, examined metaphors in technoscientific articles published in four Greek daily newspapers and two popular scientific magazines, with the aim of showing the social representations of the nature and the evolution of the disciplines of space-science and astronomy, genetics and biotechnology, natural sciences, and engineering and informatics. The analysis shows that four superordinate metaphor categories – a construct, a supernatural process, an activity extending the frontiers of knowledge, and a dipole of promise and/or scare – are employed in representing the nature of the disciplines, while the evolution of the disciplines is predominantly conceptualised as a violent process. Each discipline is constructed by different social representations, because each discipline is represented by different metaphor combinations.

Therefore, metaphor may be viewed as a tool for constructing ideologies and social representations of phenomena (objects, experiences, relations), and at the same time, 46

may offer a window into these ideologies and social representations, thus revealing ‘highly charged messages’ about the topic in question (Liakopoulos 2002:28,30). Although the present study does not aim to investigate the social representations of technology in the manner outlined above, it is, nonetheless, within the study’s scope to examine metaphor as a means of revealing public perceptions of (or social assumptions about) technology within the broader range of functions that metaphor serves in technology discourse.

For the study of metaphor in naturally occurring discourse, two types of discourse approach are identified, which rely on the conceptual metaphor theory as a framework for analysis and examine how language constructs meaning (Deignan 2005:124-125). The first type examines a spoken or written discourse of specific text-type with the aim of demonstrating how metaphors are used in constructing ideologies. The research focus is mainly on the dominant metaphors used in the text, the entailments of these metaphors, and the kind of ideology that is reflected. Studies of this type (e.g. Charteris-Black and Musolff 2003, Lakoff 2002) show that dominant metaphors tend to structure public perceptions of social issues and international events, and to represent ideological positions via the relations between entities and their entailments. Metaphors can be very persuasive when the source domain is emotionally appealing to people, and can give rise to networks of entailments that reinforce each other. The same metaphors may be shared by people from opposing parties but different aspects of the mapping may be highlighted, thereby representing different interests. Otherwise opposing parties may use different metaphors for the same target domain, and at times these metaphors may compete for adoption by the public.

The research methodology usually followed in the first group of studies involves a procedure of manually searching the texts for linguistic expressions. Researchers can look for particular themes, consider every single expression, or even involve further textual or extra-textual phenomena, such as metonymy or images. The next step is to semantically group the expressions under metaphor categories. Researchers then examine the entailments produced by the metaphors in order to infer the kinds of ideology the metaphors reflect. Researchers may also look at the frequency of metaphorical expressions in support of a metaphor’s dominant presence in the texts. 47

The second type observes the use of metaphor in self-expression, in understanding experiences and in developing shared understandings between speakers during spoken, ongoing discourse. The focus is on the role of metaphor in constructing ideas, in the interaction and in the ways that metaphors are interpreted by the speakers. In this approach (e.g. Cameron 2003), metaphor is employed as an instructive tool for explaining new and difficult concepts by analogy. It has been observed that, during interaction, metaphor is also discussed and developed. Speakers use metaphor to communicate ideas and emotional experiences, to re-enact their experience by means of conventional and non-conventional patterns, or to discuss difficult interpersonal issues. In many cases, hearers may interpret metaphors in different ways than those expected by the speakers, which may lead to miscommunication.

The methodology commonly followed by the second group is more qualitative than quantitative. Researchers collect and transcribe the data, which consist of citations from an ongoing discourse. They examine the context of communication and determine the role of metaphor within the discourse. Researchers observe how metaphors are developed by speakers and hearers, draw conclusions about the interactants’ intentions, and try to evaluate if metaphors are used successfully in communication based on the hearers’ interpretations. This type of research aims to give insights into the creation and comprehension of metaphors.

The approach followed in the present study constitutes an amalgamation, as it borrows elements from both types of approach. Like the first approach, the study looks at a particular text-type, it analyses dominant and less dominant metaphors used in the discourse and their entailments, and discusses potential public perceptions these metaphors may reflect. Like the second approach, it examines the role of metaphors in constructing particular aspects of technology, and looks at how the metaphors are interpreted and developed through their translation into another language and culture. In this case, the author of the source text and the translator of the target text act as speakers in interaction. The author acts as the main speaker and the translator acts as the target hearer who, after acquiring an initial understanding of

48

the metaphor, then transfers his interpretation into the other language. The research methodology followed in this study will be presented in more detail in Chapter 3.

2.3

Metaphor and Technology

Metaphor and technology are closely connected, and their relationship is multifaceted. From a cognitive point of view ‘most linguistic expressions are based on the perception of objects or situations in the real world’ (Ungerer and Schmid 1996:188); similarly it has been established that metaphors in computer technology exploit similarities between computational and traditional domains (Colburn and Shute 2008:526,532). Some metaphors seem to rely on a physical or otherwise preexisting similarity between a technology and the real world; for example, the preexisting similarity between pressing real physical buttons and clicking with a mouse on the icons of buttons on a graphical user interface. Other metaphors rely on emerging or even enforced similarities, called similarity-creating metaphors (Section 2.1) (Indurkhya 1992:275). For example, a memory leak in a program does not involve any kind of similarity with a malfunctioning fuel tank. But because a memory leak is a condition that may cause the program to run out of memory, there is emerging similarity to a leak that will cause the tank to run out of fuel. The metaphor creates the similarity and makes the target domain similar to the source domain. This kind of similarity ‘between the source and target domain does not so much as emerge, as become prescribed by a design, and then enforced by programming’ (Colburn and Shute 2008:531, emphasis in original).

The type of similarity in computer science metaphors often depends on the role that the metaphors play. Metaphors in technology may serve a ‘pedagogical’, a designoriented role or a ‘theory-constitutive’ role (Boyd 1993:482).The pedagogical role consists in the use of metaphors mainly for exegetical purposes, such as the SHOPPING CART

metaphor, which evokes the idea that online shopping with a virtual

cart/basket is similar to shopping with a physical cart/basket, (Colburn and Shute 2008:529) or the DESKTOP metaphor, which makes obvious the link COMPUTER WORK IS OFFICE WORK

(Ungerer and Schmid 1996:147).

49

Other metaphors play a significant role in the design of hardware and software. For example, metaphors are employed to conceptualise functions of a computer system, and a distinction can be made between physical or organisational metaphors and functional metaphors (Wozny 1989:276-277). The former organise the elements of a system and describe the location or spatial orientation of the system (ibid:276). In other words, they describe ‘what is where’ knowledge. Examples of these are the ‘windows’ on our screen which offers displays of the computer world. Users can manipulate the windows with a mouse, move them, transfer work from one window to another, and so on. On the other hand, functional metaphors describe the functions of a system, and are ‘taken from a domain other than the computer domain’ (ibid:277). These represent ‘how it works’ knowledge. An example of this is the ‘cut and paste’ function, which is taken from the physical world of page layout (ibid.).

The use of metaphor has transformed software design over the last thirty-five years, the most revolutionary application of all being the

DESKTOP

metaphor (Rohrer

1998:14). Other significant examples include the use of animal metaphors, as expressed in the COMPUTER MOUSE that maps the external appearance of the device to the respective rodent, and illness metaphors, such as the

VIRUS

metaphor expressing

‘the malfunctioning of computer programs’ (Ungerer and Schmid 1996:147). Thus metaphors can have a design-oriented role in conjunction with an explanatory purpose.

Metaphors can also play a ‘theory-constitutive’ role (Boyd 1993:482) in the development of a scientific theory by creating the special language needed for describing phenomena that are not designated (Semino 2008:133). However, this process is not merely filling in terminological gaps. As Gentner (1982) rightly argues, metaphor is a significant part of theory construction because it enables us to look at the relations between objects rather than the objects themselves (1982:108). In the case of computer science, which creates its own subject matter, metaphors not only describe the way things are, but are also used for building conceptual frameworks to accommodate the new knowledge and for prescribing ways of making faster and more efficient applications and programs (Colburn and Shute 2008:531).

50

From the viewpoint of the average technology user, metaphors prove to be a useful part of computer system design for learning and using computers. In this manner, interface metaphors work as learning guidelines for users to find their way around using computers by relating new knowledge to old. It is argued that the success (or not) of interface metaphors lies in the ability of the user to recognise and understand the relation between the source and target domains used, meaning that one domain may impose certain constraints on mapping knowledge, thus making the metaphorical projection only partial (Rohrer 1995:7). An example of this is a feature of a previous Apple Macintosh OS, which was considered by many users as highly counterintuitive. In order to eject a disk from the computer, the users had to drag the disk icon onto the trash can and drop it. This feature had provoked so much anxiety to the users that many of them preferred to shut down the system and have the disk ejected automatically. Rohrer (1995:2) explains that because users felt intuitively that they were running the risk of deleting their data by dropping them into the trash can, they avoided performing the action. This means that interface design called for a closer examination at how people’s bodies interact with the physical world; paying attention to this physical interaction may produce useful and intuitive extensions to a respective design. Subsequent versions were more successful as they implemented the icon of an eject button in the menu bar. Rohrer (1995:9) suggests that the use of image schemas in a user interface is an important instance of embodied knowledge. An example of this is the container schema, which is everywhere in the computer desktop: ‘With drag and drop file editing, we pick up files with the mouse and drag them into another folder or put them into the trash. We might cut the appendix out of one document and drop it into another’ (ibid.). Thus, such metaphorical extensions of bodily experiences in the physical world allow us to organise and make sense of a virtual world viewed through our computers.

Further to this, Gibbs (1999) discusses metaphor as external representations. In this case, metaphor is not only ‘part of our mental representations for concepts or as expressed by language’, but also a tool, available as ‘public representation’, shaped by ‘body-world interactions which we can “re-experience” in an embodied way’ (1999:156-157). In his words (1999:160-161): A wonderful place to find metaphors as public representations is in the world of computers and the World Wide Web. […] Computer use[r]s

51

constantly engage in metaphorical actions such as surfing, navigating, travelling through webs, manipulating objects on a desktop, selecting options off of menus, creating different windows, dragging, dropping, point-and-clicking, and inhabiting on-line communities. […] New programs appear as objects in rooms. […] We intuitively understand these fictional devices as different metaphors, most of which have explicit iconic representations that we see and manipulate. In the fastchanging world of computers, these public metaphoric representations have an increasingly indispensable cognitive function. We borrow structures from things we interact with in the real world and project them as virtual versions onto the cyber world, thereby constructing similar relations between objects. Metaphors and virtual entities, such as files and folders, assist in advancing a system’s functionality and a user’s competence because of the inferences he can make about them (Colburn and Shute 2008:532). As Steven Levy puts it, ‘metaphor, it turns out, is the key to making computers comprehensible’ (1994:69).

Metaphors arising from body-world interactions in the specific domains of the Internet and the World Wide Web can be seen in the case studies conducted by Rohrer (1997, 2001), and Maglio and Matlock (1998). Rohrer (1997) looks at how metaphors and their inferences shape reasoning about technology policy in the United States. He focuses on technology policy statements made by political figures such as US Vice-president Gore who argued that the government should be involved in the policy-making of the national information infrastructure in a manner similar to its involvement in the 1950s and 1960s in planning and building the transportation highway system that led to the U.S. economic boom. Rohrer explains the use of the source domain of transportation highway policy in presenting the target domain of information highway policy, and deduces the dual metaphor of INFORMATION HIGHWAY, involving

THE INTERNET IS AN

the CYBERSPACE case and the CYBERFUTURE case.

In the CYBERSPACE case, we picture ourselves and our computers as moving through space to other destinations, either to acquire information or for our enjoyment, while in the CYBERFUTURE case, the information highway is viewed as a road on which we travel through time heading to the future. Thus, in the former case we emphasize the commodities (information) provided, while in the latter case, we emphasize the new technological capabilities, and the new services that will be made available in the future. He claims that metaphorical inferences from these two cases give rise to the 52

INFORMATION HIGHWAY

metaphor, and this ‘incorporates elements both of the

information highway as a conduit for goods and as a transformative ideological force in society’ (Rohrer 2001:201).

Maglio and Matlock (1998) discuss the ways that people metaphorically conceive of the World Wide Web (WWW) in terms of how they talk about it. They conduct an experiment involving beginner and experienced users, who were instructed to visit pages on the Internet and then talk about their experience, what they did, where they went, and so on (ibid.:4). The authors then look at the linguistic data gathered from the interviews, and conclude that both beginner and experienced users refer to the WWW by using spatial metaphors as moving through physical space and towards information. The linguistic data show that users are heavily dependent on image schemas, such as the PATH and the CONTAINER schemas (ibid.:7). This study is in line with Rohrer’s

CYBERSPACE

case, which makes use of spatial relations and depicts

users as drivers of vehicles moving along transmission pathways (highways) via computers (vehicles) towards information sites (destinations).

As this section has shown, the relation between metaphor and technology is multifaceted. Technology may be conceptualised metaphorically in terms of a preexisting similarity (shopping cart), a created similarity (memory leak), or a perceived similarity between two entities (space/cyberspace). Metaphor may be used for explaining technology to users and conversely as a means of learning for the users. It may be employed in hardware production and software development, and in the development of a scientific theory. The use of conceptual metaphors has assisted in the formation of terminology and the ways people comprehend and talk about technology, as in the case of the WWW. Body-world interactions give rise to metaphors and make it possible to structure our contact with technology in terms of our experiences with other objects and relations in the world.

2.4

Metaphor and Translation

The issue of metaphor in translation studies, mainly in literary translation, has provoked much discussion concerning two main themes: the (un)translatability of metaphor along with factors that determine its adequate translation; and approaches

53

to translating metaphor. The first part of this section looks at how metaphor is traditionally dealt with in translation studies, what factors influence translatability and what approaches have been put forward for adequately translating metaphor. The focus then turns to metaphor translation from a cognitive linguistics perspective. The second part discusses research on translating conceptual metaphor taken up within metaphor studies, translation studies and English Language Teaching (ELT). It brings together findings concerning potential translation approaches that emerge from comparative studies of source language (SL) metaphors and target language (TL) metaphors, and it revisits the factors that affect the translatability of metaphors.

Translation studies is a heterogeneous discipline comprising a diversity of models, research methods, and foci in terms of translation as a product or a process (Schäffner 1997:1-17, Munday 2001:10-13). The most dominant theories of translation

are

linguistic

approaches,

functional

theories,

discourse-based

approaches, Descriptive Translation Studies and, more recently, cultural and sociological approaches. A controversial notion in translation is equivalence, which has acquired a variety of definitions and views in the last five decades, depending on the angle from which it is approached. Equivalence has been addressed at the levels of content, word, text types, communication and stylistics. As Baker (1992:6) points out, equivalence ‘is influenced by a variety of linguistic and cultural factors and is therefore always relative’. The notion of equivalence both in prescriptive and descriptive models of translation also arises in discussions about translating metaphor.

Traditionally translation studies views metaphor as a translation problem that is restricted and bound by the language in which it is expressed, the culture that the respective language reflects, and the sets of values tied to the particular culture. Metaphor is regarded as a figure of speech, a linguistic expression formulated in an artistic and eloquent manner, employed to provide a comparison between two entities, and for decorative purposes in the text. The ability to fully understand and interpret a metaphor lies in sharing the same language with the same cultural background, which would provide similar experiences; otherwise metaphor is often considered as impossible to be transferred into another language. From a linguistic and prescriptive equivalence-based perspective, metaphor should ideally be 54

reproduced in the target text (TT) as close to source text (ST) as possible. However, from a cultural approach, metaphor is a ‘semantic novelty’ and because it is unique, it is not possible to have any existing ‘equivalence’ in the target language (Dagut 1976:21-33), and as such cannot (or even should not) be translated. Transferring a metaphor into another language and a new communicative context seems to alter the nature of the metaphor, as if involving a different set of ideas and producing a different meaning in the TT and culture (Dobrzyńska 1995:599). Under this view, translatability seems to depend on and cannot be detached from a number of factors: the source language and its particular structure, the cultural background, the text type, the structure and function of the metaphor in the text, and the new communicative context (e.g. Newmark 1981:84, Dobrzyńska 1995:596,598, Kittay 1987:82).

Following this understanding of translatability, a number of translation procedures have been put forward in both a prescriptive and descriptive manner, in order to facilitate the translators’ task when faced with such problems of adequately transferring metaphors from one language to another. For instance, Newmark (1981) assumes a prescriptive approach whereby he divides metaphor into five types: dead, cliché, stock, recent and original (ibid.:85), and presents seven procedures for translating metaphor (ibid.:88-91): 1. Reproducing the same image in the TL provided the image has comparable frequency and currency in the appropriate register. 2. Replacing the image in the SL with a standard TL image which does not clash with the TL culture. 3. Translating the metaphor by simile, retaining the image. This is the obvious way of modifying the shock of the metaphor, particularly if the TL is not emotive in character. 4. Translating the metaphor (or simile) by simile plus sense (or occasionally a metaphor plus sense). 5. Converting the metaphor to sense. 6. Deleting the metaphor, if it is redundant or otiose. 7. Combining the same metaphor with sense.

55

On the other hand, Van Den Broeck (1981) proposes a tentative scheme of three modes of metaphor translation that he has observed as translation solutions in translated texts: 1. Translation ‘sensu stricto’, which involves the transfer of both SL ‘tenor’ and SL ‘vehicle’ in the TL. 2. Substitution, which involves the replacement of the SL ‘vehicle’ by a different TL ‘vehicle’ with more or less the same ‘tenor’. 3. Paraphrase, which involves the conveying of a SL metaphor by a nonmetaphorical expression in the TL.

According to Van Den Broeck (1981) translatability is associated with categories of metaphor (lexicalized, conventional, and private metaphors), and the uses and functions of metaphor in texts. The categories are based on the ‘relative degree of [metaphors] being “institutionalized” or not’, while the closely-related uses and functions concern the relevancy of the metaphor to the communicative function of the text, and the communicative purpose it serves respectively (1981:74-76).

In a similar manner, Dobrzyńska (1995:599) deals with metaphor translation by focusing mainly on semantic adequacy. She proposes three possibilities when adapting a metaphor to a new communicative and cultural context: 1. The use of an exact equivalent of the original metaphor (MM). 2. The use of another metaphorical phrase expressing a similar sense (M1M2). 3. The replacement of an untranslatable metaphor of the original with its approximate literal paraphrase (MP).

Dobrzyńska stresses that what is of great significance in metaphorical communication is the ‘common knowledge’ of the two participants in communication; that is, stereotyped associations, or shared values within cultural communities. In analysing these associations, she puts forward the concept of lexical connotation, which is part of the ‘“knowledge of the world”, correlated with lexical elements of a given language and built up by interrelations within the language’ (1995:597). Similarity or dissimilarity of lexical connotations and stereotyped associations may contribute or obstruct the transfer of metaphors from one language into another. 56

Toury (1995) proposes that the focus on translation solutions be free of a priori criteria and value judgements, and that the identified metaphors be approached ‘from the vantage point of the replacements’ (1995:82). As opposed to Newmark’s sourceoriented procedures, Toury assumes a target-oriented approach in which he includes the following four basic translation approaches, in agreement with most scholars involved in metaphor and translation (ibid.): 1. metaphor into ‘same’ metaphor 2. metaphor into ‘different’ metaphor 3. metaphor into non-metaphor 4. metaphor into 0, complete omission in the target text

Toury also provides two supplementary possibilities, which involve the appearance of metaphor in the target text, and here metaphor is regarded as more of a solution than a problem (ibid.:83): 5. non-metaphor into metaphor, the possibility of rendering a non-metaphor into metaphor, and 6. 0 into metaphor, the inclusion of metaphor, where there is no linguistic motivation in the source text.

The aforementioned procedures approach metaphor from a traditional standpoint, which views metaphor as a linguistic phenomenon with ornamental function. They seem to converge on a number of similar translation approaches, regardless of their prescriptive (Newmark’s guidelines), or descriptive manner (Van Den Broeck’s modes and Dobrzyńska’s possibilities); that is, providing the ‘same’ metaphor in the TT, providing a ‘different’ metaphor in the TT, omitting the metaphor in the TT, providing a literal paraphrase of the metaphor in the TT, or providing a metaphor with additional information in the TT in order to facilitate the readers’ comprehension. On the other hand, although in agreement with the aforementioned approaches, Toury approaches metaphor from the viewpoint of the target text, and proposes the insertion of metaphor in the TT as a translation solution.

Leaving aside the traditional approaches to translating metaphor, a number of research projects within ELT, metaphor and translation studies examine metaphor 57

translation from a cognitive linguistics perspective, mainly influenced by Lakoff and Johnson’s (1980) study of conceptual metaphors. Deignan et al. (1997), working within ELT, conduct an exercise with a group of 143 Polish students of English translating 68 metaphorical expressions, in order to establish to what extent metaphorical expressions may vary between English and Polish, and examine the difficulties and problems raised. The findings of the exercise show that many English expressions are shared in Polish, while problems are created when the students translate expressions which have no similar equivalents in their native language, or when they have to decode longer, more fixed expressions, such as enter through the back door (ibid.:355). This translation exercise points to several types of variation in translating metaphors (ibid.:354-355): 1. Same conceptual metaphor and equivalent linguistic expression. For example, both languages share the conceptual metaphor BUILDINGS,

RELATIONSHIPS

ARE

and the expression cement is translated as cementować, its literal

translation equivalent, in expressions such as cement a personal/business relationship. 2. Same conceptual metaphor but different linguistic expression. For example, both languages share the conceptual metaphor

IDEAS ARE FOOD,

but use

different metaphorical expressions. While English uses the expression halfbaked to talk about an idea that is not well thought-out, Polish uses the expression niedojrzak, which is literally translated as unripe. 3. Different conceptual metaphors used. For example, the English expression to sweep off one’s feet expressing the metaphor

IRRATIONAL IS UP,

was

translated into Polish as zauroczyć (charm, cast a spell), which showed preference to another metaphor

LOVE IS MAGIC,

although a similar

orientational conceptualisation exists in Polish as in the expression rzucić na kolana (knock down on one's knees). 4. Words/expressions with similar literal meanings but different metaphorical meanings. In this case students were unaware of the metaphorical nature of the English expression, and there was a tendency to translate it literally into Polish. Such a translation produces a negative effect, or seems nonsensical to native speakers. For example, the English expression grill meaning to interrogate was translated as maglować (mangle), implying ‘squeezing someone for information’ (ibid.:354). However, the usual metaphorical 58

meaning of mangle in English is ‘not speaking or writing clearly’, which showed ignorance of the metaphorical nature of the SL expression.

This translation exercise demonstrates that conceptual metaphors that are shared between languages and cultures provide a sound basis for decoding metaphorical expressions from a source language and translating them into a target language, by similar or different expressions. Equivalence between metaphorical expressions may also be achieved by employing different conceptual metaphors, either because the metaphor is not shared by the TL, or because the translator opted for a different conceptualisation. Hence, different conceptualisations do not necessarily entail difference in meaning, but more of a shift in perspective. In the absence of a common conceptual ground, a literal rendition of a metaphorical expression would probably not lead to the desired positive effects. This case calls for more investigation on the translator’s part to determine whether expressions with similar literal meanings also share metaphorical meanings, or whether such a similarity is semantically misleading.

Furthermore, Al-Zoubi et al. (2007) propose a ‘cogno-cultural framework’, the cognitive equivalence hypothesis, for translating metaphors based on the ‘Cognitive Translation Hypothesis’ (CTH) proposed by Mandelblit (1995), which distinguishes between Similar Mapping Conditions (SMC) and Different Mapping Conditions (DMC). In SMC both source and target languages employ the same metaphor to conceptualise a domain, while in DMC source and target languages use different metaphors. Mandelblit (1995) draws attention to the translation process in relation to the reaction time needed by the translator to translate metaphors, and suggests that metaphorical expressions sharing the same conceptual ground take less time to translate. Expressions with different mapping conditions, which need to be translated using a different conceptual domain from the source language, seem to be more challenging and time-consuming, since the translator has to make a conceptual shift and look for another corresponding conceptual domain. Al-Zoubi et al. (2007) build on Mandelblit’s SMC and DMC and suggest three cognitive mapping conditions for translating metaphors (ibid.:238): 1. metaphors of similar mapping conditions,

59

2. metaphors having similar mapping conditions but lexically implemented differently, and 3. metaphors of different mapping conditions.

These three conditions are represented as a continuum where similar mapping conditions at one end show greater convergence between languages and cultures, sharing common (universal or culture-overlapping) metaphors grounded in a common experiential basis. Different mapping conditions at the other end show greater divergence between languages due to marked cultural differences. Similar mapping conditions with different lexicalisations would be placed at an intermediate stage demonstrating differences due to the cultural or ‘ethical’ system of each language (2007:238). The result of the first and second conditions is an equivalent TL metaphor or a TL simile, whereas in the third condition, the translator opts for a TL simile, paraphrase, explanatory remark, a footnote, or the metaphor is omitted if all other options fail (ibid:234).

A more elaborate proposal of metaphor translation is provided by Schäffner (2004), who conducts a comparative analysis of political documents mainly in English and German, and describes the translation solutions by linking them to the function of the text, the addressees, the languages and the cultures involved. Schäffner identifies the following five cases of metaphor translation in her data (2004:1259-1267): 1. A conceptual metaphor is identical in ST and TT at the macro-level without each individual manifestation having been accounted for at the micro-level. For example: Wir wollen die Brücke über den Atlantik auf allen Gebieten— Politik und Wirtschaft, Wissenschaft und Kultur—festigen und ausbauen. (literally: We want to cement the bridge over the Atlantic in all areas politics and economy, science and culture) / We aim to strengthen and widen the transatlantic bridge in all spheres, in politics and commerce, science and culture. 2. Structural components of the base conceptual schema in the ST are replaced in the TT by expressions that make entailments explicit. For example: Unser Ziel, Herr Präsident, ist es, den Bau des Hauses Europa zu vollenden. Dabei wollen wir, daß unsere amerikanischen Freunde in diesem Haus auf Dauer ihre feste Wohnung haben. (literally: [. . .] We want 60

our American friends to have a permanent apartment in this house.) / Our goal is to complete the construction of the European house—with a permanent right of residence for our American friends—and enable the family of European nations to live together side by side in lasting peace. 3. A metaphor is more elaborate in the TT. For example, Mit der Einführung des EURO haben wir einen großen Schritt nach vorn getan [. . .] Die EVP sieht darin den Beginn eines neuen Projektes, […] (literally: With the introduction of the Euro we made a big step forward […] EVP sees in it the beginning of a new project) / We have already taken a great step forward towards European integration by introducing the Single Currency. 4. ST and TT employ different metaphorical expressions, which can be combined under a more abstract conceptual metaphor. For example: unter dem Dach eines Europäischen Beschäftigungspaktes (literally: Under the roof of a European work agreement)/ under the umbrella of a European employment pact [the metaphor is

BEING PROTECTED IS BEING

UNDER A COVER].

5. The expression in the TT reflects a different aspect of the conceptual metaphor. For example: Europa muß mit einer Stimme in der Welt sprechen. (literally: Europe must speak to the world in one voice) / We must act as one on the international scene. [The common conceptual metaphor is

EUROPE IS A

PERSON].

Several conclusions can be drawn from the five cases outlined above. All cases involve the translation of a conceptual metaphor that is preserved in the target language, at the micro-level or the macro-level. Translation at the micro-level refers to the translation of metaphors that are corresponding both conceptually and linguistically, and is similar to Deignan et al.’s (1997) first type of translation (same conceptual metaphor with equivalent linguistic expression). Translation at the macrolevel refers to the translation of metaphors that correspond at the conceptual level but are expressed by different linguistic means, even if specific expressions are not accounted for in each individual case. This is similar to Deignan et al.’s (1997)

61

second type of translation (same conceptual metaphor but different linguistic expression).

When metaphors are further elaborated as a result of intercultural communication and/or translation, they may be regarded as intertextual phenomena. Schäffner refers to such cases as intercultural intertextuality (2004:1264), the analysis of which needs to place the text into its historical context, and consider its function, its addressees, and their cultural background. For example, the expression feste Wohnung is replaced by the expressions right of residence, family, live together, thereby making entailments explicit which are based on prior knowledge of the prototypical houses in Germany and the United States (2004:1262).

In line with Yu’s (1998) findings, a conceptual metaphor may be universal, but its particular metaphorical expressions may seem more culture-specific. For example, English and German share the metaphor BEING PROTECTED IS BEING UNDER A COVER, but each language expresses its own idea of a protective cover, Dach (roof) and umbrella. In addition, a metaphor may be widespread, but different aspects of the metaphor may be highlighted in different languages. For example, the metaphor EUROPE IS A PERSON

is common to English and German, but the two languages

highlight different activities: English highlights the aspect of taking action as a unified being, while German highlights the aspect of speaking as a unified being.

Schäffner maintains that the most significant fact is that metaphors may entail cultural differences, which can become evident through translation. In her words (2004:1267): Once a metaphor has been brought into international […] discussion, it can undergo changes when transferred from one language and culture into another. The analysis of texts with respect to metaphors and metaphorical reasoning processes in different languages can, thus, reveal possible cultural differences in conceptual structures. Schäffner rightly points out that because conceptual metaphors and their expressions may not always be similar in the source culture and the target culture, this does not automatically suggest that these shifts and differences are translation errors.

62

In addition to Schäffner’s approach, I would like to draw attention to the findings of a corpus-based study conducted by Fuertes-Olivera and Pizarro-Sánchez (2002), which concerns translation of metaphors in specialised texts, namely metaphors of inflation in English economic texts and their translation into Spanish. The authors view metaphor both as a cognitive tool and an aesthetic device and argue that translations ideally should involve the same or a similar conceptual metaphor in order to maintain the function as a term, and to preserve the aesthetic role of surprising, delighting and interesting the readers (ibid.:44). Their findings show that the Spanish translations have preserved the metaphorical conceptualisations of the source text; both source and the target texts conceptualise inflation as a horse, a disease, an enemy, a robbery, and an engine. They also suggest that there is a tendency to translate metaphorical expressions literally with the intention of reproducing the metaphorical terms. The literal translations give rise to similaritycreating metaphors that generate the similarities between source and target domains and ‘revitalise the metaphor’ by producing translations that delight the target readership, thereby fulfilling both functions as conceptual tools and as aesthetic devices (ibid.:61). The authors (2002:63) claim that such literal translations can be preferred over alternative metaphorical expressions or paraphrases, for the reason that similarity-creating metaphors are easily comprehended because they create a direct similarity between source and target domains, and are thus regarded as a common method of diffusing technological know-how, scientific knowledge and terminology. Conversely, similarity-creating metaphors may be regarded as creative instances apart from solutions for filling in conceptual gaps.

Fuertes-Olivera and Pizarro-Sánchez (2002:64) offer a further possibility for the translation of metaphors, with similarity-creating metaphors. This suggests that, because metaphors depend on thought processes, it is possible for the target linguistic community to reconstruct the similarity provided by a new metaphor and become aware of its meaning within the new communicative context. Hence, conceptual metaphors may be transferable into another language, probably even regardless of whether similar or different mapping conditions exist between two languages.

Consequently,

a

cognitive

approach

to

translating

metaphors

situates

(un)translatability not in terms of grammatical deviance or linguistic uniqueness, but 63

in terms of ‘cognitive equivalence’ (Al-Zoubi et al. 2007:232-233) and ‘cognitive restrictions’ (Tabakowska 1993:69). By such a perspective, (un)translatability is a matter of identifying and rendering the conceptualisation behind particular expressions, rather than focusing on the expressions per se. As Schäffner argues, cultural specificity is situated mainly in metaphorical expressions and less in conceptual metaphors (2004:1264-5). Therefore, (un)translatability is linked to the level of convergence and/or divergence between the conceptual systems of source and target cultures, and the amount of common experiential basis shared between the languages.

In sum, all the aforementioned cognitive approaches to translating metaphor provide a view of the types of variation that can take place in translation. Al-Zoubi et al.’s (2007) approach seems to reflect a set of generalised possibilities of the variations that can take place in translation. Although it appears to be similar to Deignan et al.’s (1997) variations, there is a difference in the empirical methods used. The former compares fixed metaphorical expressions in English and Arabic, such as idioms, proverbs and verses from the Qur’an, while the latter involves an experiment of translating commonly used metaphorical expressions in everyday language from English to Polish. On the other hand, Schäffner’s (2004) approach has a more firm basis in empirical analysis, which allows her to suggest a more detailed range of translation possibilities. Similarly, Fuertes-Olivera and Pizarro-Sánchez’s (2002) findings are based on empirical research from which they have been able to infer further strategies of metaphor translation in practice.

The present study is oriented towards the approaches of Schäffner (2004) and Fuertes-Olivera and Pizarro-Sánchez (2002) because their approaches have been observed as translation strategies in translated texts, bearing in mind the context, the function of the text, and the languages and cultures involved. The notion of cognitive equivalence is also considered useful within the present study because this is the kind of equivalence I seek to find between metaphors and metaphorical expressions as conceptual constructions between the English and Greek texts. Based on the studies reviewed above, I would like to propose an amalgamation of translation strategies that would serve as a point of departure for identifying patterns of translation in the analysis of the data. It is possible that these strategies would be reviewed and further 64

refined in view of the findings from the metaphor analysis. The following translation approaches represent variations in translation advancing from similar mapping conditions and moving to different mapping conditions: 1. Same conceptual metaphor and equivalent linguistic expression. For example, the metaphor

RELATIONSHIPS ARE BUILDINGS

is common to English and

Polish with equivalent expressions, cement and cementować. 2. Same conceptual metaphor but different linguistic expression. For example, English and German share the metaphor BEING PROTECTED IS BEING UNDER A COVER,

but English uses umbrella and German uses Dach (roof).

The following special cases are also included: a. Target language linguistic expressions make entailments explicit. For example, the expression feste Wohnung is replaced by the expressions right of residence, family, live together, thereby making entailments explicit about the prototypical house implied. b. Target language linguistic expressions make the metaphor more elaborate. For example, the German expression Bis dahin ist es noch ein weiter Weg (literally: It is still a long way towards there) is elaborated in English with a verb as There is still a long way to go to achieve this. c. Target language linguistic expressions reflect a different aspect of the metaphor. For example, German highlights the aspect of voice, mit einer Stimme, while English highlights the aspect of taking action act as one, in the common conceptual metaphor is EUROPE IS A PERSON. 3. Different conceptual metaphor preferred, although similar conceptualisation exists between source and target languages. For example, the metaphor IRRATIONAL IS UP

(to sweep off one’s feet) translated into Polish by the

metaphor LOVE IS MAGIC (zauroczyć, charm, cast a spell). 4. Different conceptual metaphor used but cognitive equivalence is achieved. For example, German uses the metaphor FOREFRONT,

IMPORTANCE IS BEING IN THE

while English uses the metaphor

IMPORTANCE IS UP

for

conceptualising the same target domain of importance (Schäffner 2004:1266). The difference between case (3) and (4) is that case (4) does not refer to preferential conceptualisation, but to different conceptualisations occurring from cultural specificity. 65

5. Literal rendition producing similarity-creating metaphors. For example, the English expression lightning rod uses the source domain of storms as enemies to humans to conceptualise inflation as an enemy. The expression is rendered as parrarayos in Spanish, thereby creating a similarity between storms and inflation as hostile entities to humans (Fuertes-Olivera and Pizarro-Sánchez 2002:61-62). 6. Literal rendition because of culture-bound source language metaphors. For example, the Arabic expression from the Qur’an, walaa yaghtab ba'Dukum ba'Daa. 'ayuHibbu ʔan ya ʔkula laHma ʔakhiihi maytan (Surat Al Hujuraat, verse 12 is translated as Nor speak ill of each other behind their backs. Would any of you like to eat the flesh of his dead brother?). As Al-Zoubi et al. (2007) explain, ‘the back-biting is likened to eating the flesh of a dead brother in terms of abomination’ (2007:237). However, the English translation does not achieve an equivalent metaphor to the Arabic expression, because it seems to fail to communicate the denotation of this Arabic metaphor (ibid.:238). 7. Conceptual metaphor is omitted in the TT.

2.5

Conclusion

The aim of the present chapter was to establish a theoretical framework for the analysis of conceptual metaphor in popular technology magazines and the translation of technology metaphors into Greek.

In Section 2.1 the conceptual metaphor theory was examined, and focus was placed on defining constitutive elements of metaphor and distinguishing categories of metaphor. Criteria were set forth for distinguishing conventional and novel metaphors, and common and original metaphorical expressions, in the study. The issues of universality and variation were discussed in reference to translation and potential grounds for similarities and differences between English and Greek metaphors were hypothesised. In addition, further linguistic phenomena related to metaphor were described and defined.

66

Section 2.2 explored the functions that metaphor can serve in discourse and in particular, metaphor’s role in contributing to the formation of ideologies and social representations as sets of beliefs and assumptions common to members of a social group. The main approaches to researching metaphor were presented with a view to setting forth the approach undertaken in the present study and the goals set to achieve.

Section 2.3 described metaphor’s pedagogical, design-oriented and scientific role in the domain of technology, with the aim of establishing metaphor’s constitutive function in this area. The multifaceted relationship between metaphor and technology was further investigated in studies on the metaphorical conceptualisation of the Internet and the WWW, which provided a basis for understanding how metaphor is used in forming meanings of technology from the ways people use the language to talk about technology.

Section 2.4 reviewed traditional views of translating metaphor and translatability in translation studies, and evaluated recent approaches of metaphor translation from a cognitive perspective. Translatability was re-examined in light of cognitive equivalence between metaphors, and a set of translation strategies were outlined to be made operational in the analysis of the translation procedures followed in the Greek data.

In Chapter 3 the research methodology for the analysis of the English metaphors and their translations in Greek will be presented, followed by data analysis in Chapters 4 and 5.

67

Chapter 3 Methodology In researching metaphor in English popular technology discourse and translations into Greek, the researcher is faced with a number of methodological issues. These issues relate to the discourse approach followed in metaphor research, and methods of analysing the English and the Greek data.

Metaphor research in naturally occurring language generally involves two types of discourse approach, as described in Section 2.2.2 (Chapter 2) (Deignan 2005:124125). The first type examines a spoken or written discourse of a particular text-type and looks at how metaphors create ideologies by focusing mainly on the dominant metaphors and their entailments. This type of research shows how dominant metaphors can be persuasive when they are emotionally appealing to people and how they can structure public perceptions and represent ideological positions through the relations between entities and their entailments. The research methodology usually followed involves manually searching for linguistic expressions in the texts and grouping them semantically under metaphor categories. Researchers examine the metaphorical entailments and the frequency of metaphorical expressions to determine a metaphor’s dominant presence in the texts and its role in constructing specific ideologies. The second type examines spoken discourse and observes the use of metaphor in communicating ideas and experiences. This type looks at the ways metaphor is employed by the speakers, and developed and interpreted by the hearers during conversation. The methodology followed is mostly qualitative. Researchers look at conversations and the context of communication to determine the role of metaphor within the discourse. They evaluate whether metaphor contributes to successful communication based on the hearers’ interpretations, and provide insights into the construction and understanding of metaphors.

The approach followed in the present study constitutes an amalgamation as it adopts elements from both types of approach. Like the first approach, the study looks at the particular text-type of popular technology discourse with a view to analysing the metaphors used and their entailments, and revealing potential public perceptions of technology. Like the second approach, it examines how metaphors construct 68

particular aspects of technology and how the metaphors are interpreted and developed through translation into the Greek texts. The author of the source text and the translator of the target text are regarded as interactants in communication, where the ST author communicates ideas via metaphors in English and the TT translator interprets and transfers his interpretations into Greek.

The research methodology followed in this study also borrows and implements elements from both approaches. In particular, the analysis of the English metaphors relies on the first approach. This involves identifying metaphorical expressions in the texts by hand, grouping them semantically under broad conceptual domains, and reflecting on the metaphors’ entailments and the messages they convey. The analysis of the translated metaphors turns to the second approach. This involves examining whether metaphors are retained, developed, explicated, paraphrased or omitted in the TT, making judgements about whether they were interpreted successfully, and determining whether metaphors serve the same functions in the TT.

The selection and description of the data will be discussed in Section 3.1. The methods for data analysis are presented in Section 3.2 divided into two parts. The first part deals with the methodology followed for the analysis of the English data, involving methods of identification, description and categorisation of metaphors. The second part discusses the methodology followed for the analysis of the Greek data, including matching linguistic expressions and identifying translation strategies. Conclusions are presented in Section 3.3.

3.1

Selection and Description of Data

The selection of data in the study was made on the basis of a range of criteria: type of publication published in English-speaking countries and in translation in Greece; date of publication; manageability of data; and particular technology themes.

The type of publication involved deciding on the source(s) of popular technology discourse for a less professional public with general knowledge of technology. Following research into the Greek market of publications and translations, and after consulting technology magazine editors – Stefanos Karagos from PC Magazine,

69

Petros Papathanasiou from PC World, and Ioannis Faldamis, publisher of Klidarithmos Publications in Greece – it became clear which kind of material would be useful to collect for the present study. It was suggested that the majority of technology aficionados, being educated though not expert users of technology, choose to be informed of technology issues and advancements from frequently updated media, namely the Internet and technology magazines, the latter being published on a monthly basis. Technology magazines claim that they contain up-todate information on computer technology, and from their popularity it is clear that they are regarded as a reliable, widespread, specialised medium of producing, reproducing and diffusing information to a mass audience. This was pointed out by S. Karagos based on his personal eighteen years of experience in the media, technology and publications businesses and on the circulation figures of PC Magazine. The data selected came from four technology magazines published in the UK and the USA, and the corresponding publications in Greece. The magazines are PC Magazine (PCM) and PC World (PCW) published in the USA, and Computer Active (CA) and T3 published in the UK. They are magazines with wide circulation in English- and Greek-speaking markets, and as such play an important role in the diffusion of technology material. The magazines share the theme of technology design in form and functionality, but they have also established a distinct ‘identity’ in presenting information and looking at technology from different perspectives. These magazines constitute a highly representative sample of popular technology discourse in Greek, and comprise four of the eight popular technology magazines circulating in Greece. The study does not include data from the other four popular technology magazines, because they are either originally written in Greek and do not publish any translated articles, or because they have limited themes, such as the Playstation and digital satellite television. It should be made clear that a large proportion of the selected technology magazines (60%-80%) also contain articles originally written in Greek, but this data is not used in the study.

70

PC Magazine and PC World are originally published in the United States. Both claim to offer advice on various aspects of personal computing, the Internet and technology products and services, and provide information about desktop computers, laptops, handheld PCs, networking and computer accessories. PC Magazine has been present in the Greek market since 1999 and PC World since 2005. In Greece, their sales and popularity reached an average of 25,000 and 22,000 readers per month respectively in the first semester of 2006 (Adbusiness 2006:25). Computer Active and T3 are originally published in the United Kingdom. Computer Active claims to be ‘the only computer-related magazine in Greece written in less technical language’, thus targeting a broader audience who want to learn more basic information regarding computers. T3 claims to be a lifestyle innovative technology magazine, providing highly reliable information regarding the latest gadgets, from cameras to mobile phones, from televisions to MP3 players. In Greece they have both been in circulation since 2005, and their sales reached an average of 21,000 and 20,000 readers respectively per month in the first semester of 2006 (Adbusiness 2006:25). After selecting the type of publication, a subsequent criterion was the date of publication. The study focused on current conceptualisation of technology, which made clear that there was a need to conduct synchronic research into metaphors of technology. Given that technology is changing exponentially nowadays and upgrades are doubling every year (Kurzweil 2001), it followed that a synchronic study would involve data published within a short period following the commencement of the study. Hence, it was decided to look at the period from January 2006 to December 2007. The English data includes issues dated from November 2005 to November 2007, while the translations date from January 2006 to December 2007. It should be noted that the data were selected based on the publication dates of the Greek magazines, which included translations of back issues of 2005. The magazine issues provided a total of 274 translated texts, including cover stories, feature articles, reviews, and laboratory tests, of various lengths ranging from approximately 500 to 10,000 words. Specifically, PC Magazine contained 23 translated texts, PC World seventeen, ComputerActive 41 and T3 contained 183 translated texts.

71

The next step was the selection of articles, which involved taking into consideration equal quantities of data from all four magazines and manageability of data quantities, particular technology themes and texts, as well as the fact that PC World contained only seventeen translated articles, which posed a limitation on the overall selection. The aim was to provide a consistent dataset in terms of assembling a number of texts pertaining to particular technology themes. A closer look at the translated data pointed towards the idea that the translated texts were rather consistent with regard to their themes, and that similar and related topics were recurring within the magazines. It seemed that the Greek editions were selecting from the English editions those articles that were particularly topical, such as the issue of computer security and the advent of Windows Vista OS, and were bringing them via translation to the Greek readership. This consistency in themes and similarities between magazines facilitated the categorisation of the articles under three broad themes, namely the Internet, personal computing, and popular technology devices. Following this, individual texts were to be selected equally from each magazine and under each theme. The texts were selected in terms of their centrality to each of the three themes. This resulted in a selection of 48 articles in total, twelve from each magazine, distributed in the following manner: each thematic category contains four articles from each magazine, thereby having three sets of data, namely sixteen articles for the category of Internet, sixteen articles for the category of personal computing, and sixteen articles for the category of popular technology devices. The magazine articles selected for the study from PCW and CA were mainly cover stories and feature articles, while articles from PCM and T3 also involved reviews and lab tests. The full list of English and Greek articles used in the study is presented in the bibliography. The data from all four magazines under investigation produced a corpus of 262,338 words. A total of 6,673 English expressions and a total of 3,657 translated Greek expressions were identified and analysed.

Prior to carrying out the analysis of the Greek data, personal communication with the editor in chief of the Greek PC World magazine, Petros Papathanasiou, provided an initial outline of the translation approach followed by the magazine. The translation of English technology texts follows a target-oriented approach that considers the target linguistic community, the target language, the target culture, the target market reality, and the target communications infrastructure. In this manner, the translator 72

makes a series of choices regarding the translation of English texts. In particular, in terms of terminology, the technical terms that are commonly used in everyday language, such as hardware, software, format, interface, Internet, and download, are preserved in the English language because it is believed that the text is perceived as more direct by the readers in this way. Other terms include the menus of programs, such as Windows OS and Microsoft Office, which are also available as localised versions in Greek. For these terms, the Greek equivalent is used in the translation including the English term in brackets. Another point is that the specific magazine chooses to preserve the stylistics of the ST author by domesticating puns, wordplay and metaphors where this is possible. In addition, the translator can add information in order to explicate non familiar issues to the target readers, and omit and modify segments of the text so that the article would seem as if it was written exclusively for the Greek readership. Further personal communication with the other editors in chief, Stefanos Karagos from PC Magazine, Dimitris Ioannides from Computer Active and Ioannis Goranitis from T3, verified that a similar translation approach is in place in these magazines.

The above description of the translation approach followed by the Greek technology magazines was taken into consideration in that it pointed to the initial assumption that the English and the translated data would reveal diversity in conceptualising technology to a large extent. However, it should be made clear that no further communication was pursued with the translators to determine how they actually approached the translations, as this was not part of the chosen methodology.

3.2

Procedures for Data Analysis

The procedures followed for the data analysis are distinguished into two parts. The first part deals with the analysis of the English data, which involves methods for identifying metaphorical expressions and grouping them under conceptual domains. The second part discusses the steps followed for the analysis of the Greek data, from locating the translated linguistic expressions to identifying translation strategies.

73

3.2.1

Analysis of English Data

The analysis of the English data follows three stages of metaphor analysis (CharterisBlack 2004:34): the first stage involves identification of the metaphors in discourse, by collecting linguistic expressions related to the subject matter; the second stage involves interpretation, which refers to placing the expressions under broad conceptual domains that will constitute the source domains of the metaphors. The third stage involves explanation; that is, reflecting on what these metaphors mean to the target domain of technology, what their role is, the type of evaluations they convey, as well as inferring from these metaphors and expressions ways of understanding and thinking about the particular technology in the English language.

3.2.1.1 Methods for Metaphor Identification The first stage involved a manual search for metaphorical expressions through the texts, for which the Metaphor Identification Procedure (MIP) was employed (Pragglejaz Group 2007). This procedure involves a set of steps to be taken. In sum, initially the text is read and lexical units are identified. Then, each lexical unit is examined to see if it has a more basic contemporary meaning in other contexts. If the contextual meaning contrasts with the basic meaning but is understood in relation to it, the lexical unit is identified as metaphorical. The MIP is as follows (Pragglejaz Group 2007:3): 1. Read the entire text–discourse to establish a general understanding of the meaning. 2. Determine the lexical units in the text–discourse. 3. For each lexical unit in the text, a. establish its meaning in context, that is, how it applies to an entity, relation, or attribute in the situation evoked by the text (contextual meaning). Take into account what comes before and after the lexical unit. b. determine if it has a more basic contemporary meaning in other contexts than the one in the given context. For our purposes, basic meanings tend to be: i. More concrete [what they evoke is easier to imagine, see, hear, feel, smell, and taste]; ii. Related to bodily action; 74

iii. More precise (as opposed to vague); iv. Historically older; Basic meanings are not necessarily the most frequent meanings of the lexical unit. c. If the lexical unit has a more basic current–contemporary meaning in other contexts than the given context, decide whether the contextual meaning contrasts with the basic meaning but can be understood in comparison with it. 4. If yes, mark the lexical unit as metaphorical.

In addition to the MIP, signalling was also used for locating metaphorical expressions. In some cases expressions are indicated as being metaphorical by particular linguistic devices called ‘signals’ or ‘tuning devices’ and include expressions such as ‘metaphorically speaking’, ‘literally’, ‘as it were’, ‘so to speak’, ‘sort of’, ‘imagine’, and so forth (Semino 2008:27). Another type of signalling is the use of quotation marks in conjunction or otherwise with the aforementioned signals as a way of separating the literal and metaphorical meaning of the expression or even drawing attention to the metaphorical interpretation of the expression. In this manner, signalling seems to make a metaphorical expression stand out in the text and thus, easier to pinpoint. It is also helpful in guiding the interpretation of metaphorical expressions and reconciling the shock effect of their occurrence in unexpected contexts.

3.2.1.2 Methods for Metaphor Interpretation In the second stage, the collected metaphorical expressions were reviewed with the intention of classifying them under conceptual domains. The aim was to provide coherent categories of the metaphors and submetaphors, so that their groupings would feel natural and not imposed by the researcher (Dodd-Drakopoulou 2002:524). This process resulted in a variety of source domains, some of which seemed to be specific cases of more generic conceptual domains, and so they were grouped along with other similar specific cases under more generic-level domains. For example, the specific-level source domains of activity, age, emotions, gender, human body, kinship, personality, physical appearance and role/occupation were all

75

grouped under the generic-level source domain of person. In terms of the metaphors’ target domain, the broad domain of technology was used, encapsulating the variety of technology applications and products, with the exception of the VIRTUAL SPACE IS PHYSICAL SPACE

metaphor, which conceptualises the aspect of space on the Internet,

in computer systems, and so forth.

Metaphor interpretation also involved describing metaphors and metaphorical expressions on the basis of their degree of conventionality. A set of criteria for distinguishing between conventional and novel metaphors and original and common metaphorical expressions was put forward, as described in Section 2.1 (Chapter 2). Four types of conventional metaphor and common expression were considered to be used in the study: 1. Metaphors and metaphorical expressions that occur from established technology terminology, including similarity-creating metaphors as part of the terminology. 2. Metaphors and their respective expressions that have been identified in previous research as typical conceptualisations of technology. 3. Metaphors with source domains that are regarded as common in metaphorical conceptualisations,

and

that

involve

commonly

used

metaphorical

expressions in technical and/or everyday language. 4. Metaphors with source domains that may be regarded as novel but that involve commonly used metaphorical expressions in technical and/or everyday language. And four types of novel metaphor and original expression were considered: 1. Completely novel metaphors, based on similarity-creating metaphors that involve original source domains and a. original metaphorical expressions, or b. common expressions expressing new meanings in the context of technology. 2. Metaphorical

expressions

that

extend

from

established

technology

terminology.

76

3. Metaphorical expressions as extensions of typical conceptualisations of technology. 4. Metaphorical expressions as extensions of common source domains, including ‘unused’ and secondary parts of conventional metaphors. In distinguishing between common and original metaphorical expressions, a reliable source of information on contemporary language use was also needed. For this reason, the British National Corpus (BNC) and the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA) were used to determine the existence and frequency of occurrence of English expressions in the corpora. The BNC is a corpus of written and spoken language of 100 million words that are collected from a variety of sources, and represents a wide range of current spoken and written British English (British National Corpus 2007). The COCA is a corpus of contemporary American English containing more than 385 million words of text including 20 million words each year from 1990-2008, and is equally divided among spoken word, fiction texts, popular magazines, newspapers, and academic texts (Davies 2008). For determining the frequency of occurrence of the translated Greek expressions, the Hellenic National Corpus (HNC) was consulted, which contains more than 47 million words of written text and is constantly being updated (ILSP 2009). The English and Greek corpora were not used systematically for cross-checking every single metaphorical expression found in the data, given that numerous metaphorical expressions reveal their degree of conventionality by their frequency of occurrence within the data, but the corpora were consulted for ascertaining whether a metaphorical expression that is infrequent in the data may nevertheless be common in the English and Greek languages.

In addition, linguistic phenomena, such as metonymy, simile, idiom, paragon and wordplay (Section 2.1.2, Chapter 2) were also located in the data as complementary features to metaphors. The respective expressions were then grouped under the metaphor and submetaphor categories, characterised as original or common, and were calculated in the frequencies of a metaphor’s appearance.

77

3.2.1.3 Methods for Metaphor Explanation The third stage involved revealing entailments and inferring conclusions about ways of thinking, values, attitudes and feelings in the English-speaking cultures (CharterisBlack 2004:9), with the aim of highlighting social and cultural facets of technology. For this, the study turned to the main meaning focus of the source domains (Kövecses 2002:110), which helped to reveal the role of the source domain in a particular conceptual metaphor. A number of source domains are designated to play specific roles that are conventionally fixed and agreed-on within a linguistic community, such as the source domain of plant which is commonly used to conceptualise the aspect of growth (Kövecses 2002:17,110). Hence, by identifying the main meaning focus, it was possible to infer conventional patterns of thinking specific to the English-speaking cultures. In addition to the main meaning focus, metaphor explanation was supported by previous research where particular source domains have been analysed. Findings, such as the use of the domain of war in sports reporting for conceptualising competitive behaviour (Charteris-Black 2004:121-132), were particularly valuable because they provide a basis for ascertaining the role of a particular source domain and confirming its degree of conventionality within the English linguistic community.

This third stage also involved reflecting on the functions of the metaphors within the discourse. The variety of functions discussed in Section 2.2 (Chapter 2) were taken into account, with particular reference to the metaphor’s role in reflecting ideologies and revealing public perceptions of the subject matter. Further functions were investigated with regard to the metaphors’ role in the structure of the domain of technology per se and in the construction of interpersonal relationships between author and reader.

A quantitative assessment of the frequency of metaphorical expressions was also carried out. Dominant and less dominant metaphors were evaluated in terms of their total metaphorical expressions identified in the texts. The metaphor categories were compared against each other in order to draw conclusions about their frequency and preference of use, and their distribution within the articles was considered for making

78

judgements about the role in contributing to the coherent structuring of the technology discourse.

3.2.2

Analysis of Greek Data

The analysis of the Greek data followed the analysis of the English metaphors and involved a sequence of steps. After matching the translated Greek texts to the original English texts, each pair of ST and TT was dealt with individually. Having located the English metaphors in the ST, I searched for the corresponding metaphorical expressions in the TT. This was sometimes problematic because the structure of the TT was sometimes altered, thereby displacing the corresponding Greek expressions, or the expressions were often adapted, which was misleading in locating them. Close readings of both ST and TT was necessary so as not to overlook any translated expressions.

The second step was to examine whether metaphors and their expressions were retained, developed, explicated, paraphrased or omitted in the TT. For this purpose, the translated metaphors were examined against the typology of translation procedures that was compiled in Section 2.4 (Chapter 2). The translation procedures are the following: 1. Same conceptual metaphor and equivalent linguistic expression. 2. Same conceptual metaphor but different linguistic expression, including the special cases of: a. Equivalence of linguistic expressions at the macro-level. b. Target language linguistic expressions make entailments explicit. c. Target language linguistic expressions make the metaphor more elaborate. d. Target language linguistic expressions reflect different aspects of the metaphor. 3. Different conceptual metaphor preferred, although similar conceptualisation exists between source and target languages. 4. Different conceptual metaphor used but cognitive equivalence is achieved. 5. Literal rendition producing similarity-creating metaphors.

79

6. Literal rendition because of culture-bound source language metaphors. 7. Conceptual metaphor is omitted in the TT. This typology served as a point of departure for identifying patterns of translation. In view of the findings from the Greek analysis, the typology was further reviewed and refined as a contribution of the research.

A third step was to reflect on the similarities and differences identified between the two languages at the level of categories of metaphors and metaphorical expressions, and on the reasons that may account for these similarities and differences. Given that technology is not considered as a culture-bound domain, possibly entailing common experiences between English and Greek, it was assumed that the English and Greek texts would share similar conceptualisations of technology at a more generic level, while differences may arise at specific-level expressions due to cultural specificity. It was also supposed that similarities reflecting a common conceptual ground would be evident more in common expressions, while similarities in original expressions were thought to occur due to direct influence from English, by similarity-creating metaphors for instance. Differences reflecting cultural specificity were assumed to be found in expressions involving culture-bound linguistic phenomena, such as idioms, puns, metonymies and so forth. Lastly, the translated metaphors were examined from the viewpoint of whether the metaphors served the same functions in the TT.

A quantitative assessment of the translation strategies’ degree of application was carried out aiming to show the English and Greek texts’ degree of convergence or divergence in conceptualising technology. In addition, a quantitative comparison between the frequencies of English and Greek expressions was implemented to examine similarities and differences regarding each metaphor’s frequency in the source and target texts.

3.3

Conclusion

This chapter set out to describe the discourse approach adopted in the present study, and discuss the procedures followed for analysing conceptual metaphor in English popular technology discourse and in translated Greek texts. The methodology of the

80

present study constitutes an amalgamation of two discourse approaches to metaphor research, in order to address the exigencies of each linguistic dataset and achieve the aims and objectives of this project. The methodology relies on the first approach for exploring how metaphors can structure public perceptions of technology, and on the second approach for examining how the metaphors are interpreted and developed through their translation into another language and culture, as if the author of the source text and the translator of the target text are speakers in interaction.

Apart from providing operational approaches, the methodology ultimately enables the researcher to answer the research questions and reach credible conclusions. The first set of research questions, pertaining to how technology is metaphorically conceptualised and what these conceptualisations reveal about thinking and talking about technology in the English language, are addressed by the analysis of the English data. In particular, the stage of metaphor interpretation helps to show the various ways that technology is metaphorically structured in the English texts with the classification of source domains. The subsequent stage of metaphor explanation provides evidence to thinking and reveals public perceptions of technology by revealing entailments, and drawing conclusions about the metaphors’ functions in popular technology discourse.

On the other hand, the analysis of the Greek data is linked to the second research question which investigates the presence of conceptual metaphor in the Greek translations,

and

enquires

about

similarities

and

differences

between

conceptualisations in the two languages. The occurrence of conceptual metaphor in the TT is resolved by searching for corresponding metaphorical expressions. Converging or diverging views of technology may be traced in the proposed typology of translation procedures; procedures 1 and 2, involving the same metaphor used in the TT, reveal similarities between languages and possibly a common experiential basis. Procedures 3 and 4 meanwhile, involving different metaphors but conceptually corresponding expressions, reveal differences between languages and are potentially culture-specific metaphors. Procedures 5 and 6, involving literal renditions, also point to different views of technology, as well as to culture-specific metaphors for which a TT equivalent does not seem to exist.

81

Chapter 4 Analysis of Conceptual Metaphor in the English Texts

This section presents the analysis of the conceptual metaphors encountered in the English texts. This is the stage of metaphor interpretation described in Section 3.2.1 (Chapter 3) and presents the types of source domain identified based on the collection of metaphorical expressions. In addition, metaphors and their expressions are distinguished between conventional and novel metaphors, and original and common expressions, based on the criteria put forward in Section 2.1 (Chapter 2).

The analysis is structured to include description of the source domains of the metaphors accompanied by examples of common and/or original metaphorical expressions. The selection of the examples was made on the basis of providing typical metaphorical expressions, from which it is possible to draw conclusions regarding the examples themselves and the categories they represent. Therefore, I provide a selection of: •

examples that include the most commonly used metaphorical expressions, in order to illustrate the conventionality of the expression and/or the respective metaphor, and



examples of original expressions as extensions of conventional ones, in order to show the divergence between conventional and novel and the dependence of one on the other for their interpretation. Examples of such expressions may also involve: o examples of less used expressions in the data that may show originality and lead to new ways of viewing technology per se or the relations between technology and the respective source domain, and o examples that include cultural references, puns and wordplays, idioms and similes that may involve creative use of language and give rise to original metaphorical expressions.

The focus of the analysis is both on conceptual metaphors and on their expressions, with a view to revealing entailments and knowledge structures specific to the English-speaking cultures and with the aim of highlighting social and cultural facets

82

of technology. For each metaphor category a synopsis of the structure of each metaphor is provided, comprising the metaphorical entailments involved, and evaluations regarding the significance of the respective conceptual metaphor in relation to the target domain of technology. The complete set of metaphorical expressions identified in the dataset is listed in order of frequency in Appendix 1.

Before moving on to the analysis, Table 1 below provides a full list of the source domains that are involved in the metaphorical structure of technology in this dataset. The categories distinguish between animate and inanimate entities, and between main source domains and secondary source domains. The metaphors are analysed in the order shown in Table 1.

ANIMATE MAIN SECONDARY SOURCE DOMAINS SOURCE DOMAINS 1. Person 1.1 Human Activity 1.2 Human Lifecycle 1.3 Emotions 1.4 Gender 1.5 Human body 1.6 Kinship 1.7 Personality 1.8 Physical appearance 1.9 Roles/occupations 2.Living organism 2.1 Animal 2.2 Plant 2.3 Health/illness 2.4 Life/death 2.5 Function

INANIMATE MAIN SECONDARY SOURCE DOMAINS SOURCE DOMAINS 3. Machine 3.1 Vehicle 3.1.1 Automobile 3.1.2 Bus 3.1.3 Ship 4. Competition 4.1 Race 4.2 Battle 4.3 Boxing match 5. Security 5.1 Fortress 5.2 Combat 5.2 Defence 5.3 Attack 5.4 Espionage 5.5 Invasion 6. Lifestyle 6.1 Ideal 6.2 Fashion 6.2.1 Clothing 7. Revolution 8. Progress 9. Object of desire 10. Toy 11.Food / cooking 12. Supernatural 13. Experience 14. Physical space 14.1 Physical process 14.2 Physical movement 14.3. Image-schemas 14.3.1 Surface 14.3.2 Container 14.4 Highway Table 1 Categories of conceptual metaphors in the English texts

83

4.1 The

TECHNOLOGY IS A PERSON PERSON

metaphor is the second most dominant cross-domain mapping, as it is

encountered in all four magazines and in all 48 articles under investigation. This metaphor is further categorised into the submetaphors of

HUMAN ACTIVITY, HUMAN

LIFECYCLE, EMOTIONS, GENDER, HUMAN BODY, KINSHIP, PERSONALITY, PHYSICAL APPEARANCE,

and

ROLES/OCCUPATIONS,

and contains a total of 2100 metaphorical

expressions, which are listed in detail in Table 2.

Metaphor Person

Submetaphors Activity Lifecycle Emotions Gender Human body Kinship Personality Physical appearance Roles/occupations

TOTAL

The

PERSON

Metaphorical expressions 1186 48 2 15 56 65 281 142 305 2100 Table 2 The PERSON metaphor

% 55% 2% 0% 1% 3% 3% 13% 7% 14% 100%

metaphor involves an anthropomorphic view of technology. Here,

technology is personified in various ways that are reflected in the submappings of this metaphor. As a human being is made up of various features, thus such features are mapped onto technology, each demonstrating a distinctive aspect of a person. To be more specific, technology involves activity, age, emotions gender, human body features, family relations, character and behaviour, physical appearance, and it assumes roles and occupations.

4.1.1

TECHNOLOGY ACTIVITY IS HUMAN ACTIVITY

Personification is based on two generic-level metaphors: THINGS ARE PEOPLE (Lakoff

EVENTS ARE ACTIONS

and

1993:232, Kövecses and Koller 2006:129), where events

are conceptualised as actions performed by a particular agent who is personified. Technology is a nonhuman entity that carries out a variety of events and is conceptualised as a human being that performs those actions. The functioning of a

84

technology is expressed by verbs denoting actions, and technology is personified as the agent who performs the actions described by the verbs.

This category can be considered as a conventional metaphor involving a commonly used source domain (Kövecses 2002:49), and which includes both common and original metaphorical expressions. Firstly, there are common metaphorical expressions that have developed from software design and have become part of the technical lexicon of computing, such as download, upload, save, delete, detect, synchronize, which conceptualise technology as the human agent performing these actions.

Secondly, there are original metaphorical expressions that arise from an anthropomorphic representation of technology developed by the authors of the articles, such as be born, boast, know, chew up, play nicely together, kick and scream. These can be said to extend from established technology terminology, such as be born extending from be developed; and from common expressions, such as the following: 4.1 4.2

4.3 4.4

Yes, VHS is definitely heading for the big scrapheap in the sky and we can’t say we’re sorry to see it go. [CA, VHS RIP] The more programs you have sinking their hooks into Windows, the greater the chance that they’ll conflict or that their combined scrutiny will put a drag on system performance. [PCM, Security super guide] When it comes to computers, sometimes things go south...and sometimes they go to Antarctica. [PCW, How to Survive the Worst PC Disasters] We must be cursed, because nowt initially happened when we did this, but having switched it off and on again, emails started to turn up like fashionably late guests at a party, five minutes after they’d plopped into our Gmail inbox. [T3, Email intuition]

What is of most interest here is the aspects of a person that are picked out and mapped onto technology as the agent, given that these aspects contribute to the ways we view the person (Lakoff and Johnson 1980/2003:33-34), and consequently technology. The examples above illustrate that personifications of technology converge on the fact that technology is the active agent, but that they differ in relation to the human aspects that are highlighted.

The metaphorical expression heading for the big scrapheap in the sky in example 4.1 seems to be an extension of the specific-level metaphor DEATH IS DEPARTURE, which is also supported by the following expression see it go. The specific-level metaphor

85

DEATH IS DEPARTURE

is based on the generic-level metaphor

EVENTS ARE ACTIONS;

death is an event and departure is an action (Lakoff 1993:232, Kövecses and Koller 2006:129).This expression is employed to highlight technology becoming obsolete as death, with the entailment that outdated technology is a dying person, thus stressing the aspect of a person’s human nature. The expression scrapheap seems to make us realise that technology is not actually personified, and that it is an ensemble of metal and plastic. But the expression in the sky is a rather clear reference to heaven where humans presumably go after they die.

Example 4.2 conceptualises programs running in Windows as ferocious beings that take hold of defenceless victims in order to control them. This metaphorical expression (sinking their hooks) reveals an aggressive nature of programs as persons, which may make us feel that we should be aware of them and protect our operating system against their nasty intentions. This expression is also linked to the SPACE

PHYSICAL

metaphor (Section 5.14) since Windows is presented as something tangible

that can be grasped.

In example 4.3, the expressions go south and go to Antarctica describe the breakdown of a technology. The idiom to go south is used both metaphorically and literally, and helps to conceptualise technology as a person who disappears in an abrupt manner and who is heading towards a southern direction. Although the expression going south does not necessarily entail a southern direction, the expression go to Antarctica confirms that it does involve reference to the south. From this we can infer that the metaphorical expression go to Antarctica is an original extension of the idiom go south, suggesting that Antarctica is as far south as one can go, and meaning that the person going to Antarctica has disappeared for good. Transferring such knowledge to technology, it can be assumed that sometimes a technology can fail, but there may be a possibility of it being repaired, while other times a technology fails completely without any chance of being repaired.

Example 4.4 involves a simile. Emails not arriving on time into the inbox are conceptualised as people and compared to guests arriving late at a party. The use of the adverb fashionably prompts us to infer that this practice is associated with the current fashion and that it is done on purpose in order to provoke a particular 86

impression. This simile involves an ironic point of view, in that a user expects technology to be fast and reliable in carrying out the work it is programmed for, and to be in the service of the user; whereas this metaphorical expression (turn up like fashionably late guests at a party) personifies technology as having a mind of its own and behaving as it pleases. This expression can also be linked to the

LIFESTYLE

metaphor (Section 5.6), given that it makes reference to particular behaviour in accordance with the current style.

Original expressions as extensions of common expressions personify technology activity; for example the original expression chew up (cycles) is used to conceptualise the consuming of cycles in order to make the computer respond faster, play nicely together is used to conceptualise the collaboration of programs, computers, etc., and complain and kick and scream are used to conceptualise any objection expressed by technology, via dialogue boxes. Such conceptualisations seem to provide particular ways of thinking about technology, and result in people being able to relate to that technology because they may share similar actions in their everyday activities. Many expressions also provoke a humorous effect and contain a hint of irony, thus prompting value judgements about a technology’s potential, features and functionality.

Furthermore, another aspect that is highlighted here is technology being subordinate to human manipulation. There are various metaphorical expressions that imply that users of technology are in control of technology and give orders to it. This aspect has occurred principally from the use of commands in early user interfaces, and from the use of the imperative form in those commands, which implies giving orders to someone inferior (Lawler 1999:416-417). Still today, user interfaces use the imperative when the computer is requested to perform an action. As observed in the data, subordination occurred from the writers’ attitude towards, and manner of speaking regarding, the computer system, software applications, and other devices. For example: 4.5 4.6

The latest versions of Outlook and Outlook Express address this by not downloading images unless you tell the program to do so. [PCM, Maximum security] Annoyingly, the software asked us what to do during installation of four popular browser toolbars […] [PCW, Die, Spyware, Die]

87

Technology is conceptualised as a person employed to perform various services, as in example 4.5. Apart from executing the various commands ordered by the human users, there is also the implication that technology as an animate entity takes part in the communication process between user and technology; that is, it asks questions for clarification and requests approval, or even makes decisions and comes to conclusions, as in example 4.6. Such conceptualisations transform technology as a person with a passive role of merely carrying out actions into a person with an active role of having opinions and expressing them. The full range of metaphorical expressions of the ACTIVITY submetaphor is shown in Table 4.1.1 (Appendix 1).

4.1.2 The

TECHNOLOGY LIFECYCLE IS HUMAN LIFECYCLE

LIFECYCLE

submetaphor conceptualises a technology’s condition and the stages

of its lifecycle. For example: 4.7 4.8 4.9

The

TCP/IP, the technology on which the entire Internet is based, is no spring chicken. [PCW, Your PC in 2008 and Beyond] However, Microsoft’s chat tool is long in the tooth, and most prefer programs such as MSN or Yahoo Messenger. [CA, Ease the Windows pain] Let the acne pink buttons on the original 1989 Game Boy take some of the rap. [T3, The PSP]

LIFECYCLE

submetaphor includes both common and original metaphorical

expressions. The most frequent expression found in the data is old which is a commonly used expression of age in everyday language, and is used to express the existence and use of a technology in time. This expression provides the basis for original conceptualisations of the

LIFECYCLE

submetaphor, as examples 4.7-4.9

illustrate. Examples 4.7 and 4.8 demonstrate that the TCP/IP technology and Microsoft’s chat tool are not regarded as innovative anymore through the use of the colloquial expressions no spring chicken and long in the tooth respectively. On the other hand, example 4.9 indicates that the technology is considered as pubescent and undeveloped, and also involves an ironic comment on the pink buttons of the handheld Game Boy console by relating them to pimples due to acne. This metaphorical expression also seems to imply the age of the users of the first Game Boy console which was very popular among teenagers. Further original expressions found are early days, mature, grown-up and growing pains. The full range of

88

metaphorical expressions of the

LIFECYCLE

submetaphor is shown in Table 4.1.2

(Appendix 1).

The LIFECYCLE submetaphor draws attention to the aspect of a person’s age that may be a factor in making inferences about a person’s qualities, such as physical and mental development. By the same token, the aspect of age, in relation to technology, may assist in making inferences regarding a technology’s qualities, such as being innovative or outdated (no spring chicken), the stages of its development (early days), and level of sophistication (mature). Based on such inferences, we are able to make value judgements about a technology’s reliability, complexity and capacities.

4.1.3 The

TECHNOLOGY IS A PERSON WITH EMOTIONS

EMOTION

submetaphor is the least dominant one under the

PERSON

metaphor,

listing only two metaphorical expressions, as follows: 4.10

4.11

It rummages through the PC’s innards and ascertains whether or not it will run Vista happily and which flavour of Microsoft’s new operating system is most suitable. [CA, 30 fresh downloads] To throttle the PC’s desire to communicate, one change to the Registry is enough […]. [CA, Ease the Windows pain]

The first expression, happily, seems to conceptualise the PC’s disposition, in relation to its ability to run Vista. By directing the expression at the PC, it seems that it is used to conceptualise the PC’s operative capacity, with the entailment that a PC’s smooth operation is a happy person. The second expression, desire, relates to the PC’s longing for communication with the user. It relates to the software installed in a PC which at times pops up unwanted messages, various alerts and dialogue boxes giving advice, instructions, advertisements and the like. Therefore, desire here is used in a rather ironic way to refer to the endless stream of such messages, thereby making the PC appear as if it strongly wants to communicate. These are regarded as original expressions, expressing new meanings in the context of technology. The two metaphorical expressions of the

EMOTION

submetaphor are shown in Table 4.1.3

(Appendix 1).

To find these two expressions of emotions seems peculiar in the context of technology. On the one hand, it would seem natural to find more expressions, given

89

that emotions are important aspects of a person. On the other hand, it would also seem odd to attach to an inanimate object any kind of sentiments. However, it seems that the

EMOTION

submetaphor is used in a rather ironic way for the readers’

amusement, rather than used with the intent to communicate particular value judgements about technology. Thus, with this in mind, it may be quite understandable why this submetaphor is not employed as much as others.

4.1.4 The

TECHNOLOGY IS A PERSON WITH GENDER

GENDER

submetaphor is yet another surprising conceptualisation of technology.

The data comprise a small but interesting number of metaphorical expressions that assign to technology male and female genders. For example: 4.12 4.13

If it’s harmless family fun you’re after, then the Wii is your man. [CA, Play time] Didn’t think I’d be that up for sharing my obsession with anyone, but what the hell, if it means I get to spend more time with her… My DS Lite, that is. [T3, Nintendo Game Boy]

As illustrated in the above examples, particular technologies – the Wii, a video game console and DS Lite, a handheld game console – have been conceptualised as human beings and have been assigned the genders of male and female respectively. In example 4.12, the Wii is conceptualised as a man and also as the suitable person needed for the particular task. It may be argued that gender is not the issue here, since the word man can refer to a male human and to a human regardless of gender, and the expression is your man may also refer to any male or female suitable for the task at hand. However, the total of metaphorical expressions found conceptualise various technologies (i.e. software, programs, Game Boy, navigation systems, mobile phones) as guys, boys, fella, chap. From this it follows that the expression man is probably intended to evoke a male approach, apart from being the right person for the job.

In example 4.13, DS Lite the successor of the Game Boy is conceptualised as female, although in other mentions of gender, it is conceptualised as male because of the brand name the Game Boy (boys, ‘boys). This is probably because DS Lite is an aesthetically sleeker design, being slimmer and more lightweight than its predecessors, thereby alluding more to a female than a male figure. In addition, it is conceptualised as female because the new game console is capable of inducing

90

emotional reactions (obsession) in the article’s author who happens to be male. This is also in line with the custom to refer mostly to automobiles as females, or even to assign them female names, when they represent an object of desire to the users; for example Christine, the malevolent automobile in the eponymous film of 1983. Furthermore, given that technology is the next big popular invention following the automobile, it is possible that such a ‘tradition’ is carried on, among men mostly. A second point is that the use of the female gender makes the technology more appealing to the male audience, and leaves room for sexual innuendo.

The GENDER submetaphor involves metaphorical expressions that mainly refer to the male gender and less to the female gender. The use of genders in the conceptualisation of technology brings up the issue of gender roles and stereotypes. Metaphorical expressions such as guys, boys, fella, and chap, are used to describe technologies as males who engage in competitive activity (the big engines were just as good as… the little guys) or performing tasks (as good a job as any of the big boys). On the other hand, metaphorical expressions that conceptualise technologies as females refer to them as being the fair sex and an object of desire (Like most men’s ideal woman, it’s got looks, brains and stamina). From this it is assumed that the GENDER

submetaphor conceptualises technology based on gender stereotypes since

they make a clear-cut distinction between what males and females represent.

The metaphorical expressions are considered as common expressions in everyday language; however, in the context of technology it is assumed that they provoke a shock effect when first encountered, which leads to classifying them as original expressions. The full range of metaphorical expressions of the

GENDER

submetaphor

is shown in Table 4.1.4 (Appendix 1).

4.1.5

PARTS OF TECHNOLOGY ARE HUMAN BODY PARTS

Conceptual metaphor is very much grounded in our bodily experience (Johnson 1987:29) given that our understanding of the human body, its parts and the functions they perform, and its relation to the outside world provide us with knowledge to comprehend other less concrete concepts. Here, parts of technological devices are conceptualised as human body parts. For example:

91

4.14 4.15

The

“The console is curved, allowing the hands to grasp the machine comfortably,” is the only reason he gives for its famously voluptuous flanks […]. [T3, The PSP] More vexingly, the optical drive’s been barfed out of its bulimic guts to further reduce ballast. [T3, Lard-free laptops]

HUMAN BODY

submetaphor includes metaphorical expressions that are

distinguished between common and original expressions. The common expressions found are used in technical language, such as the expressions head, meaning the read/write head, the device that reads and writes data on a magnetic disk or tape (Microsoft Press 1997). This expression is the most prominent feature of the human body used in this submetaphor, while other features encountered are the expressions skin(s), which is a custom look of an application or graphical user interface, and backbone, which is the part of a communications network that manages the major traffic between smaller networks (ibid.). The technical language also includes brand names that feature human body parts, such as the security software, Safe Eyes and Retina, and a software security company called eEye.

The

HUMAN BODY

submetaphor also involves original metaphorical expressions

extending from technology terminology that map parts of the human body to parts of technology based on location, function or physical similarity. Such expressions include brain used to conceptualise the processor, heart used to conceptualise the core of a PC, nipple used to conceptualise a small projection as a control button on a PC, neck used to conceptualise the bendable part of a device that joins its upper part with a USB connector, and innards, insides and guts used to conceptualise the inside area of a computer. In example 4.15, the expression guts is accompanied by the expressions barfed out and bulimic, which have a rather negative denotation of a type of illness. The article from which this example was taken is about very thin and light laptops, thus making it appropriate to refer to body fat or lack of it. Therefore, the expression bulimic guts suggests that not only is this technology not appealing, but also that it has gone overboard to satisfy the need for thin and portable laptops.

Another type of original expressions can be found involving common expressions that acquire new meanings in the context of technology, and that also map parts of the human body to parts of technology based on location, function or physical similarity. Such expressions include face used to conceptualise exterior appearance,

92

big-boned used to conceptualise the chunky casing of a mobile phone, bare-bones used to conceptualise the basic functions of a firewall, and shoulder used to conceptualise buttons located at the upper sides of a handheld console. Also some body parts that may be regarded as ‘unused’ and secondary in the source domain (Lakoff and Johnson 1980/2003:55) are mapped onto technology, such as the expressions flanks, lungs, and toes, which make a more striking effect in the present context. In example 4.14, the console’s sides are conceptualised as flanks because of its rounded edges. The expression flanks is also accompanied by the word voluptuous, which usually refers to a woman’s body and emphasizes sexual appeal. Following this, it can be argued that the

GENDER

submetaphor is implied here, and

that the author is using sexual innuendo in order to present the particular technology as appealing as a sexually alluring woman.

The HUMAN BODY submetaphor, apart from making technology parts comprehensible and enhancing the computer technology lexicon and vocabulary, also serves as a means of personifying technology and in some cases presenting it as a physically attractive person. The adjectives that accompany some of these expressions provide us with additional value judgements regarding these conceptualisations. The full range of metaphorical expressions of the

HUMAN BODY

submetaphor is shown in

Table 4.1.5 (Appendix 1).

4.1.6

TECHNOLOGY RELATIONS ARE KINSHIP RELATIONS

The concept of kinship conceptualises the relation between a technology and its creator. The

KINSHIP

PROGENERATION,

submetaphor is based on the metaphor of

CAUSATION IS

outlined by Turner (1987:145-148), where causation represents

giving birth or fathering, and is used for instances of causation where ‘something must be created out of nothing, and the thing created must persist for a long time (as if it had a life)’. For example: 4.16 4.17

4.18

If Steve Jobs was the father of Apple’s mini-miracle, Jozwiak was the midwife. [T3, the iPod] This spring, we checked in on five of our favourites – Bell Labs, HP Labs, IBM Research, Microsoft Research, and the granddaddy of them all: the Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), the former Xerox facility that spawned Ethernet, […]. [PCM, Today’s Ideas, Tomorrow’s Tech] […] it would be virtually impossible not to have noticed that Windows Vista, the successor to Windows XP, is now available. [CA, Surviving Vista]

93

The

KINSHIP

submetaphor is regarded as a conventional metaphor and makes use of

both common and original expressions. Two types of common expression are encountered in the data: expressions that occur from terminology, and expressions commonly used in everyday language. The former includes the most frequent expression generation, and the expressions native and family (signatures), which refer to data written to an infected computer by a number of related viruses that have infected it (Ince 2001). The latter includes expressions such as father, parent, brainchild, successor, predecessor, sister, clone, cousins, sibling, and twin giants.

A limited number of original expressions are found as extensions of expressions commonly used in everyday language. These include the expressions daddy, ‘daddy’ and granddaddy extending from father, and baby extending from brainchild and/or father thereby complementing the action of fathering or giving birth.

The

KINSHIP

submetaphor is used to conceptualise the relation between technologies

and the people who created them, as in examples 4.16 and 4.17. Such conceptualisations assist in the understanding of the types of relation that technologies have with people, by referring to human relations people can relate to directly. Other metaphorical expressions of this type of relations include parent, daddy, brainchild and baby.

The

KINSHIP

submetaphor is also used to conceptualise the relation between

technologies that belong to the same class. Example 4.18 illustrates the relations between two operating systems, Windows XP and Vista, as relations of ancestry, both belonging to the Microsoft ‘family’. According to the data, this type of relation occurs often, given the 38 instances of the expression generation. Other metaphorical expressions of this type of relations include family, predecessor, sister, clone, cousins, sibling, twin giants and native. It may seem odd to categorise the metaphorical expression native under the

KINSHIP

submetaphor, but since native

implies birth or origin in a particular place, and kinship involves both blood relationships and having common characteristics, it was considered as a type of a family relationship based on common origin. The full range of metaphorical expressions of the KINSHIP submetaphor is shown in Table 4.1.6 (Appendix 1).

94

4.1.7

TECHNOLOGY IS A PERSON WITH PERSONALITY

In this submetaphor, technology is conceptualised as an entity having a personality; that is, portraying behavioural, emotional, and mental traits similar to a person. For example: 4.19 4.20 4.21

Since YouTube hit it big, streaming movies and music have gone positively bananas. [PCW, 35 Things Every PC Owner Should Know] Spyware products don’t always extend the same courtesy. [PCM, Maximum Security] But it’s not the only way to go. Symantec has the right idea – when NIS 2007 finds a program that’s not on its naughty or nice list, it decides for itself and takes action. [PCM, Security super guide]

The PERSONALITY submetaphor mainly consists of original metaphorical expressions and a small number of common expressions. The common expressions identified are widely used in technical language, although they are not considered as terms per se. These include the expressions intrusive, intuitive, compatible/incompatible, friendly, smart, sophisticated, vulnerable, instinctive, intelligent, and the most popular one malicious, and are used to conceptualise a technology’s functioning capabilities in relation to other machines or in human interaction.

A number of original expressions extend from these common expressions. In particular, the expressions intrusive, vulnerable, and malicious give rise to expressions such as dangerous, evil, foe, insidious, nasty, offending, rogue, sinister, suspicious, unreliable, and unstable, while the expressions friendlier, unfriendly, unfriendliness, and chubby-finger-friendly extend from friendly.

Another type of original expressions includes expressions that are considered as common in everyday language, but acquire new meanings in the context of technology, for example lame duck, bonkers, well-meaning, slapdash and nifty. Such expressions are regarded as original because they humanise a technology’s functioning by often adding a humorous or ironic effect to the text, or even involving puns or cultural references.

Example 4.19 involves the metaphorical expression go bananas, which reveals an emotional and mental trait. This expression is regarded as negative, since losing one’s temper or mind does not constitute positive characteristics of a person, but it may also provoke a humorous effect. Example 4.20 reveals a behavioural trait.

95

Spyware products are conceptualised as people showing polite behaviour. Although this trait is regarded as a positive one, it is assumed that this expression is intended to be ironic in terms of spyware behaviour. The behaviour of spyware varies from monitoring third-party PCs to destroying computer components. Therefore, courtesy in this case refers to being malicious to the smallest possible extent – that is, not destroying the computer system – whereas spyware behaviour cannot be regarded as polite at all. Example 4.21 includes the metaphorical expression naughty or nice which alludes to a children’s Christmas song and to Santa Claus. This expression reveals both positive and negative behavioural traits, and is used to conceptualise the intentions of programs that are running on a computer.

The

PERSONALITY

submetaphor contributes even more to the humanising of

technology, given that it presents technology’s strengths and weaknesses in relation to human characterisations. Personality and behaviour traits are used to conceptualise a technology’s performance, reliability and functionality. By describing technology as a person with good and bad qualities, it is possible to infer positive or negative value judgments and assessments of the respective technology. Both common and original expressions relate to positive and negative traits of technology, although the negative traits overrule the positive ones. The full range of metaphorical expressions of the PERSONALITY submetaphor is shown in Table 4.1.7 (Appendix 1).

4.1.8

TECHNOLOGY IS A PERSON WITH PHYSICAL APPEARANCE

The PHYSICAL APPEARANCE submetaphor maps characteristics of physical appearance onto the exterior form of technology products and the design of computer programs. For example: 4.22 4.23 4.24

Of all the programs that try to mimic the Apple Mac Dock, Rocketdock is the one that’s had the most fat trimmed off it. [CA, 30 fresh downloads] Like Kriss Akabusi, it’s ugly, but it’s a champion. [T3, Email intuition] No, there’s a heck of a lot more to Sony’s handsome sliver than meets the eye. [T3, The PSP]

It could be argued that the

PHYSICAL APPEARANCE

submetaphor constitutes a novel

metaphor based on a similarity-creating metaphor. It seems to be influenced by the HUMAN BODY

submetaphor, by similarly mapping physical characteristics but

focusing more on aesthetics rather than function and location. The metaphorical

96

expressions found in the data comprise mostly commonly used expressions in everyday language that provide new ways of conceptualising technology, such as examples 4.22 and 4.24. Other common expressions include beautiful, irresistible thinness, ultra-desirable, elegant, bewitching, alluring, sexy, sleek-looking, and muscular. A small number of original expressions are also encountered, which seems to extend from common expressions, such as it’s got legs to match its looks, look like they’ve been on the pies and triggers everyone’s neck to crane on the train.

With the exception of four negative metaphorical expressions - ugly (example 4.23) referring to a mobile phone, dowdy regarding a laptop’s case, gawky-looking regarding the handheld Game Boy console, and look like a beige-painted horse’s arse about an Apple computer - the metaphorical expressions convey a positive and attractive image of technology. In addition they bring to the foreground the

GENDER

submetaphor, as in example 4.24. Although example 4.24 implies the existence of male gender, the dominant gender implied in most metaphorical expressions relating to physical appearance is female, as can be observed in many expressions mentioned previously; for example beautiful, irresistible thinness, ultra-desirable. The PHYSICAL APPEARANCE

submetaphor reinforces even more the GENDER submetaphor,

and in particular, the stereotype of the female gender used to make technology appealing as a sexually attractive woman, while the male stereotype is rather limited to a few conceptualisations.

Lastly, the the

PHYSICAL APPEARANCE

PERSONALITY

submetaphor seems to act as complementary to

submetaphor. While the

PERSONALITY

submetaphor provides value

judgements about a technology’s interior design in terms of performance, reliability and functionality, the

PERSONALITY

submetaphor evaluates the exterior design of a

technology in terms of aesthetics and manipulation. The full range of metaphorical expressions of the

PHYSICAL APPEARANCE

submetaphor is shown in Table 4.1.8

(Appendix 1).

4.1.9

TECHNOLOGY IS A PERSON WITH ROLES/OCCUPATIONS

This submetaphor conceptualises the functions of software products as entities that have assumed particular roles and/or occupations. For example:

97

4.25

4.26

The

It’s possible your new machine may come preloaded with adware, so you may want to install a good antispyware product, such as Spyware Doctor from PC Tools or Webroot Spy Sweeper, and scan the system before going online. [PCM, Maximum Security] Think Microsoft’s free Windows Defender will save you from attacks? [PCW, Die, Spyware, die!] ROLES/OCCUPATIONS

submetaphor consists mostly of common expressions that

occur from established terminology. Such expressions relate to the name of a particular technology product, and in turn, the name reflects the product’s qualities and capacities. Examples 4.25 and 4.26 include the metaphorical expressions Spyware Doctor, Webroot Spy Sweeper and Windows Defender, which belong to articles about antivirus/antispyware products that keep the computer safe. These expressions illustrate how technology products are personified based on their skills or on the roles they have been designed to perform, and in a way reflect the aspect of a person’s professional identity. The above expressions are also linked to other metaphors: Spyware Doctor is linked to the

HEALTH/ILLNESS

submetaphor (Section

4.2.3), given that a computer system is regarded as a living organism with health conditions; Webroot Spy Sweeper is linked to the PHYSICAL SPACE metaphor (Section 4.14) since it implies that the computer system is a place that needs cleaning (sweeping); and Windows Defender is linked to the SECURITY metaphors

PHYSICAL SPACE

and the

(Section 4.5) since it implies that the computer system is a place

that needs to be defended from potential enemies.

Furthermore, the

ROLES/OCCUPATIONS

submetaphor presents a small number of

original expressions. Some of these have extended from terminology, such as the expression email summoner, and some are common expressions giving technology new meanings. Examples of the latter are: virtual referee, used to conceptualise a program that would keep track of the computer’s operation while a game was played, in order to avoid cheating; police force, used to conceptualise a sophisticated program developed for preventing cheating on online games; and virtual Virgil, used by analogy to Dante’s Virgil to conceptualise software as a guide into the computer’s configuration database, which is regarded as quite a mysterious place.

From the above types of common and original expression it is assumed that the ROLES/OCCUPATIONS

submetaphor is used in two cases. In the first case of common

expressions, it is used to denote and probably accentuate the functions of a particular

98

technology (software applications), as in examples 4.26 and 4.27. In the second case of original expressions, the submetaphor expresses the kinds of roles technology assumes vis-à-vis human users; for example, technology as a virtual Virgil acts as a guide for human users. The full range of metaphorical expressions of the ROLES/OCCUPATIONS submetaphor

is shown in Table 4.1.9 (Appendix 1).

4.1.10 Conclusion According to Lakoff and Johnson (1980/2003:33-34) it is common practice to assign human characteristics to objects, thus making them more comprehensible and familiar to our experiences. Each personification is unique, given that different aspects of a person are highlighted each time, and each personification provides various ways of thinking about and acting toward an inanimate entity (ibid.). The PERSON

metaphor has the purpose of making technology comprehensible ‘in terms of

human motivations, characteristics and activities’ (ibid.:33). It may be regarded as the most complex category of all, given that it consists of nine distinct submetaphors, each focusing on a different aspect of technology as a person: 1.

TECHNOLOGY ACTIVITY IS HUMAN ACTIVITY

2.

TECHNOLOGY LIFECYCLE IS HUMAN LIFECYCLE

3.

TECHNOLOGY IS A PERSON WITH EMOTIONS

4.

TECHNOLOGY IS A PERSON WITH GENDER

5.

PARTS OF TECHNOLOGY ARE HUMAN BODY PARTS

6.

TECHNOLOGY RELATIONS ARE KINSHIP RELATIONS

7.

TECHNOLOGY IS A PERSON WITH PERSONALITY

8.

TECHNOLOGY IS A PERSON WITH PHYSICAL APPEARANCE

9.

TECHNOLOGY IS A PERSON WITH ROLES/OCCUPATIONS

The basic mappings involved are: technology that corresponds to the person and its gender, actions performed by technology corresponding to actions performed by the person, the condition of technology corresponding to the person’s age, technology’s operation corresponding to the person’s emotions, technology parts corresponding to the person’s body, relations among technologies and between technology and humans corresponding to family ties, technology’s performance and design

99

corresponding to a person’s personality and physical appearance, and functions performed by technologies corresponding to human roles and occupations.

The metaphorical entailments that occur relate to characterisations that we make about a person and the significance of these characterisations for technology. Such characterisations pertain mostly to a person’s actions, age, personality and physical appearance, and how we judge them by the words used to describe them. A person’s actions contain the entailment of the manner in which a person behaves in order to accomplish an activity. This characteristic is imparted to technology and to the manner in which a technology functions, which leads to judgements about its operation; for example, if the machines play nicely together, we infer that they are compatible, their operation is running smoothly, and they are regarded as reliable tools to carry out work. A person’s age contains the entailment of a person’s mental and physical development, and leads to judgements about how competent and experienced he is based on his level of maturity. Transferring such knowledge to technology, we can infer the technology’s level of sophistication and development, and make value judgements about whether its capacities suit our needs. The aspects of personality and physical appearance contain the entailments of assessing a person’s character and appearance, and these assessments help us to make judgements about the strengths and weakness of a technology’s performance and design.

The

PERSON

metaphor makes use of both common and original expressions.

Common expressions are part of the technical language, as much as everyday language is used to conceptualise various aspects of technology. A significant number of common expressions also figure as original expressions, given that it is somewhat surprising to encounter them in the context of technology. The creation of original expressions from common ones is evidence of the users’ familiarisation with the technology’s workings and capacities, since the users can describe and express quite colourfully the behaviour and actions of a machine, and alongside imply their personal feelings towards it.

100

4.2

TECHNOLOGY IS A LIVING ORGANISM

The

LIVING ORGANISM

metaphor is among the dominant cross-domain mappings, as

it is encountered in all four magazines, and specifically in 37 out of 48 articles under investigation. This mapping is further categorised into the submetaphors of ANIMAL, PLANT, HEALTH/ILLNESS, LIFE/DEATH

and

FUNCTION,

and contains a total of 336

metaphorical expressions, listed in detail in Table 3.

Metaphor Living organism

TOTAL

4.2.1

Submetaphors Animal Plant Health / illness Life / death Function

Metaphorical expressions 117 26 144 32 17 336 Table 3 The LIVING ORGANISM metaphor

% 36% 8% 42% 9% 5% 100%

TECHNOLOGY IS AN ANIMAL

The ANIMAL submetaphor is the second most dominant submetaphor in this category, and is employed in two distinct cases, namely in conceptualisations of technology as an animal relating to its name, and conceptualisations of technology as an animal relating to behaviour and breeding. The full range of metaphorical expressions of the ANIMAL

The

submetaphor is shown in Table 4.2.1 (Appendix 1).

ANIMAL

submetaphor consists mainly of common metaphorical expressions and

a small number of original expressions. Three types of common expression are encountered. The first type involves expressions that belong to terminology, such as mouse the pointing device, worm the self-replicating computer program, bug used to conceptualise a software defect, and spidering used to conceptualise the process of an automated program (called web crawler or web spider) that methodically browses the WWW and retrieves pages to create an index of the data it is searching for, like a search engine’s database (Pant et al. 2004). 4.27

The Workspace Macro program […] can capture anything you type, as well as mouse movements and clicks. [PCW, 35 Things Every PC Owner Should Know]

Under this type, a number of brand names of technology products and networks are also conceptualised as animals and having animal names. In particular, Mozilla’s web browser is named Firefox, which is another name for the red panda and

101

resembles a fox more than a panda. Its logo depicts an animal as a semicircle surrounding a globe, where one end of the semicircle is the head of a fox-like animal and the other end is its tail resembling flames (Figure 1). Similarly, Mozilla’s email program is named Thunderbird based on North American Indian mythology, and is depicted in the logo as a bird forming a semicircle with its wings and enclosing an envelope in them (Figure 1). Further similar metaphorical expressions found in the data are Mozilla’s calendar application called Sunbird (Figure 1), Apple’s operating systems called Tiger and Leopard, the company Panda Software, the virus scanner called Stinger by McAfee, the laptop platform called Puma by AMD, and the filesharing network called eDonkey. Such expressions point to the conclusion that it is common practice for technology products and applications to bear the names of wild animals. This practice can be viewed as a way of enhancing the technologies’ capabilities and inspiring trust to the users that these technologies will be withstanding and trustworthy tools.

Figure 1 Logos of Mozilla Firefox, Thunderbird and Sunbird

The second type contains expressions that are common in technical language, such as debugging and extermination, which have extended from the term bug and seem to support and enhance the conceptualisation of a software defect as a bug. In addition, other typical conceptualisations of technology as animal involve the aspect of breeding, which comes from the more specific domain of horses, and highlights the features of having a pedigree, of belonging to a breed, and of purebred animals. This aspect is evident in the expressions pedigree conceptualising a technology’s background of development, breed conceptualising a set of technological advancements, and best-of-breed conceptualising the most superior technology product in its domain.

102

4.28

4.29

It’s from the community that brought us the Firefox web browser and Thunderbird email program, so it’s got a great pedigree to go with its open, clean design and plenty of features. [CA, 30 fresh downloads] When Sony sets out to design a new product, although it never puts the “design” cart before the “functionality” horse, it still often ends up with thoroughbred looks. [T3, The PSP]

In addition, in example 4.29 the expressions horse and thoroughbred appearing in the same context verify the type of animal implied. The combination of the expressions horse and cart evoke the image of a horse-drawn vehicle, and are used to conceptualise the relationship between a technology’s functionality and design with the aim of emphasizing which of the two should be given more importance than the other. Thus, since the horse draws the cart and the cart is dependent on the horse, so a technology’s functionality is of greater importance than its design, and should come first.

The third type of common expressions comprises expressions that are commonly used in everyday language. Two idiomatic expressions are encountered in the data. The first idiom fly in the ointment is used in this context to conceptualise a design imperfection of a laptop. The second metaphorical expression is going the way of the dodo which arises from the idiom ‘be as dead as a dodo’. It implies the extinction of the respective animal and is used to conceptualise the fact that VHS video tapes are becoming increasingly outdated since the advent of DVDs. 4.30

The only fly in the ointment is that the keys are a touch on the small side – a side effect of being nested under that 10.6-inch screen. [T3, Lard-free laptops]

Lastly, another common expression of the third type is mosquitoes, which is a similarity-creating metaphorical expression used by the text’s authors as a means of conceptualising visual artefacts that appear and seem to follow characters on screen.

On the other hand, two types of original expression are encountered: expressions that extend from commonly used expressions in technical language, and common everyday expressions that provide new meanings in the context of technology. The former type involves the expression cross extending from the aspect of breeding and is used to express the combination of two types of technology application as a crossbreeding. In addition, the expression unleashed extends from the commonly used expression release and is used to conceptualise the circulation of a new

103

technology product in the market after leaving the research laboratories as releasing animals from captivity usually restrained by a leash.

The second type of original expressions refer to behaviour, such as obey, taming, and rein over, which conceptualise technology as an undisciplined animal that needs training in order to obey the instructions given by its owner. Such expressions seem to derive from the knowledge that technology is conventionally expressed as an animal and that many technology products and applications bear the names of wild animals. The names of wild animals add to the fact that there is need for taming, or that the circulation of a new technology product in the market is viewed as unleashing.

In addition, a rather humorous simile relies on conventional similes of animals, such as ‘as cunning as a fox’, and which convey stereotypical characteristics to the entity compared; however it strays from the norm by using a cartoon animal instead of a real animal. By comparing a technology to Road Runner, it is possible to imply the power of such technology, given that nothing can surpass Road Runner, not even Wile E. Coyote, the mastermind of ambush. 4.31

It can display pages in both portrait and landscape, and the stylus really helps with scrolling, as well as giving great control over zoom, making it zippier than Road Runner pursued by Wile E. Coyote equipped with acme’s finest. [T3, Email intuition]

This example also involves a cultural reference to the series of Looney Tunes cartoons, originally developed in the United States. These are the kind of cartoons that do not involve much spoken language interaction and because they can be understood by speakers of any language, they have become popular in many countries. Thus, it could be suggested that the simile with Road Runner would be understood and commonly shared in any language and culture, provided that the show had aired in the respective country.

4.2.2 The

TECHNOLOGY IS A PLANT

PLANT

submetaphor is considered as one of the most common source domains

used, largely due to its main meaning focus, the aspect of development (Kövecses

104

2002:16,128). In the dataset, the

PLANT

submetaphor highlights aspects of growth,

cultivation, harvest and structure.

The

PLANT

submetaphor comprises common expressions that enrich computer

terminology. In the data, the source domain highlights aspects of harvest and tree structure, which are mapped onto the process of gathering information and onto the structure of computer data and computer architecture. For example: 4.32 4.33

Also, e-mail viruses deliberately spoof the return address when sending themselves to a harvested list. [PCM, Maximum security] Inside the Start menu, XP’s menus of cascading programs are replaced by tree-view-like menus that expand in place, a navigation mechanism I find much more natural. [PCM, Vista]

In example 4.32 the process of gathering lists of email addresses is conceptualised as harvesting. In example 4.33 the structure of a tree is used to conceptualise the structure of the program menu in the Vista OS. Similar to this is the metaphorical expression branch, which is used to conceptualise the connection point between two elements in a computer program where the flow of control is changed (Microsoft 1997).

Other expressions commonly used in everyday language relate to the aspect of growth and conceptualise the development of technology in terms of growing a plant. For example: 4.34

As the internet has grown, more styles of cookies have begun to be used. [CA, Everyone loves cookies]

Further common metaphorical expressions supporting this include homegrown used to conceptualise applications that are developed by a particular company, and fullblown used to conceptualise a technology as fully developed.

In addition, common expressions are used in mapping the aspect of cultivation onto investing in technology, as in the following example: 4.35

Lacking the years of development and extraordinary investment that’s been ploughed into Microsoft Office, it’s not realistic to expect the free alternatives to be able to take it on, pound for pound, feature for feature. [CA, Go to work on the web]

This aspect is also supported by another metaphorical expression, bear fruit, which is used to conceptualise the realisation of high-tech research projects that comes as a

105

result of positive preparation. The full range of metaphorical expressions of the PLANT

submetaphor is shown in Table 4.2.2 (Appendix 1).

4.2.3

THE CONDITION OF TECHNOLOGY IS THE HEALTH OF A LIVING ORGANISM

The

HEALTH/ILLNESS

submetaphor is the most frequent one in this category and

relates to the state of health of a living organism. Knowledge about the physical condition of a living organism is mapped onto the condition of computer software and hardware. This submetaphor is closely linked to the concept of virus, which gave rise to the term ‘computer virus’, and which is used to conceptualise the malfunctioning of computer programs (Ungerer and Schmid 1996:147). The term ‘computer virus’ was coined in 1986 by Frederick Cohen, who defined the computer virus as a ‘computer program that can infect other computer programs by modifying them in such a way as to include a (possibly evolved) copy of itself’ (Rosenberger 1997:1, Glabus 1998:202). The virus metaphor was adopted because computer viruses shared common characteristics with biological viruses that infect a living organism. Like biological viruses, a computer virus can infect a computer system, can reproduce itself and can spread rapidly thus affecting the functioning of the system. The concept of virus is central in the HEALTH/ILLNESS submetaphor, and has given rise to a number of expressions which, once part of the everyday and medical lexica, are now also part of established computing terminology.

Thus, this submetaphor comprises common metaphorical expressions of two types: expressions belonging to terminology, and common expressions belonging to everyday language. In the domain of health, we make inferences about viruses infecting living organisms and spreading their harmful effects to other parts of an organism or to other organisms, and about the need to diagnose the problem and find a cure in order to return to a good state of health. Following the virus paradigm it seems that the metaphor has been expanded to include such common knowledge regarding infection, spreading, diagnosis and recovery. For example: 4.36

4.37

Unfortunately, antivirus and antispyware tools cannot clean infections from restore points, so even if you’ve cleaned out some malware, a rollback may bring reinfection. [PCM, Maximum security] All of the tools are free and can be of major help in diagnosing problems on a drive and repairing them. [PCW, How to Survive the Worst PC Disasters]

106

4.38

Though experts considered it relatively harmless, the OSX/Leap-A worm spread via Apple’s iChat instant messaging application by forwarding itself to the user’s buddy list. [PCW, Technology: Truth or fiction] To be honest, the odds aren’t great for your gadget’s full recovery—but with care, you might be able to revive your hardware. […] Remember that all of these “cures” can cause more damage than they repair. [PCW, How to Survive the Worst PC Disasters]

4.39

As in the above examples, a malicious computer program interfering with computer operation is conceptualised as a virus that causes infections in living organisms. These infections are malfunctions caused to the operation of a system, which need to be detected and repaired before the damage is extended to other parts of the system or to other systems. Detecting a malfunction is conceptualised as diagnosing a disease, while the distribution of a damaging computer program is conceptualised as the spreading of a virus. From this it follows that restoring a computer’s operation is conceptualised as disinfecting a living organism, with antivirus programs performing the task of medication. Further metaphorical expressions found in the data seem to corroborate the conceptualisation of the different stages of the state of health, namely infection, spreading, diagnosis and recovery. The full range of metaphorical expressions of the

HEALTH/ILLNESS

submetaphor is shown in Table 4.2.3 (Appendix

1).

The

HEALTH/ILLNESS

submetaphor and in particular the concept of virus has helped

not only to conceptualise the attacks performed on a computer system, but has also provided the basis for the emergence of further conceptualisations of technology processes, such as antivirus and disinfect. By the same token, the

HEALTH/ILLNESS

submetaphor has contributed to the conception and development of technology products, such as tools for repairing and restoring computer systems to their previous ‘healthy’ operation. In addition, the connected to the

SECURITY

HEALTH/ILLNESS

submetaphor is closely

metaphor (Section 4.5), which conceptualises the

computer system as a fortress that needs to be strengthened and defended against enemies, such as computer viruses.

4.2.4

THE CONDITION OF TECHNOLOGY IS THE LIFE OF A LIVING ORGANISM

Similar to the

HEALTH/ILLNESS

submetaphor is the

LIFE/DEATH

submetaphor, since

they both conceptualise the condition of a technology, but from different

107

perspectives; the former conceptualises technology as a living organism with health conditions, while the latter conceptualises technology as a living organism with the condition of becoming or being alive or dead.

The

LIFE/DEATH

submetaphor is used to conceptualise technology as an animate

entity that has a life cycle and life expectancy, and is expressed by both common and original expressions. Common expressions involve those used in technical and everyday language, such as life and dead. For example: 4.40 4.41

The new breed of hybrid hard drives may lead to longer battery life for notebooks. [PCM, The 10 Biggest Problems in Computing and How We’ll Solve Them] Problem: Your Net connection is dead. [PCW, How to Survive the Worst PC Disasters]

Such expressions are common when referring to devices being (or not being) in operation and provide the basis for the creation of original expressions. For example: 4.42

4.43

[…] the Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), the former Xerox facility that spawned Ethernet, laser printing , the GUI operating system, and so much more. [PCM, Today’s Ideas, Tomorrow’s Tech] Instead of outright killing a process, you can suspend it (right-click on a process to see this option). [PCW, 35 Things Every PC Owner Should Know]

Technology is also conceptualised as an organism in a state of being alive, which is used to conceptualise the period of time during which a technology functions, as the common expression life denotes (example 4.40). From this extend expressions that conceptualise technology as an organism that can be brought to life through the process of being born (example 4.42). Further original metaphorical expressions supporting this aspect of becoming alive are hatch and come to life. The expressions spawn and hatch make reference to the production of offspring from animals that lay eggs, and are used to conceptualise the conception of a technological idea and the creation of the particular technology. The expression come to life does not point to a particular type of living organism, and is used to conceptualise the fact that technological enhancements produce such an impressive result on a still image that it appears as if it was alive.

In contrast to this is the conceptualisation of technology as an organism in a state of being deceased, as in the common expression dead (example 4.41). Common expressions such as dead and die give rise to original expressions, such as the colloquialisms croak and go south, which conceptualise a technology that has

108

stopped functioning. Additionally, original expressions express technology as a living organism that can be deprived of life, as in example 4.43. The metaphorical expression kill is the only expression of this kind found in the data, and is used to conceptualise the termination of the function of a process or an application by the user. The full range of metaphorical expressions of the

LIFE/DEATH

submetaphor is

shown in Table 4.2.4 (Appendix 1).

4.2.5

THE FUNCTION OF TECHNOLOGY IS THE FUNCTION OF A LIVING ORGANISM

The submetaphor of FUNCTION draws knowledge from the physiological functions of living organisms and maps them onto the modes of operation and functions of technology. This submetaphor comprises common expressions from computer terminology, and original expressions as extensions of terminology.

Common expressions belonging to terminology include the metaphorical expressions hibernation, hibernate and reproduce. The expression reproduce is closely linked to the

HEALTH/ILLNESS

metaphor, and is used to conceptualise the ability of computer

viruses to replicate themselves. For example: 4.44

A virus is software that can reproduce itself – simple! [PCM, [Security super guide]

The metaphorical expressions hibernation and hibernate are familiar terms in computer terminology, used to conceptualise one of technology’s modes of operation in which the computer is temporarily inactive. For example: 4.45

Closing the laptop lid puts it into standby or hibernation mode when it’s running on battery, but doing so might not put it in power-saving mode when it’s plugged into AC power. [PCW, Laptops User Guide]

The expressions hibernation and hibernate provide the basis for the creation of two sets of original expressions: sleep and asleep, and wake up and awake. The former set are less technical forms of hibernation and hibernate, which are borrowed from everyday language to conceptualise the same mode of operation. The latter set of expressions seem to occur as the counterparts of the expressions sleep and asleep, and conceptualise technology’s return to being active. As original extensions of technical terminology, these expressions can be said to enhance the conceptualisation of technology as a living being, in that technology’s functions seem more relative to physiological functions than mechanical procedures.

109

Other original expressions found in the dataset concern technology conceptualised as a living organism that is being nourished. For example: 4.46

[…] criminals use automated tools called fuzzers to locate places where a program accepts input, and then systematically feed them bizarre combinations of data. [PCW, The threats you can’t see]

This metaphorical expression helps to conceptualise the input of data into a program as feeding a living organism. It is regarded as an extension of the technical term input, given that feeding entails the entering of food into an organism (through its mouth), by analogy to entering data into a computer.

A rather peculiar conceptualisation of technology is illustrated in the following example, in which technology is conceptualised as having hiccups: 4.47

Here’s help for real-world hassles, from dead spots to security threats to streaming-media hiccups. [PCW, Make Your Network Better]

By drawing knowledge from experiencing hiccups we are able to understand this conceptualisation. As hiccups are ‘spasms of the breathing organs’ (Collins 2003) that may cause interruption during speech for example, this metaphorical expression helps to conceptualise the interruptions caused in the Internet connection and the problems in the transmission of media (audio, video) over a network. This expression can be regarded as a common expression bringing new meaning in the context of technology which has been created by a perceived similarity between the experience of having hiccups and the experience of interrupted transmissions. The full range of metaphorical expressions of the

FUNCTION

submetaphor is shown in Table 4.2.5

TECHNOLOGY IS A LIVING ORGANISM

metaphor is a conventional structural

(Appendix 1).

4.2.6 The

Conclusion

metaphor distinguished into five submetaphors: 1.

TECHNOLOGY IS AN ANIMAL

2.

TECHNOLOGY IS A PLANT

3.

THE CONDITION OF TECHNOLOGY IS THE HEALTH OF A LIVING ORGANISM

4.

THE CONDITION OF TECHNOLOGY IS THE LIFE OF A LIVING ORGANISM

110

5.

THE FUNCTION OF TECHNOLOGY IS THE FUNCTION OF A LIVING ORGANISM

The main source domain is a living organism, including the secondary source domains of animals, plants, health/illness, life/death and function, and the target domain is technology, including its condition and functions. The basic mappings involved are technology corresponding to the living organism, animals and plants, technology’s condition corresponding to a living organism’s state of health, technology’s operation corresponding to a living organism being in existence, and technology’s functions corresponding to a living organism’s physiological functions.

The source domains of animals, plants and health/illness are among the most common source domains used in everyday language (Kövecses 2002:16). The domain of animals leads to understand technology in terms of animal characteristics, namely, names, breeding and behaviour. The domain of plants involves knowledge from various parts of plants, stages of development and actions we carry out in relation to plants (Kövecses 2002:17) and provides a basis for the structure and the development of technology. The domain of health/illness provides an understanding of technology’s condition of operation. Although the domain of life/death is usually encountered as one of the common target domains (Kövecses 2002:17), here it serves as a source domain and is in line with the domain of health/illness which is used to provide structure to technology’s condition. Lastly, the domain of functions may be regarded as common in the context of technology in that it assists in enriching computer terminology by drawing knowledge from physiological functions of living beings, and provides the basis for the creation of original ways of conceptualising various functions of technology.

The metaphorical entailments that occur help to elaborate on the LIVING ORGANISM

TECHNOLOGY IS A

metaphor and provide a better understanding of technology.

Animal names and behaviours seem to imply animal properties, positive or negative, which in turn reflect technology’s qualities; that is, a strong animal is a powerful technology, or an animal with pedigree is superior technology. Parts of plants, growth stages and actions related to plants provide an understanding of technology’s levels of development and of the structure of computer architecture. The HEALTH/ILLNESS

submetaphor relies on the idea of the virus, which has provided 111

many helpful entailments in understanding the function of a computer failure and the necessary steps for restoring the system to its previous operation; that is, the virus infecting the organism is the malfunction damaging the computer system, the spreading of the virus to other parts of the organism or to other organisms is distribution of the damage to other parts of the computer or to other computers connected, diagnosing the disease is detecting the malfunction, and disinfecting the organism by chemical means is restoring the computer to its previous operation by means of antivirus products. The

LIFE/DEATH

submetaphor entails the idea that

technology’s life is as fragile as any living organism’s. This kind of life can be terminated by the intervention of a third party, that is, terminating an application is killing an organism, or by natural causes where the technology stops functioning because it has exceeded its usage potential, because of a malfunction such as a virus, or because it is becoming obsolete due to old age.

4.3

TECHNOLOGY IS A MACHINE

The

TECHNOLOGY IS MACHINE

metaphor is the third most dominant cross-domain

mapping, as it is found in all four magazines, and specifically in 44 out of 48 articles under investigation. This mapping is further categorised into the submetaphor of VEHICLE

and contains a total of 678 metaphorical expressions, of which 174

expressions come under VEHICLE, as

MACHINE

and 504 expressions under the submetaphor of

shown in Table 4. The VEHICLE submetaphor is further distinguished into

the AUTOMOBILE, BUS and SHIP submetaphors.

Metaphor Machine

TOTAL

The

MACHINE

Submetaphors

Metaphorical expressions 174 Vehicle 504 Automobile 491 Bus 6 Ship 7 678 Table 4 The MACHINE metaphor

% 26% 72% 1% 1% 100%

metaphor draws attention to the technical and mechanical aspect of

technology. The concept of machine highlights aspects of the operation and condition of a machine. Technology is conceptualised as a machine with modes of operation, and the status of a technology is conceptualised as the condition of a

112

machine. The metaphorical expressions found in the dataset are commonly used expressions in technical and everyday language. For example: 4.48 4.49

Switch off the PC, then the router if you have one, then the modem. [CA, Broadband First Aid] And as software apps break down in the face of new security restrictions, developers will work even harder to revise their code. [PCM, Insider’s Guide to Vista]

Common expressions, as in example 4.48, indicate the starting and stopping of a machine. The source domain of machine is used to map onto the target domain of technology the two main modes of operation, on and off. In the data, there are a number of commonly used expressions relating to the modes of operation of a machine: switch on/off, turn on/off, on/off, restart, shut down, activate/deactivated, disable(d), and shut down.

Example 4.49 illustrates that, just as a machine malfunctions, technology also comes up against technical problems such as glitches, its operation can fail and the technology can break down. Therefore, it needs to be repaired and fixed so it can be up and running again. Here, the source domain maps knowledge from mechanical operations, maintenance and repair onto the target domain. Again various common metaphorical expressions are employed for conceptualising the status of a technology as the condition of a machine: glitch, patch, fix, repair, up and running, kick in, fail, operation, kinks, overhauled, and break down. The full range of metaphorical expressions of the MACHINE metaphor is shown in Table 4.3.1 (Appendix 1).

4.3.1

TECHNOLOGY IS A VEHICLE

The submetaphor of TECHNOLOGY IS A VEHICLE conceptualises technology as a more specific type of machine. The

VEHICLE

submetaphor relates particularly to the

automobile, as it highlights aspects of the engineering of an automobile, its parts, its operation and performance. However, a rather limited conceptualisation of technology as other types of vehicle, namely bus and ship, is also encountered.

4.3.1.1

TECHNOLOGY IS AN AUTOMOBILE

The AUTOMOBILE submetaphor is regarded as a conventional metaphor, based on the VEHICLE

and

MACHINE

metaphors, which have now become more conventional in

113

relation to computing due to people’s great familiarity with machines and the popularity of the

INFORMATION HIGHWAY

Lawler 1999, Grevy 1999). The

metaphor (Section 4.14.4) (Rohrer 1997,

AUTOMOBILE

submetaphor incorporates a range of

common and original expressions, and conceptualises technology as a state-of-the-art designed race car, thus painting a vivid and quite exciting image of technology. The full range of metaphorical expressions of the

AUTOMOBILE

submetaphor is shown in

Tables 4.3.2-4.3.5 (Appendix I).

The

AUTOMOBILE

submetaphor highlights the aspects of automobile engineering,

parts, operation and performance. The

AUTOMOBILE

submetaphor is developed by

four main metaphorical entailments based on these aspects: 1.

DEVELOPING A TECHNOLOGY IS AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERING

2.

PARTS OF A TECHNOLOGY ARE PARTS OF AN AUTOMOBILE

3.

THE FUNCTIONING OF A TECHNOLOGY IS THE OPERATION OF AN AUTOMOBILE

4.

THE PERFORMANCE OF A TECHNOLOGY IS THE PERFORMANCE OF AN AUTOMOBILE.

The first entailment,

DEVELOPING A TECHNOLOGY IS AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERING,

arises from the engineering process of an automobile as part of its manufacture. In terms of developing a new technology, we carry over aspects of engineering to the target domain of technology design. For example:

4.50

With its Batmobile-sleek bodywork, that iconic perforated speaker grill, enormous four-inch windscreen and polished black finish, the PSP looked like it had been engineered and tested in wind tunnels by fashionable Italians. [T3, The PSP]

As the above examples illustrate, expressions from the domain of engineering such as engineered are used to conceptualise the design and construction of a technology, and the effect of the technology’s form and appearance, such as aerodynamic(ally), metal/black finish. Although such expressions may seem to be commonly used in everyday language, they are regarded as original in the context of technology because they bring a new dimension to the way technology is viewed.

The second entailment,

PARTS OF A TECHNOLOGY ARE PARTS OF AN AUTOMOBILE,

is

closely connected to the engineering aspect, and involves the parts of an automobile.

114

Given that the parts are designed and constructed for a specific purpose, the parts of an automobile help to conceptualise constitutive parts of a technology. For example: 4.51

4.52

And TubeSurf, a metasearch engine that simultaneously scans Google, MySpace, Yahoo, and YouTube for videos, is a quick way to query multiple sites. {PCW, Search Engine Shoot-Out] The term actually stands for Asynchronous JavaScript and XML, which reveals a bit about what you’ll find under the hood – though not much. [PCM, Web e-mail clients]

The aspect of automotive parts comprises a few common expressions occurring from terminology and typical expressions in technical language, as in example 4.51. The metaphorical expression engine is the most frequently used in the texts. This is due to the fact that engine has been incorporated into the terminology of technology, specifically in the use of the term search engine to refer to a computer program that searches for information on the Internet. Other common expressions found are mechanism, and fuel (cells).

Moreover, the data present a number of common expressions expressing new meanings in the context of technology, which are thus regarded as original. As in example 4.52, the expression under the hood, commonly used in everyday language referring to an automobile’s metal cover over the engine, is used to conceptualise the underlying construction of web development tools. Other original metaphorical expressions are chassis used to conceptualise the casing of a computer, windscreen used to conceptualise the screen of the Sony portable Playstation (PSP), dashboard used to conceptualise the toolbar on the lower part of the screen with buttons for activating applications, kingpin used to conceptualise the centrality of a technology component as the central processing unit, turbocharge used to conceptualise the amount of extra power added to a software download, and juice used to conceptualise battery life in portable games and portable computers. Although the expression juice belongs to the

FOOD/COOKING

metaphor (Section 4.11), its use here

enhances the automobile metaphor, given that it is a colloquial expression for the fuel for an engine.

Thirdly, the aspect of operation of an automobile helps to conceptualise the functioning of a technology, and is the most dominant entailment of the four. For example:

115

THE FUNCTIONING OF A TECHNOLOGY IS THE OPERATION OF AN AUTOMOBILE

4.53

4.54 4.55

The Windows Task Manager provides a good start when you try to discover what programs are running on your system, but it’s only a first step. [PCW, 35 Things Every PC Owner Should Know] Tweak and Tune [website] This freebie doesn’t have as many options and tools as Fresh UI does, but it’s simple to use and well laid-out. [PCW, 101 Fantastic Freebies] Modems and routers are vulnerable to frequent crashes. [PCW, How to Survive the Worst PC Disasters]

This aspect mainly comprises common metaphorical expressions that were initially used in the domain of engineering but that have now also become mainstream in the domain of technology. The most typical expression found in the texts is run. As a term, run originally referred to human action but was later used to refer to movement by means of vehicles (Johansson Falck 2005:170-171). Mapping this knowledge of motor movement from the source domain of automobiles to the target domain of technology, the term run refers to the execution of computer software, and is commonly associated with the speed of technology (which is a central feature of the next entailment, discussed below). Other common expressions found are calibrate, boost, fine-tune, tweaker, throttle, tinker, rev up and well-maintained, which conceptualise the improvement of a technology as the improvement of an automobile. In addition, there is one original expression, soup up, which refers colloquially to the modification of an engine in order to increase its power (Collins 2003).

On the other hand, as Example 4.55 illustrates, the malfunction and damage undergone by a technology is conceptualised by the common expression crash. The source domain maps knowledge from automobiles crashing and breaking down onto the target domain. The term crash is commonly used in the domain of computers to signify the termination of functioning due to a fault.

Lastly, the aspect of performance of an automobile describes the performance of a technology. This is closely connected to the previous aspect of operation though the dominant use of metaphorical expressions relating to the speed of an automobile in association with the metaphorical expression run. For example:

THE PERFOMANCE OF A TECHNOLOGY IS THE PERFORMANCE OF AN AUTOMOBILE

116

4.56 4.57

4.58

So while you will see improvement with eight-core CPUs, the speedup won’t be as dramatic as it might sound. [PCW, Your PC in 2008 and Beyond] Executive Software, which makes Diskeeper, a defragging utility, claims the practice can improve performance – if you have at least 20 percent of your hard disk free. In short: Your mileage may vary. [PCW, Technology: Truth or fiction] Then watching your browser screech to a standstill. [PCW, Build the Perfect Browser]

The majority of these metaphorical expressions are commonly used in technical language making explicit that there is a strong connection between performance and speed: fast(er), speed, speedy, speed up, high-speed, full-speed, power, power up, full-powered, acceleration and crank out. This point of valuing a technology by how fast it performs is also illustrated in other metaphorical expressions that refer to a technology’s slow performance, such as slow (down). Such common expressions give rise to original ones, as in example 4.57, which expresses the quality of a technology in terms of miles travelled, and example 4.58, which seems to enhance even more the inconvenience of manipulating a slow technology. Further original expressions found are bog down, chug along, and lug.

In addition, the following similes encountered in the data point to two original conceptualisations regarding the performance aspect: 4.59 4.60

But using a fast memory card with a slow camera is like putting race-car tires on a Yugo – you’ll end up spinning your wheels. [PCW, Technology: Truth or fiction] If your Treo’s Web connection is as slow as rush-hour traffic, here’s one way you can speed things up. [PCW, Hardware Tips]

The first simile (example 4.59) compares fast memory cards in slow cameras with race-car tires on a Yugo, by mapping the fast memory cards onto the race-car tires and a slow camera onto a Yugo. This comparison makes both the

AUTOMOBILE

submetaphor and the relation between performance and speed explicit. The automobile brand Yugo as a paragon represents the anti-ideal fast automobile, or conversely a typical slow automobile. This knowledge helps us make evaluations about the quality and/or performance of the technology in question.

The second simile (example 4.60) compares slow internet connection with rush-hour traffic. The simile makes reference to the submetaphors of HIGHWAY (the PHYSICAL SPACE

AUTOMOBILE

and

metaphor, Section 4.14). By experience we know that

automobiles run on highways, and when they face rush-hour traffic they move quite slowly. This simile seems to use traffic metonymically for the automobiles creating

117

the congestion on the highway that results in their slow movement. Therefore, technology is compared to an automobile moving slowly on the highway due to heavy traffic. What makes this simile work and seem original is the popularity of the HIGHWAY

metaphor, which has been useful in conceptualising the Internet.

Lastly, another aspect of the performance of an automobile being mapped onto technology is driving, involving original expressions such as: 4.61

After we took each download or service for a test-drive, we picked the very best, and came up with the following list of 101 great freebies. [PCW, 101 Fantastic Freebies]

Such metaphorical expressions create a relationship between the experience of driving a vehicle with respect to evaluating its performance and the testing of a technology in order to assess its performance.

4.3.1.2

TECHNOLOGY IS A BUS

The submetaphor

TECHNOLOGY IS A BUS

is very limited, comprising a single

metaphorical expression bus, as in the following example: 4.62

When data travels through your PC, it’s the system bus – not the processor – that limits overall performance. [PCW, Your PC in 2008 and Beyond]

The expression bus is a common expression belonging to terminology, and refers to ‘a collection of wires through which data is transmitted from one part of a computer to another’ (Microsoft Press 1997). In the same way as bus initially signified ‘a horse-drawn public vehicle for carrying passengers’ (Johansson Falck 2005:164) and later came to mean a motor vehicle for the same purpose, the concept bus in technology terminology seems to relate to the motor-driven vehicle in two regards: it contains data (accommodates passengers) and it transfers them (carries passengers) along a specific course (fixed route).

4.3.1.3 The

TECHNOLOGY IS A SHIP

SHIP

submetaphor, although categorised under the

not work in the same way as the

AUTOMOBILE

or the

VEHICLE BUS

does not highlight technical and mechanical features. The

submetaphor, does

submetaphors, in that it SHIP

submetaphor draws

118

knowledge from nautical organisation and vocabulary and comprises metaphorical expressions commonly used in everyday language. For example: 4.63

The

For the first time in 13 years, the name of the company’s flagship chip does not include the word Pentium. [PCM, Why Microchips Matter (Again)]

SHIP

submetaphor conceptualises technology in several ways. The expression

flagship in example 4.63 conceptualises the leading technology (chip) of a particular company (Intel). Other common metaphorical expressions found are fleet, propel, on board, rock the boat, push the boat out, and full speed ahead. A number of advanced concept designs are organised as one unit and are conceptualised as a fleet, a group of warships operating together; this is enhanced even more by the expression propel in the same context, which denotes forward movement of a ship by means of propeller and is used to conceptualise the capabilities of technological ideas for advancing technology. The metaphorical expression on board conveys another conceptualisation of technology: a PC’s desktop where one can add features is conceptualised as a ship on which various components can board as people can. The metaphorical expressions rock the boat, push the boat out, and full speed ahead are commonly used idioms in the English language. In this context, rock the boat relates to new technology services disturbing the market with their release, while push the boat out relates to the excessive effort of a technology company to develop a product. The expression full speed ahead relates to using particular image editing software with all possible enthusiasm. Table 4.3.6 presents the range of metaphorical expressions of the submetaphors

TECHNOLOGY IS A BUS

and

TECHNOLOGY IS A SHIP

(Appendix 1).

4.3.2 The

Conclusion

TECHNOLOGY IS A MACHINE

metaphor is a conventional metaphor of technology

with the purpose of making its technical and mechanical aspects comprehensible in terms of familiar machines. The metaphor distinguishes the more specific submetaphor of

TECHNOLOGY

AUTOMOBILE, BUS,

and SHIP.

IS

A

VEHICLE

including the subdomains of

The source domain is machine, including the more specific domain of vehicle (automobile, bus, ship), and the target domain is technology. The basic mapping is

119

technology, which corresponds to the machine and the vehicle. Our experiences of machines and particularly of automobiles provide rich knowledge of several constitutive elements of these domains, namely engineering, automobile parts, a vehicle’s operation and performance, and driving. This knowledge gives rise to the metaphorical entailments identified and analysed in Section 4.3.1.1, which help to expand the

TECHNOLOGY IS AN AUTOMOBILE

submetaphor and add to the

understanding of technology.

The

MACHINE

metaphor comprises both common and original metaphorical

expressions. The common expressions outnumber the original because the domains of machines and automobiles are essential parts of everyday life and have been in existence for more than a century. On the contrary, original expressions stand out because they manifest more recent knowledge about modern automobile design, and involve aspects of automobiles that are seldom or never used in the domain of technology.

The metaphorical entailments and expressions help to convey two types of evaluation. The first type of evaluation is regarding the conceptualisation itself, in that it adds to the understanding of technology as a well structured machine involving the aspects of condition, design, operation and performance. The second type of evaluation is related to the choice of the particular source domains. In particular, the prominence of the

AUTOMOBILE

submetaphor can be explained by the

fact that the automobile constitutes the most common and familiar machine due to its popular and widespread use, and to its dominance in the technological industry. As Lawler (1999) claims, ‘our culture has not just accepted automobiles – we’ve embraced them wholeheartedly. So it is tempting to use the metaphor of driving a car to refer to using a computer’ (1999:420). Another reason that the

AUTOMOBILE

submetaphor is so dominant is because the automobile was once a major technological trend in the 20th century, which diminished travelling times and facilitated transportation. By the same token, technology is now considered as the dominant machine in the 21st century, which has also come to affect the transfer of data and accordingly their transfer times. The similarity resides in the fact that the new technology (computer systems) adopts characteristics from and relates to the older technology (automobiles). By conceptualising technology as an automobile, 120

various aspects of technology may seem more familiar and comprehensible; the new dominant technology falls back on an older dominant technology in order to make sense of it. In the words of Rheingold, ‘to cope with the new, we fall back on the familiar, on what is known’ because ‘the new is fabricated out of the old’ (1985:9,14).

4.4

TECHNOLOGY IS COMPETITION

The COMPETITION metaphor is one of the less dominant cross-domain mappings. It is, however, found in all four magazines, and specifically in 35 out of 48 articles under investigation. This mapping is further categorised into the submetaphors of BATTLE,

and

BOXING MATCH.

It contains a total of 247 metaphorical expressions, of

which 132 expressions come under expressions under

BATTLE,

RACE,

COMPETITION,

54 expressions under

and 18 expressions under

BOXING MATCH,

RACE,

42

as shown in

Table 5.

Metaphor Competition

TOTAL

The

COMPETITION

Submetaphors

Metaphorical expressions 132 Race 54 Battle 42 Boxing match 18 247 Table 5 The COMPETITION metaphor

% 54% 22% 17% 7% 100%

metaphor and its submetaphors are used to conceptualise

technology as a competition and specifically as a race, a battle, and a boxing match. This metaphor describes the current antagonism of technology systems and products in the market and their effort to prevail over others. It also describes the quality and power of a system or product individually and/or in opposition to other similar ones. When thinking about types of competition there are numerous, common elements that may come to mind. In broad terms, they all involve some sort of contest in which opponents take part and compete for a purpose. Some of the prominent elements are the participants, their performance, and the outcome of the contest. Opponents can be favourites and outsiders, novices and experts, and there can be two or more participants. Their performance entails evaluation, criticism, appraisal and ranking during and/or after the competition. The outcome of the contest involves the

121

final evaluation and ranking, success and defeat, winners and losers. These are among the main inferences involved in the domains of competition, race, battle, and boxing match. The

COMPETITION

metaphor is a conventional metaphor involving a common source

domain in metaphorical conceptualisations of technology antagonism. It highlights aspects such as the event of the competition, the participants, the performance of each contender, and the outcome of the competition. These features are manifested by metaphorical expressions commonly used in everyday language, which describe engagement in a competitive activity. For example: 4.64

4.65 4.66

4.67

Ominously for its competitors, Apple then moved to address the niggling issue of affordability, introducing a succession of miniaturised iPods that prevented their rivals from undercutting them. [T3, The iPods] While other services performed as well or slightly better in specific areas, only Google aced virtually every test we threw at it. [PCW, Search Engine Shoot-Out] The device that brought about a new era in personal entertainment, Apple’s iconic MP3 player is clearly deserving of a prime spot in our pantheon of world-beating gadgets. [T3, The iPods] NewsGator Online comes a close second to Bloglines. [PCW, 101 Fantastic Freebies]

The technologies are viewed as entities participating in a competition (example 4.64). The participants’ performance implies the quality of a technology system or product, and performance is expressed by metaphorical expressions relating to evaluations, criticisms, and appraisals during and/or after the competition, and to the level of the participants’ skills (example 4.65). In addition, the quality of a technology is also viewed as a participant with superior class and expertise (example 4.66). Another aspect of the source domain highlighted in the data is the outcome of the competition (example 4.67). The outcome involves the final judgement that concludes the competition and declares the winners and losers. This aspect was encountered in the context of setting technologies in opposition and testing them in order to determine how well they perform individually, as well as to ascertain which technology seems to perform better than the others. Numerous common metaphorical expressions were encountered conceptualising a technology’s success as the outcome of a competition. Such expressions include the use of nouns declaring the winner or loser (winner), and the use of verbs that distinguish the winning and the losing sides (left the competition for dead). The success of a technology system or product is also

122

implied by metaphorical expressions relating to the assessment of the contenders’ ranking in the competition (comes a close second, leading the way). In addition, the metaphorical expression draw was encountered, thereby denoting that the competition ended without a winning side and the competing technologies ranked as equal in quality. Furthermore, another entailment of the

COMPETITION

metaphor is judging which

technology (contender) is considered to be the best based on their respective performances. The common expression verdict was encountered in the data, which refers to evaluating technology as making a judgement. Here, the magazine authors seem to play the role of judges. The

COMPETITION

metaphor seems to relate to a sort of competitive game. This is

mostly illustrated by metaphorical expressions that refer to being involved in a game (on top of game, to beat Google at its own game, face-off), playing a game within a specific area (arena, playing field), playing in accordance with certain established and agreed upon rules (play fairly) and the final result of the game (tiebreaker, trophy). Such metaphorical expressions conceptualise the activity in the technology business, the participants, and the outcome of such a competitive activity. The full range of metaphorical expressions of the

COMPETITION

metaphor is shown in Table

4.4.1 (Appendix 1).

4.4.1

TECHNOLOGY IS A RACE

Similar to the

COMPETITION

metaphor, the features highlighted in the

RACE

submetaphor are the participants as competitors in a race, the contenders’ performance, which is measured by their speed, and the outcome of the race, which relates to the level of technological advancement. However, what mainly differentiates the

RACE

submetaphor from the broader

COMPETITION

metaphor is the

aspect of running speed. For example: 4.68

4.69

4.70

The other big runner is Thinkfree Office [website], which takes a comparative age to load the first time but rewards its users with an interface as slick as any computer-bound equivalent. [CA, Go to work on the web] Whether we’re prepping video for an iPod, living the latest 3D game, or churning through years of e-mail with a desktop search tool, suddenly our “fast-enough” PCs run slower than molasses. [PCM, Why Microchips Matter (Again)] Grisoft’s AVG Anti-Spyware 7.5 and Webroot’s Spy Sweeper 5.5 finished some distance behind. [PCW, Die, Spyware, Die]

123

Technology systems and products are conceptualised as competitors in a race, expressed by common metaphorical expressions as front-runner and runner (example 4.68). In the English language the verb run, in the sense of moving, is intransitive; however, the computer technology domain uses the transitive form of the verb run to refer to the execution of computer programs (Lawler 1999), and this goes hand in hand with the significance of having quick responses from the computer. This means that speed helps conceptualise the response time of technology systems and products, with the implication that rapid response time determines outstanding performance and appraisal, while slower response time is undesirable because it slows processes down and leads to staying behind in the competition. New technology prevails over old technology if it has improved response time. Hence, technological performance is conceptualised by how fast the participants run in the race (example 4.69). The performance of a technology measured by its response time in executing a program is commonly accompanied by expressions, such as fast, faster, fastest, super-fast, speed, high-speed, and speedy, and the opposites slow, and slower. These expressions are calculated in the metaphorical expressions of the RACE submetaphor, as essential in conceptualising how fast a technology runs.

Given that the relation between performance and speed was also explicit in the MACHINE

metaphor (Section 4.3.1.1), it may be argued that the RACE submetaphor is

closely linked to the MACHINE and the PERSON metaphors, due to the use of the term run on three levels, ‘the linguistic, the conceptual and the pragmatic’ (CharterisBlack 2004:21), each one attaching a different meaning. On the linguistic level, run is defined and understood as the technology term to execute (a program), which is a quite natural definition given the context of the technology magazine. On the conceptual level, run is transferred from the domain of motor movement in order to mean the execution of software, and transmits a view of conceptualising technology as a motor vehicle. Therefore, the term run means the execution of programs while also evoking the conceptualisation of technology as a motor vehicle engaged in a race of speed. On the pragmatic level, the term run seems to be used with its original reference to human action; this level transmits a view of personification that helps to distinguish when run is used to conceptualise technology as the operation of a vehicle and when it is used to conceptualise technology as a human agent involved in 124

a speed race. Accordingly, the word speed may refer to the vehicle’s performance, or to an athlete’s performance. Because the

MACHINE

metaphor is more entrenched in

our experience in relation to technology, we tend to conceptualise technology as a vehicle, mainly from the use of the term run, and competing technologies as competing cars in a race. However, in the

RACE

submetaphor the testing of

technologies are expressed as human agents participating in a race. Thus it seems that the

RACE

submetaphor is further combined with the

metaphors, as follows: conceptualised as

MACHINE

and the

TECHNOLOGY IS A PARTICIPANT IN A RACE

PERSON

which is

TECHNOLOGY IS A VEHICLE COMPETING IN A RACE,

and is

personified as TECHNOLOGY (AS A VEHICLE) IS A PERSON COMPETING IN A RACE. Another aspect of the source domain highlighted is the outcome of the race. Similar to the

COMPETITION

metaphor, a number of common metaphorical expressions

conceptualise a successful technology as the winner of the race (example 4.70). Such expressions are also connected to the

PERSON

metaphor, thereby enhancing the

qualities of technology. Technology systems and products are conceptualised as champ, champion(s), and winner, denoting their superior quality and reliability. There are also a number of metaphorical expressions relating to the award of the race or the runners’ ranking, where personification is more implicit (takes the prize, finished some distance behind).

Lastly, there is a single original expression of a simile, which compares the British athlete Kriss Akabusi with an Internet mobile phone: Like Kriss Akabusi, it’s ugly, but it’s a champion. This expression is regarded as original because it creates a similarity between a successful athlete and a technology device, thereby enhancing even more the quality and reliability of the technology product, given the importance and fame of this athlete and despite the humorous comment about the athlete’s physical appearance. Kriss Akabusi is used as a paragon, thus representing a prototype of the ideal athlete largely acknowledged in the British culture. The full range of metaphorical expressions of the

RACE

submetaphor is shown in Table 4.4.2

(Appendix 1).

125

4.4.2

TECHNOLOGY IS A BATTLE

Technology companies seem to have been engaged in a pursuit for prevalence in the global markets, striving to better their systems and products in order to increase their sales and thus their profits. The submetaphor of BATTLE is used here to conceptualise precisely this kind of market antagonism between companies and their products. The concept of battle highlights the aspect of an armed conflict between two or more parties, and intensifies the kind of competition in which technologies and high-tech companies are involved, as well as implying notions of hostility, violence, aggression, the use of arms, and the ultimate supremacy of one side over the other.

The

BATTLE

submetaphor is evoked by metaphorical expressions commonly used in

everyday language, highlighting the aspects of an armed encounter between opposing forces, the opposing sides, and the outcome of the fighting. For example: 4.71 4.72

Apple is winning the MP3 war thanks to persistent innovation, creating a seemingly endless string of killer products. [T3, The iPods] Or should you wait for a victor in the format war? [PCM, Battle of the new DVDs]

The intense antagonism between technologies is viewed as an armed encounter between opposing forces (example 4.71). This antagonism is conceptualised by common expressions such as war, conflict, battle, fight, attack, dust-up, and shootout, while the competing technologies as opposing forces involved in the battle are conceptualised as camps, and the technology market is conceptualised as front. Another aspect highlighted is the outcome of the battle (example 4.72). The outcome is expressed by common metaphorical expressions where the competing technologies are conceptualised as king, winner and victor. Given that technology is conceptualised as a human agent fighting a battle and winning, the submetaphor of BATTLE

is closely connected to the

PERSON

metaphor, similar to the

RACE

submetaphor. Thus, the PERSON metaphor mostly figures in metaphorical expressions referring to human activity (fight, win, strike back) and to human roles (king, victor, killers).

Furthermore, several entailments occurring from this submetaphor have been identified, which conceptualise the strategies for the development of technology as war strategies. These entailments highlight aspects of prevailing in the battle (winning the war, conquer), attacking (make inroads against, strike back), and the

126

fighters involved (killers). Knowledge from such war strategies is mapped onto technology, thereby conceptualising innovative products as killers, and developing new technology as returning the attack of another dominant technology and winning in the battle. Lastly, the expression Trenches (View from the Trenches) implies the excavations used to protect the troops, as well as makes reference to those used at the front line in World War I (Collins 2003). This expression constitutes a subtitle within an article about Windows Vista and refers to a technology consultant’s view about whether businesses will upgrade to Vista. In this manner, the consultant, being involved in the domain of business, has a clear picture of the domain and is an appropriate person to talk about businesses, as if being a soldier in the front line trenches, where he can have a clear view of the battle at hand. The full range of metaphorical expressions of the

BATTLE

submetaphor is shown in Table 4.4.3

(Appendix 1).

4.4.3 The

TECHNOLOGY IS A BOXING MATCH BOXING MATCH

submetaphor conceptualises competing technologies as

participants in a boxing match. The

BOXING MATCH

submetaphor is used within the

context of setting technologies in opposition and testing them in order to determine how well they perform individually and in relation to others. The aspects of the source domain that are highlighted are the participants, the boxing ring, the periods in a boxing match, weight divisions and the outcome of the match. For example: 4.73

4.74

To find out, we pitted Google against its big-name competitors, Yahoo and Microsoft Live Search, as well as against smaller challengers, such as AlltheWeb, AltaVista, and Ask.com— […]. [PCW, Search Engine Shoot-Out] Undisputed champ? [PCW, Search Engine Shoot-Out]

The competing technologies are conceptualised as boxers competing against each other. This mapping is illustrated by common metaphorical expressions, such as challenger and competitor (example 4.73). It is not always clear whether such metaphorical expressions are referring to contenders in any type of competition or to boxing. These were categorised under the submetaphor of

BOXING MATCH

because

they were encountered in the context of an article about testing search engines along with other metaphorical expressions, such as challengers to the king, pitted against, undisputed champ, and rounds; thus, it was assumed that the expressions were part of

127

the more specific domain of boxing rather than the more general domain of competition.

Moreover, competing technologies that seem to prevail and have the best reputation in the market are conceptualised as the champions of the match (example 4.74). The metaphorical expression Undisputed champ is a term used in boxing and refers to a boxer who holds the recognised world championship titles simultaneously (Collins 2003), and for a boxer it is considered as the uttermost success in the sport. Further reference to a specific weight division in boxing is made by the metaphorical expression heavyweight champ. These aspects enhance even more the superiority and value of the technology involved in the competition.

Further aspects of the source domain highlighted are the periods in a boxing match and the boxing ring. The periods in a boxing match (rounds) are used to conceptualise the series of tests that the technologies have been put to, while the corners of a boxing ring are used emphatically to present the opposing technologies in terms of boxers entering the ring from their assigned corners (floating in the red corner, in the blue corner). Such expressions are regarded as original because they make use of unused and secondary features of the source domain, and because they seem to enhance the metaphors’ effect.

The

BOXING MATCH

submetaphor makes use of another competitive activity to

conceptualise competing technologies. The boxing match is a competitive game like the

RACE

metaphor, but it is also a violent and aggressive game since it essentially

involves physical fighting, like the

BATTLE

submetaphor. The metaphor does not

make reference to the act of boxing, but only uses metaphorical expressions that mainly add to the presentation of the contenders as opponents in a boxing match (challengers, champ), and the outcome of the competition as ranking in the domain of boxing (heavyweight). Such metaphorical expressions also evoke a link to the PERSON

metaphor, since competing technologies are conceptualised as boxers. The

full range of metaphorical expressions of the

BOXING MATCH

submetaphor is shown

in Table 4.4.4 (Appendix 1).

128

4.4.4 The

Conclusion

TECHNOLOGY IS COMPETITION

metaphor is a conventional metaphor since the

source domain of competition is a successful paradigm for expressing rivalry in English-speaking cultures, in particular in business and politics (Charteris-Black 2004:132). This metaphor relates the antagonism of current technologies to various forms of competition found in social life, and in particular to a race, a battle and a boxing match.

Charteris-Black (2004) has observed metaphors of war in sports reporting and found that the concepts of war and competitive games (such as sports) share a common meaning focus, which makes them plausible domains for conceptualising each other. These domains (war, sports) share the common main meaning focus of struggle for survival, thereby enabling the domain of war to be conceptualised as a competitive game, and sports to be conceptualised as war. Based on Charteris-Black’s findings, I identify the overarching generic-level metaphor of SURVIVAL,

COMPETITION IS STRUGGLE FOR

which can be distinguished into two specific-level metaphors:

COMPETITION IS SPORT

and

COMPETITION IS WAR.

from the generic level metaphor of

The

BATTLE

submetaphor extends

COMPETITION IS A STRUGGLE FOR SURVIVAL,

and

adds the aspect of hostile disposition, strategic activity and physical impact. On a second level, the submetaphors of BOXING MATCH

COMPETITION IS A RACE

extend from the specific-level metaphor of

and

COMPETITION IS A

COMPETITION IS SPORT,

and specify the types of sports involved. It may be argued that the submetaphor seems to share common traits with both the

BOXING MATCH

RACE

and

BATTLE

submetaphors; on the one hand, it belongs to the domain of sports, which involves a specific playing field and rules and makes use of a positive value concept such as a sporting event, while on the other hand, it shares the aspect of physical conflict and enhances the aspect of the physical strive for victory. The relationship between the metaphors is shown in Table 6. GENERIC LEVEL

COMPETITION IS STRUGGLE FOR SURVIVAL

SPECIFIC LEVEL 1

COMPETITION IS SPORT

COMPETITION IS WAR / BATTLE

SPECIFIC LEVEL 2

COMPETITION IS A RACE COMPETITION IS A BOXING MATCH

Table 6 Relation of the generic-level metaphor and specific-level metaphors of competition

129

The

TECHNOLOGY IS COMPETITION

metaphor may be regarded as secondary to other

conceptualisations of technology analysed so far, in that it does not concern technology directly but relates to the antagonism of technologies in the market. Nevertheless, the

COMPETITION

metaphor is considered as an important aspect of

technology in two regards: firstly, because very often the market conditions influence the views people take of technology, and secondly, because it reveals that technology is a competitive domain, like business and politics, and as much a part of social life as any other competitive activity.

4.5

TECHNOLOGY IS SECURITY

The

TECHNOLOGY IS SECURITY

metaphor is a rather prominent metaphor in the

particular articles that look at security issues related to computers, operating systems, computer problems regarding software and hardware, and the Internet. It is encountered in three out of four magazines, and specifically in eighteen out of 48 articles under investigation. This mapping is further categorised into the submetaphors of FORTRESS, COMBAT, DEFENCE, ATTACK, ESPIONAGE and INVASION, as shown in Table 7.

Metaphor Security

Submetaphors Fortress Combat Defence Attack Espionage Invasion

TOTAL

Metaphorical expressions 21 25 207 81 18 12 364

% 6% 7% 57% 22% 5% 3% 100%

Table 7 The SECURITY metaphor

4.5.1 The

TECHNOLOGY IS A FORTRESS

FORTRESS

metaphor conceptualises maintaining security and safety within the

computer system against outside threats. It comprises metaphorical expressions commonly used in technical and everyday language, the most prominent of which are security, secure, insecure, and threat(s) since they constitute almost half of the expressions found in the data. For example: 4.75

No, it’s not that Windows has historically been as secure as a papier-mâché fortress; it must be because Linux just isn’t very popular. [PCM, Insider’s Guide to Vista]

130

Example 4.75 involves a simile that makes a clear analogy of an operating system (Windows)

as

a

papier-mâché

fortress.

This

comparison

verifies

the

conceptualisation of technology as fortress, and also conveys an evaluation of its quality by analogy to the quality of material of which the fortress is made. Given that it is conceptualised as a papier-mâché fortress, it is possible to infer that the construction of the system is rather weak, since paper is not as robust a material as concrete, for example. The full range of metaphorical expressions of the

SECURITY

metaphor is shown in Table 4.5.1 (Appendix 1).

4.5.2 The

TECHNOLOGY IS COMBAT

COMBAT

submetaphor is used to highlight the aspect of fighting a hostile force.

In this case the hostile forces are computer files and other malicious software that aim to invade the computer and take control over it. Knowledge from the source domain of combat, namely the act of fighting, is mapped onto technology regarding the latter’s actions to prevent the enemy from gaining power. For example: 4.76 4.77

As we discussed in our recent antivirus roundup, “Virus Stoppers”, several antivirus products are effective at fighting Trojan horses. [PCW, Die, Spyware, Die] But remember – since no single antispyware program can detect and kill all spyware, Spybot should be just one piece of your security arsenal. [PCW, 101 Fantastic Freebies]

This metaphor conceptualises the technology’s qualities and capabilities to keep the computer safe as a fighter’s fighting skills against an enemy threatening to occupy the territory. It makes use of expressions commonly used in everyday language, the most dominant of which are fight and fight back. Several other common metaphorical expressions further support the fighting aspect of the source domain: combat, stop/stopper, destroy, stomp, battle, kill, and bombarding.

Moreover, two common metaphorical expressions point to three distinct entailments that expand the

COMBAT

submetaphor. The first one is the expression Stoppers

(example 4.76), which conceptualises antivirus products as active participants in fighting viruses from infecting and destroying computer systems. This expression gives rise to the entailment that battles are fought by soldiers, and is closely related to the

PERSON

metaphor and more specifically to the

ROLE/OCCUPATION

submetaphor. The second expression is security arsenal (example 4.77), which 131

conceptualises the set of security tools, methods or processes that are available to a computer system for its defence against security threats. This expression implies the stock of weapons and equipment that is necessary for engaging in battle. The full range of metaphorical expressions of the

COMBAT

submetaphor is shown in Table

4.5.2 (Appendix 1).

4.5.3 The

TECHNOLOGY IS DEFENCE DEFENCE

submetaphor conceptualises computer software as a means of

defending the computer system and protecting it from the harmful effects of malicious software. It is the most dominant submetaphor in this category, accounting for more than half of all the metaphorical expressions. The

DEFENCE

submetaphor

consists of commonly used expressions in everyday and technical language, such as protect (against/by), protection, block, blockers, blacklist, security, and secure. In addition, it contains a number of common expressions that belong to terminology, such as firewall, Virus Shield, blocklist, SmartDefense and Defender. For example: 4.78 4.79

You’ll also want a software firewall on each PC, to further block hack attacks and protect against misbehaving applications. [PCM, Maximum security] AOL Active Virus Shield: Free antivirus protection, with an engine powered by Kaspersky. [PCW, 35 Things Every PC Owner Should Know]

The term firewall constitutes one of the most commonly used expressions in the context of technology, and it conceptualises the means of defending a computer system. The firewall is the ‘fortification’s outside wall’, which keeps out the attackers and maintains the security of the defenders (Bishop and Frincke 2004:69). The concept of defence and defending a territory against hostile forces is further enhanced by other common metaphorical expressions, such as prevent, defense(s), stop, guarded by, keep out, resist, impregnability, evade, and barricade.

Similar to the

COMBAT

submetaphor, a number of expressions give rise to the

entailments of the defenders of the fortress and defensive weapons. Security software products are conceptualised as people with the role of preserving and defending the security of the computer system (or fortress). Expressions such as Warrior, PatchGuard, Spy Catcher and Defender are closely connected to the metaphor and more specifically to the

ROLE/OCCUPATION

PERSON

submetaphor. In addition,

the metaphorical expression shield (example 4.79) makes reference to a particular 132

defensive weapon and conceptualises a security tool/method that these software products (as human defenders) have at their disposal in order to block an imminent attack from the enemy. The expression shield also raises another interesting point regarding the issue of universality. Given that shields are considered to be one of the primitive and universal defensive weapons (Columbia Encyclopedia 2010), this means that the metaphorical expression entails a universally shared experience. Thus, its use is not only appropriate within the

SECURITY

metaphor but it also transmits a

common understanding of the metaphorical expression to any language and culture. The full range of metaphorical expressions of the DEFENCE submetaphor is shown in Table 4.5.3 (Appendix 1).

4.5.4 The

TECHNOLOGY IS UNDER ATTACK

ATTACK

submetaphor is featured as the second most dominant submetaphor in

this category. In the ATTACK submetaphor, the hostile acts of computer software and programmers aimed at causing harm to computer systems are conceptualised as attacks against a fortress. Aspects of physical assault are highlighted and are mapped onto the acts of accessing computer systems without the owners’ knowledge or consent, usually with malicious intentions. For example: 4.80

4.81

The

So far, a handful of pharming attacks have struck domain name servers, including one in February targeting the sites of at least 50 financial institutions. [PCW, Technology: Truth or fiction] […] this arrangement limits the havoc that a zero-day exploit capable of hijacking I[nternet] E[xplorer] […] could wreak on your PC. [PCW, The threats you can’t see]

ATTACK

submetaphor comprises common metaphorical expressions of two

types: expressions that belong to terminology, and expressions that are commonly used in technical and everyday language. The former type includes expressions such as dictionary attack, e-mail–borne attack, phishing attack, cyberattack, DDoS attack, pharming attack (example 4.80), turn into a spambot, and Trojan horse. The metaphorical expression Trojan horse is one of the most infamous malevolent programs in the context of technology and has its roots in the paradigm of the Trojan horse in Greek mythology (Bishop and Frincke 2004:69). The term was originally found in a computer security technology planning study written by James P. Anderson to be used by the US Air Force (Bidgoli 2006:108). The paradigm of the Trojan horse in Greek mythology is used to conceptualise the deception techniques

133

of malicious software in order to sneak their way into computer systems and attack them. The latter type of common expressions involves expressions such as attack, attacker, hijack, hijacker, target, assaults, lurk (on), threat, strike, wreak havoc, go after, intercept, hack, booby-trap, and commandeer. The full range of metaphorical expressions of the ATTACK submetaphor is shown in Table 4.5.4 (Appendix 1).

4.5.5

TECHNOLOGY IS ESPIONAGE

In the

ESPIONAGE

submetaphor, computer software actions are conceptualised as

espionage. Espionage activity is a type of computer attack that may lead to computer infections, and is performed by spyware (Bonfante and Marion 2006:767). Spyware is ‘software that performs certain behaviours such as advertising, collecting personal information, or changing the configuration’ of a computer system without the owners’ consent (Microsoft 2010). This submetaphor maps knowledge from the source domain of spying to the target domain of malicious software and its behaviour, which involves moving in secrecy and remaining hidden in order to avoid being caught. For example: 4.82

4.83

The

It’s possible your new machine may come preloaded with adware, so you may want to install a good antispyware product, such as Spyware Doctor from PC Tools or Webroot Spy Sweeper, and scan the system before going online. [PCM, Maximum security] […] but if a piece of malicious spyware slips past Defender’s first line of defense, you’ll need something else to clean up the mess. [PCW, Die, Spyware, die] ESPIONAGE

submetaphor contains common expressions from terminology for

describing malevolent and benevolent software, such as spyware, Spyware Doctor and Spy Sweeper. It also includes expressions commonly used in technical and everyday language that conceptualise the activities and behaviour of spyware, such as record, report back, spy, steal, sneak through/by, slip past, and stealthy. Such expressions point to the personification of malevolent software as a human spy with particular activities. The aspect of personification is further reinforced by the metaphorical expressions Spyware Doctor and Spy Sweeper, which are connected to the

ROLE/OCCUPATION

submetaphor, under the

PERSON

metaphor. Spyware Doctor

and Spy Sweeper are software programs designed to detect and remove spyware. Here they are conceptualised as human agents with the duty to ‘remedy’ infections caused by computer viruses, and to ‘clean up’ computer systems from the infections. Apart from the close connection with the PERSON metaphor, there is also a relation to

134

the

HEALTH/ILLNESS

and the

submetaphor (the

PHYSICAL SPACE

LIVING ORGANISM

metaphor, Section 4.2.3)

metaphor (Section 4.14). While a computer system is

conceptualised as a fortress on the exterior, at the same time it is conceptualised as a living organism with health conditions in the interior. Table 4.5.5 presents the full range of metaphorical expressions of the ESPIONAGE submetaphor (Appendix 1).

4.5.6 The

TECHNOLOGY IS INVASION

INVASION

submetaphor conceptualises the occupation of a computer system by

malicious software. The source domain of invasion draws knowledge from the invasion of a territory and maps it onto the target domain of the computer system conceptualised as a fortress. For example: 4.84

If malware somehow breaches the containment vessel and taints the kernel, PatchGuard kills off the intrusion by deliberately crashing the system. [PCM, Insider’s Guide to Vista] Intruders armed with readily available software can break into WEP in minutes, rendering it virtually worthless except as a method to prevent bandwidth hogging by your neighbors. [PCW, Make Your Network Better]

4.85

The

INVASION

submetaphor makes use of expressions commonly used in technical

and everyday language in order to conceptualise the entering of malicious software into computer systems as invasions into a fortress. The metaphorical expressions relate to the invasion itself, the participants involved and other intrusive acts; for example, the common expressions invade, invasion, intruder, intrusion, break into, breach, taint, sleaze one’s way in, and armed with. The full range of metaphorical expressions is shown in Table 4.5.6 (Appendix 1).

4.5.7 The

Conclusion TECHNOLOGY IS SECURITY

metaphor is viewed as a novel metaphor in the

conceptualisation of computer systems and networks mainly in the area of computer security, and is commonly used in teaching computer security (Bishop and Frincke 2004:69). It constitutes a paradigm for learning and understanding computer security involving a variety of traditional security ideas that have been transferred from the physical world to the technology world, such as the Trojan horse and the firewall (Bishop and Frincke 2004:71-72). In the present study, the

SECURITY

metaphor is

regarded as a conventional metaphor because it occurs from established computer

135

terminology, and comprises common metaphorical expressions from terminology and from expressions commonly used in technical and everyday language.

The

metaphor is distinguished into the submetaphors of

SECURITY

COMBAT, DEFENCE, ATTACK, ESPIONAGE

and

INVASION.

FORTRESS,

The source domain is the

fortress and the target domain is the computer system. The basic mappings involved are the computer system, which corresponds to the fortress, antivirus and antispyware software corresponding to the defenders of the fortress, and malicious software corresponding to the offenders attacking and breaking into the computer.

Each submetaphor can be regarded as a set of metaphorical entailments occurring from the main source domain of fortress. Based on knowledge that a fortress is a structure for protecting the insiders against outside threats and attacks, the entailments that occur relate to war strategies, such as fighting and defending the structure, as well as attacking and invading the structure and spying. The submetaphors of

COMBAT

and

DEFENCE

cover aspects of maintaining security and

providing protection to a computer system, and the submetaphors of ESPIONAGE

and

INVASION

ATTACK,

relate to the threats against the security of a computer

system.

The SECURITY metaphor and its submetaphors are not isolated from other metaphors. The

SECURITY

metaphor works in collaboration with three metaphors, namely the

PERSON (ROLE/OCCUPATION,

the

LIVING ORGANISM

Section 4.1.9), the

PHYSICAL SPACE

(Section 4.14), and

(HEALTH/ILLNESS, Section 4.2.3) metaphors. The

PERSON

metaphor personifies software programs as human agents performing specific tasks, who act as the defenders and the attackers. The

PHYSICAL SPACE

metaphor mainly

relates to the conceptualisation of the computer as a physical structure with exterior and interior parts, and from the concept of invasion, which involves entering an area and implies the image-schema of container. The

LIVING ORGANISM

metaphor is

closely connected to the aspect of attack, given that it conceptualises malicious software as viruses that spread into computers and cause serious infections.

136

4.6

TECHNOLOGY IS LIFESTYLE

The TECHNOLOGY IS LIFESTYLE metaphor is considered as one of the novel metaphors found in the data, and is regarded as a similarity-creating metaphor making the target look similar to the source (Indurkhya 1992:275). It is one of the least dominant crossdomain mappings, encountered in all four magazines, specifically in 29 out of 48 articles under investigation, and contains a total of 138 metaphorical expressions. This mapping is further distinguished into the submetaphors of CLOTHING, as

and

shown in Table 8.

Metaphor Lifestyle

TOTAL

The

IDEAL, FASHION

LIFESTYLE

Submetaphors

Metaphorical expressions 1 Ideal 30 Fashion 89 Clothing 18 138 Table 8 The LIFESTYLE metaphor

% 1% 21% 67% 11% 100%

metaphor and its submetaphors present technology as a model of

values in society. The

LIFESTYLE

metaphor is exemplified by a single metaphorical

expression commonly used in everyday language, by which the everyday use of a technology is conceptualised as a way of life. The submetaphors of and

CLOTHING

IDEAL, FASHION

seem to conceptualise technology as an object of iconic value, status

and style, thereby adding to its conceptualisation as a style of living that reflects the attitudes and values of the people using the respective technology.

4.6.1 The

TECHNOLOGY IS AN IDEAL

IDEAL

submetaphor conceptualises technology as more than a commodity that

bears a certain value; technology is conceptualised as a particular kind of ideal bearing a particular significance, which enhances or devalues it as a product. As a similarity-creating submetaphor, the source domain draws upon knowledge from the wider context of ideals within a society, and maps social ideals onto technological artefacts, thus giving the artefacts the status and value of the respective ideals. The metaphorical expressions encountered in this submetaphor are essentially commonly used in everyday language, but given that they convey new meanings in the context of technology, they are regarded as original.

137

The

IDEAL

submetaphor is employed in two cases: in conceptualising technology as

an ideal in general, and in conceptualising technology as a specific type of ideal. In the first case we find metaphorical expressions that conceptualise technology as an icon, iconic, currency, milestone, and gold dust. For example: 4. 86 4.87

It’s this mix of designer desirability, hi-tech sophistication, versatility and bad boy behaviour that makes PSP a gadget icon. [T3, The PSP] Cartridges fast became valuable currency in the classroom. [T3, The Nintendo Game boy]

In the second case, technology is conceptualised as a specific ideal from the domains of: religion, such as nirvana, guru, messiah, evangelist and holy grail, television; film or music, such as Batmobile, rock-star, Pat Butcher and Star Trek; philosophy, such as pragmatism and New Age; the automobile industry, such as Rolls-Royce, Lamborghini Gallardo and Yugo; and trademarks that have managed to dominate the markets in which they occurred, such as Walkman and Hoover. For example: 4.88 4.89 4.90 4.91 4.92

How tumbling Russian blocks in four shades of grey made Game Boy the handheld-gaming messiah. [T3, The Nintendo Game Boy] The first was the appropriately named iPod mini, which stole the limelight with its choice of five colours, including the “cult” Pat Butcher gold one. [T3, The iPods] Far Eastern design meets Euro pragmatism in this package. [T3, Lard-free laptops] But PSP burst the zits of the portable, exploding onto the scene equipped with grown-up styling more akin to a Lamborghini Gallardo than a Game Boy. [T3, The PSP] Pundits jumped on the bandwagon, and the word “iPod” achieved “Hoover” status, taking ownership of the generic word for the MP3 player. [T3, The iPods]

According to the data and the examples above, the IDEAL submetaphor makes use of culturally-specific references. Some of these seem to be more universally shared symbols of ideals (messiah, Lamborghini Gallardo), others quite widespread (pragmatism, Hoover) and others rather limited within a specific culture (Pat Butcher). For instance, a symbol like the Walkman is more well-known than Pat Butcher. The former’s signification is more explicit, in that it is one of the few brand names that are synonymous with the particular product. The latter is more culturally specific thereby making its symbolism less explicit. Pat Butcher, a character from the popular British series ‘Eastenders’, is used to allude to the character’s liking for gaudy jewellery. In the same way as Pat Butcher made a trend out of her extravagant accessories, her character’s symbol is used to refer to a technology device as equally showy and unconventional.

The IDEAL submetaphor makes wide use of paragons as material examples of an ideal or value. For example, the use of an automobile such as the Lamborghini Gallardo

138

reflects the kind of automobile design that is possibly universally acknowledged as superior, and the generally acknowledged ‘myth’ that Italians are the embodiment of style as evidenced through their impressive fashion industry. Given the fact that ideals organise a substantial part of cultural knowledge (Lakoff 1987:87) and that technology is conceptualised as a variety of ideals, ranging from religious to industrial ones, it may be argued that such conceptualisations reveal a cultural facet of technology. This assumption is also supported by the

FASHION

submetaphor,

which conceptualises technology as a fashion trend with particular styles and patterns. The full range of metaphorical expressions of the

IDEAL

submetaphor is

presented in Table 4.6.1 (Appendix 1).

4.6.2

TECHNOLOGY IS FASHION

The FASHION submetaphor is the dominant submetaphor in this category. Technology is conceptualised as a chic commodity, as a trend that comes into and goes out of fashion, and as a commodity that reflects past and present styles of décor, design and fashion. Similar to clothing and other consumer goods, technological products have established their own market and have managed to set modern trends. As another similarity-creating metaphor, the

FASHION

submetaphor maps knowledge from the

domain of fashion onto technological products. Metaphorical expressions commonly used in everyday language for describing fashion trends, in the context of technology are regarded as original expressions conceptualising the reputation of technological products. For example: 4.93 4.94 4.95

But just as the iPod threatened to become uncool, the nano happened. [T3, The iPods] This is the year the microchip makes a comeback. [PCM, Why Microchips Matter (Again)] Avast!, with its skinnable interface, is definitely the best-looking; AntiVir has a retro look and AVG’s interface is strangely boxy. [PCM, Security Super Guide]

As example 4.93 illustrates, technology is conceptualised as a stylish commodity. This aspect of technology being fashionable is supported by further metaphorical expressions found in the data, such as stylish, must-have, mainstream, de rigueur, cool, popular, and passé. The majority of expressions enhance technology’s popularity, with the exception of the expressions passé and uncool, which present a rather negative impression of technology’s effect.

139

Technology is also conceptualised as a fashion trend that comes and goes, as in example 4.94. This conceptualisation is further supported by metaphorical expressions, such as jump on the bandwagon, steal the limelight, put the spotlight on, lose its mojo, and debut. In addition to this, a number of metaphorical expressions conceptualise technology as a commodity that mirrors a variety of styles from the domain of design and fashion, such as minimalist, vintage, classic, retro, as in example 4.95. By mapping design and fashion styles onto technologies, this provokes technology’s users to assign to it a particular characterisation. What this means is that because each fashion style has received specific criticism and has been either condemned or appreciated for what it displays and represents, this critique is reflected back onto technology, which, in turn, evokes positive or negative feelings about technology. In addition, it may be argued that technology has not only established a past history of development in terms of function, but also a past history of improvement in terms of aesthetic form. And this history of technology’s aesthetics is expressed via metaphorical expressions relating to particular time periods, such as 80s style and so 20th century. For example, the expression so 20th century implies that the technology is regarded as outdated since we have moved on to the 21st century. The full range of metaphorical expressions of the

FASHION

submetaphor is presented in Table 4.6.2 (Appendix 1).

4.6.2.1 The

TECHNOLOGY IS CLOTHING

CLOTHING

submetaphor, a subcategory of the

FASHION

submetaphor, is another

similarity-creating metaphor. It provides a number of different metaphorical expressions commonly used in everyday language for describing clothes and accessories, which are regarded as original conceptualisations in the present context. For example: 4.96 4.97 4.98

If you’re partial to animations, 3D effects, sounds, and other kinds of froufrou in your e-mail program, this downloadable software is the choice for you. [PCW, 101 Fantastic Freebies] WASH ’N’ WEAR IPODS – Flexible, washable OLED screens hit the market. [PCM, Tomorrow’s Tech] The DS Lite is less than two-thirds the size of the original DS, 20 per cent lighter and has brighter three-inch screens. It also features the bespoke Opera Web browser with touchscreen links! [T3, The Nintendo Game Boy]

Technology is related to clothing accessories, treatment of clothes, wearing and making clothes, and types of apparel. Example 4.96 is the only instance of clothing

140

accessories. The metaphorical expression froufrou is used to conceptualise any additional and unneeded features included in email programs.

Example 4.97 illustrates the treatment of a technology as the treatment of clothes. The metaphorical expression wash ‘n’ wear is used to conceptualise the handling of a media player, meaning here that no special treatment is required in using it. Other metaphorical expressions relating to the treatment of technologies are ironed out used to conceptualise the solving of computer problems, shrunk-to-fit used to conceptualise a new version of a game console that is small and easy to carry around, and wear and tear used to conceptualise damage caused to videocassettes from extensive use.

Example 4.98 relates to making custom-made clothing and is used to conceptualise the development of custom-made technologies. Similar to the metaphorical expression bespoke is the expression tailor-made, while other expressions relate to wearing clothing, such as suit, and one size fits all.

Types of apparel are exemplified by two metaphorical expressions: panoply and white hats. The expression panoply is used to conceptualise the complete array of Google services and features, while the expression white hats is used to conceptualise the benevolent (or ethical) hackers who break into computer systems in order to identify its flaws and prompt the owners to repair it. The expression white hats is the only common expression in the data occurring from computer terminology and has derived from old western films where the heroes wore white hats and the villains black (TechTarget 2003-2009).

The

CLOTHING

submetaphor gives rise to metaphorical entailments regarding the

decorative function of clothing and styles of clothing matching. The metaphorical expressions matching, wardrobe, and mix and match, seem to demonstrate a decorative function of technology (buy matching Wi-Fi gear), the change of technology’s role in the social and cultural spheres from a tool to a necessary part of apparel (mobile phone is de rigueur for your wardrobe), and ways of assembling hardware similar to clothes (you can’t mix and match chipsets and GPUs).

141

The

CLOTHING

submetaphor in a way concretizes the

FASHION

submetaphor and

makes it more specific in relation to the domain of clothes. In addition, it can be argued that the FASHION submetaphor has given rise to the CLOTHING submetaphor as a metaphorical entailment, given that the latter does not present a particularly uniform structure, but contains various aspects of the source domain of clothing. The full range of metaphorical expressions of the

CLOTHING

submetaphor is shown in

Table 4.6.3 (Appendix 1).

4.6.3

Conclusion

As opposed to previous conceptualisations of technology, the LIFESTYLE

TECHNOLOGY IS

metaphor is a similarity-creating metaphor and presents a novel

conceptualisation of technology in two regards. Firstly, the source domains of lifestyle, ideal, fashion, and clothing are considered as original in the context of technology because they provide creative and inventive views of technology. And secondly, the LIFESTYLE metaphor reflects more of a social and cultural dimension of technology by representing it as an artefact with aesthetic and cultural value.

The

IDEAL

and the

FASHION

submetaphors are closely related in that one completes

and enhances the other. If a technology is very innovative and accommodates stylish features, it may become fashionable, and by increasing in popularity, it may even acquire iconic status and become a symbol of its time, technology, society and culture. The

IDEAL

and

FASHION

submetaphors are also connected to the

PERSON

metaphor, which is evident in expressions personifying technology such as messiah, rock-star, and makes a comeback. In such expressions, technology is identified with the symbol in question (guru, rock-star), or with the notion of celebrity (back in the spotlight).

It may be argued that the

LIFESTYLE

metaphor promotes the main meaning focus of

the socio-cultural significance of an entity, meaning that an entity is evaluated in terms of its integration within, and influence upon, the social and cultural spheres. Symbols of religion, the entertainment industry, philosophy, the automobile industry and of famous brand names, as well as fashion design styles and fashion eras, are outstanding paradigms of socio-cultural significance, because they have succeeded in

142

affecting and defining social and cultural life, either on a near-universal basis or on a culture-specific basis. By assigning such ideals and styles to technology, technology becomes more of a measure of lifestyle than a set of modern commodities. The choice of ideals, symbols and styles provide a view to the users’ ideals and values that highlight a prototypical way of living.

4.7 The

TECHNOLOGY IS REVOLUTION TECHNOLOGY IS REVOLUTION

metaphor is one of the least dominant cross-

domain mappings. It is encountered in all four magazines, specifically in nine out of 48 articles under investigation, and contains a total of nineteen metaphorical expressions. This metaphor conceptualises the invention of new innovative technologies as a revolution and their qualities as revolutionary. Here the conceptualisation of technology as revolution implies that the advent of a particular technology will lead to a transformation, a radical change in anything that preceded it. The

REVOLUTION

metaphor is regarded as conventional in the context of

technology, since technology has often been viewed as synonymous to revolution because of the innovations that it has introduced into every part of life, particularly in the 20th century.

This metaphor comprises both common and original metaphorical expressions. For example: 4.99 4.100 4.101 4.102

They tore up the Game Boy blueprint, went back to the drawing board and in 2005 came back with a device that would reinvent handheld gaming. [T3, The Nintendo Game Boy] Armed with touch screens, GPS, and Wi-Fi, these not-quite-tablet PCs were supposed to revolutionize how and where people compute. [PCW, Your PC in 2008 and Beyond] Instead of seeking to destroy Apple’s baby, the music industry had decided to get on board, and ride the white rocket to stratospheric heights. [T3, The iPods] PSP didn’t just break the mould of portable gaming. It put it through a garbage compactor, set fire to the resultant electro-mechanical block, then did a little dance on the still-smouldering ashes. [T3, The PSP]

Examples 4.99 and 4.100 indicate metaphorical expressions that are commonly used in everyday language for describing an entity as being innovative, radical and challenging. Similar common expressions include revolutionary, bring about/usher in a new era, bend the laws of physics, kick-start a revolution, ground-breaking, and opened the gates to a new world of.

143

Examples 4.101 and 4.102 indicate original expressions. Example 4.101 demonstrates an original expression as an extension of a common expression bringing new meanings to technology. The common expression stratospheric heights is used to conceptualise the extreme success of Apple’s media player, the iPod. Here, the expression stratospheric heights is used in two ways; it relates both to the stratosphere and expressing something that is extremely high. By drawing from this bilateral meaning, the magazine’s author continues the wordplay, firstly in the expression get on board, and then in the choice of the word rocket. Like the expression stratospheric heights, the expression get on board also acquires a double meaning, that is, to board a type of vehicle and to join the development of the particular technology. And since only rockets are able to reach as high as the stratosphere, the iPod is conceptualised as a white rocket, due to its original colour. Thus, the expression ride the white rocket to stratospheric heights relates to the technology’s potential of achieving greatness and at the same time views its success as out of the ordinary, risky and quite revolutionary.

Example 4.102 demonstrates an original expression created by the article’s author in order to make his point about how revolutionary the portable game PSP is. Departing from the commonly used expression to break the mould, the author builds on the literal reading of the expression (to break the mould) and exaggerates the breaking by proceeding to the description of deliberate and complete destruction, and a subsequent celebration as demonstration of a successful outcome. This kind of description conceptualises the technology’s success in revolutionising portable gaming and the impact of this innovation in the particular domain. Following this, it is possible to infer that the more creative a metaphorical conceptualisation of technology is, the more revolutionary a particular technology seems to be. The full range of metaphorical expressions of the

REVOLUTION

metaphor is shown in Table

4.7.1 (Appendix 1).

4.7.1

Conclusion

One may expect technology to be conceptualised as revolution, because of the changes that technology has brought about in society and people’s lives. However, it is hard to regard a technology nowadays as truly revolutionary, since technology has

144

come to a point that new products being developed are actually improved versions of older models. This becomes even more evident by the small number of metaphorical expressions found in the data.

The

TECHNOLOGY IS REVOLUTION

metaphor conceptualises technology as an entity

that provokes radical changes. Based on the metaphorical expressions found these changes can take the form of a change in the current situation of things (break the mould), a new beginning (a new era), or the overthrow of accepted and wellestablished ideas and principles (bend the laws of physics).

It can be argued that the TECHNOLOGY IS REVOLUTION metaphor relies on the genericlevel metaphor

EVENTS ARE ACTIONS;

revolution is an event that brings about

fundamental changes and is represented as actions that initiate change, for example REVOLUTION IS TO BREAK THE MOULD, REVOLUTION IS TO BEND THE LAWS OF PHYSICS, REVOLUTION IS TO REINVENT,

related to the

PERSON

and so forth. In addition, the

REVOLUTION

metaphor is

metaphor, as technology products seem to play the role of the

agents performing the actions and causing the change.

4.8 The

TECHNOLOGY IS PROGRESS TECHNOLOGY IS PROGRESS

metaphor is another less dominant cross-domain

mapping. It is encountered in all four magazines, specifically in twenty out of 48 articles under investigation, and contains a total of 83 metaphorical expressions. This metaphor conceptualises technology as progress, and the invention of new technologies as improvements and developments of their previous versions. Similar to the REVOLUTION metaphor, the PROGRESS metaphor is regarded as conventional in the context of technology, comprising metaphorical expressions that are commonly used in everyday language for expressing development. For example: 4.103 4.104 4.105

Cutting-edge proposed wireless standards for connecting peripherals are in the works. [PCM, The 10 Biggest Problems in Computing and How We’ll Solve Them] […] Vista is indisputably a milestone […] and not just for Microsoft but for the entire PC industry. [PCM, Insider’s Guide to Vista] The cheaper and smaller Game Boy Micro is a bit more primitive but there are a lot of games available. [CA, Play time]

145

The examples above illustrate how technology is conceptualised as progress in terms of present progress and earlier stages of development. Examples 4.103 and 4.104 provide expressions of present progress that convey a positive effect of how advanced a technology (wireless standards) is about to become, and that an operating system (Vista) has come to constitute an important event in the advancement of the field. Further metaphorical expressions supporting the present progress of technology include: innovative, breakthrough, latest, modern, bleeding-edge, novel, progressive, groundbreaking, evolutionary and pioneer. On the other hand, several metaphorical expressions present earlier stages of development, as in example 4.105. Earlier stages of development are conceptualised as primitive, old-fashioned, prehistoric or traditional because they have been rendered outdated by new advancements. Then again, they can function as benchmarks of progress and add value to today’s innovations.

The on

PROGRESS

metaphor is based on the Event Structure metaphor, and particularly

ACTIONS ARE SELF-PROPELLED MOVEMENTS

PROGRESS IS FORWARD MOVEMENT

and the special case of

MAKING

(Lakoff 1993:221). According to work carried out

by Lakoff (1993) progress is conceptualised as forward motion; we fall back two steps for every one we take, the project is going ahead as planned, how're things going?, to mention a few of his examples (ibid.). This aspect of forward motion is also supported in the present data, as the examples illustrate below: 4.106 4.107

4.108 4.109

The basic technology of WiMax may yet evolve as part of future 4G cellular networks, but that’s still a long way off. [PCW, Your PC in 2008 and Beyond] Three new services – image-crunchers Like.com and Polar Rose, and music-matchmaker Pandora – have already taken the first steps toward this new breed of media search. [PCM, Web 3.0] Everyday software has evolved by leaps and bounds, finally overtaking the older breed of microchip and demanding something more. [PCM, Why Microchips Matter (Again)] As CPUs grow more powerful and graphics cards rocket toward ever higher levels of realism and detail, a significant bottleneck in your PC’s data flow remains: the system bus. [PCW, Your PC in 2008 and Beyond]

It is also interesting to observe that the metaphorical expressions first steps toward and by leaps and bounds not only evoke forward motion, but they also make inferences about the degree of progress made. Lakoff (1993:221) suggests the special case of

AMOUNT OF PROGRESS IS DISTANCE MOVED;

for example, we’ve come a long

way and we’ve covered lots of ground. The data present only a few such

146

conceptualisations, such as long way off (example 4.109), long way to go and one step further.

However, example 4.108 also suggests another type of case that seems complementary to

AMOUNT OF PROGRESS IS DISTANCE MOVED

magnitude of motion:

and focuses on the

AMOUNT OF PROGRESS IS MAGNITUDE OF MOTION.

The

magnitude of the motion implies the degree of progress made in effect and significance. Metaphorical expressions that support this case are, for example, quantum/giant/massive leap forward, big strides forward and big move forward.

Apart from forward motion, progress is conceptualised as upward motion, which seems to rely on our experiences of making progress as moving upwards, for example SUCCESS IS UP. Thus, expressions such as rocket toward ever higher levels of (example 4.109) and scaling the heights seem to manifest the case of

MAKING

PROGRESS IS UPWARD MOVEMENT.

Moreover, the

PROGRESS

metaphor is an example of inheritance hierarchies, where

‘lower’ mappings in the hierarchy inherit the structure of ‘higher’ mappings (Lakoff 1993). The PROGRESS metaphor, as shown in my data, involves a hierarchy with three levels: Level 1:

The Event Structure Metaphor (ACTIONS

ARE SELF-PROPELLED

MOVEMENTS)

Level 2:

PROGRESS IS FORWARD MOTION, PROGRESS IS UPWARD MOTION, AMOUNT OF PROGRESS IS DISTANCE MOVED, AMOUNT OF PROGRESS IS MAGNITUDE OF MOTION

Level 3:

TECHNOLOGY IS PROGRESS

Moving from the lower to the higher levels, technology is conceptualised as progress. The progress of technology is equated with technology products, thus inferring that the products are the embodiment of progress. In order to understand how technology products are conceptualised as progress, it is necessary to look at how progress is conceptualised in the next level. The second level includes Lakoff’s metaphors of PROGRESS IS FORWARD MOTION and MOVED.

AMOUNT OF PROGRESS IS DISTANCE

At this level, the data support these mappings and also reveal two 147

complementary cases: PROGRESS IS UPWARD MOTION, extending from our experiences of making progress as moving upwards (SUCCESS IS UP), and AMOUNT OF PROGRESS IS MAGNITUDE OF MOTION, DISTANCE MOVED.

deriving from Lakoff’s case

AMOUNT OF PROGRESS IS

The second level shows that progress is an instance of action,

which leads to the first level of

ACTIONS ARE SELF-PROPELLED MOVEMENTS,

a

submetaphor of the Event Structure metaphor. In other words, the conceptualisation of

TECHNOLOGY IS PROGRESS

FORWARD/UPWARD MOVEMENT, SELF-PROPELLED MOVEMENTS

inherits the structure of

MAKING PROGRESS IS

which in turn inherits the structure of

ACTIONS ARE

from the Event Structure metaphor.

Lastly, a number of expressions conceptualise progress as a moving object coming towards a static observer, and as a static location with an observer moving towards it. For example: 4.110 4.111

You can rest assured that faster machines are on the way. [PCM, The 10 Biggest Problems in Computing and How We’ll Solve Them] The first wave of faster processors is just around the corner. [PCM, The 10 Biggest Problems in Computing and How We’ll Solve Them]

In example 4.110 progress is conceptualised as a moving object coming towards a static observer. In example 4.111 progress is viewed as a static location with the observer moving towards it. These two cases bring to mind the study of time conceptualised as motion in two ways: the

MOVING TIME

time moving in relation to a static observer, and the

metaphor that describes

MOVING OBSERVER

metaphor,

which describes an observer moving in relation to static time (Kövecses 2005:49-51). It can be argued that progress is closely related to time, based on the common grounds of motion and space. Thus, something progressive gives the impression of belonging to the future, while something regressive gives the impression of belonging to the past. The full range of metaphorical expressions of the TECHNOLOGY IS PROGRESS

4.8.1

metaphor is shown in Table 4.8.1 (Appendix 1).

Conclusion

Similar to the

REVOLUTION

metaphor, progress is in a way synonymous with

technology, given that the products of technology have led to advancements in a variety of domains. Here, technology is conceptualised as progress in a variety of ways: by its stage of development (innovative, prehistoric), as forward or upward 148

motion in terms of distance and magnitude, as a moving object coming towards a static observer, and as a landscape we move through. This diversity in conceptualisations reveals, on the one hand, that progress in English-speaking cultures is a measurable entity in terms of physical space that, in turn, indicates its significance. On the other hand, these diverse metaphors reveal that progress is a concept that itself has developed within English-speaking cultures, based on bodily experiences of motion in physical space.

4.9 The

TECHNOLOGY IS AN OBJECT OF DESIRE TECHNOLOGY IS AN OBJECT OF DESIRE

metaphor is one of the least dominant

cross-domain mappings. It is encountered in all four magazines, specifically in eleven out of 48 articles under investigation, and contains a total of 22 metaphorical expressions. This metaphor demonstrates the relationship between people and technology as a relationship of emotions. It is considered as a novel metaphor that involves an original source domain, that comprises common expressions conveying new meanings in the context of technology, and as such they are regarded as original. For example: 4.112 4.113 4.114

There’s no denying that this is a carefully constructed object of desire, somehow looking like all your favourite gadgets rolled into one perfectly compact package. [T3, The PSP] So encountering Game Boy for the first time was like being struck in the thumbs with Cupid’s arrow. [T3, The Nintendo Game Boy] A bit of a love-it-or-hate-it program this one. [CA, 30 fresh downloads]

Metaphorical expressions found in the data conceptualise the relationship between people and technology as a relationship of desire (example 4.112) and love (example 4.114). This kind of relationship is further enhanced by similar metaphorical expressions, such as carry a torch for, love at first sight, and infatuation.

In his work on metaphors of emotions Kövecses (2003b) argues that the emotion of desire is conceptualised, among others, as hunger (ibid.:61), as a force between the desirer and the desired (ibid.:69), and as an opponent in a struggle (ibid.:78). These conceptualisations are exemplified by a few metaphorical expressions encountered in the data, namely crave, which conceptualises technology as an appetence, tempted by, which conceptualises the attraction between a person and a technology as a force between the desirer and the desired, and knocked out by, which conceptualises the

149

force of the attraction towards the desired as a punch from an opponent in a boxing match.

The

OBJECT OF DESIRE

metaphor is closely linked to the

PERSON

metaphor, as

technology seems to be personified, for instance in the metaphorical expressions my infatuations had shifted from ’Boys to girls, and we were knocked out by its looks. In the former expression, reference is made to the Nintendo Game Boy and by opposing it to a girl it resembles an actual human object of desire. In the latter expression, reference is made to the BlackBerry Pearl mobile phone, but by referring to its looks technology is conceptualised as a person with a pleasing physical appearance.

Example 4.113 involves a simile that makes explicit the OBJECT OF DESIRE metaphor. This simile compares the experience of encountering Game Boy for the first time with being struck by Cupid the god of love, who sends his arrows to his human targets with the aim of making them fall in love. By analogy to Cupid aiming with his arrows at the hearts of people, the author is struck in the thumbs because of his interaction with Game Boy through playing with his hands. The simile is regarded as an original expression deriving from Cupid’s myth, and assists in conceptualising the relationship between people and technology as love at first sight.

Just as there are metaphorical expressions relating to positive emotions such as love, there is also a metaphorical expression relating to the negative emotion of hate. Example 4.114 illustrates these opposing intense emotions, and relates to the impact that a technology might have on a person. By referring to the domain of emotions where logic does not usually dominate, the technology’s impact is even more intense since it is guided by a love or hate relationship. The full range of metaphorical expressions of the OBJECT OF DESIRE metaphor is shown in Table 4.9.1 (Appendix 1).

4.9.1

Conclusion

Although this metaphor has a rather limited set of metaphorical expressions in comparison to other metaphors, nevertheless it is one of the most interesting metaphors, in that it conveys a novel conceptualisation of technology. The TECHNOLOGY IS AN OBJECT OF DESIRE

metaphor is a means of talking about

150

technology in terms of the feelings that technology acquisition, appearance, its ownership and use evoke when in contact with people. This metaphor may not add to our understanding of technological aspects such as functionality, design, or performance, but provides a view of technology’s impact on people when in contact with it for the first time, or its significance in their lives after incorporating it into their everyday activities.

In addition, by conceptualising technology with the use of such strong emotions, technology is equated with the image of a desired person and identified with emotional stimulation, thereby intensifying technology’s impact and significance. The

OBJECT OF DESIRE

metaphor gives rise to metaphorical entailments regarding a

variety of related emotions and relationships that reveal intensity in the feelings one may have towards technology as if it were human. The emotions of desire and love may induce emotions of temptation (tempted by), attraction (knocked out) and fantasy (dream), and may lead to a relationship of emotional dependence (cannot bear to part with) between the user and the technology.

4.10

TECHNOLOGY IS A TOY

The

TECHNOLOGY IS A TOY

metaphor is another less dominant cross-domain

mapping. It is encountered in all four magazines, specifically in seven out of 48 articles under investigation, and comprises a total of thirty metaphorical expressions. This metaphor demonstrates the interaction between people and technology as a form of amusement. It is regarded as a conventional metaphor based on a typical conceptualisation of technology (Lawler 1999:420), and comprises expressions commonly used in everyday language, common expressions from terminology, and original expressions. For example: 4.115 4.116

This set-up has opened the gates to a new world of gaming pleasure. [T3, The Nintendo Game Boy] In some respects, Web 3.0 is nothing more than a parlor game. [PCM, Web 3.0]

Here the concept of toy highlights the aspects of an object for playing with, and an object that provides amusement. It is mostly used in the context of handheld game consoles, namely referring to the Sony Playstation and Nintendo Game Boy, as in example 4.115. The majority of the metaphorical expressions (22 expressions) are

151

common everyday expressions, mainly encountered in the context of technological games, which may seem rather typical and questionable, given that game consoles are essentially toys. However, such expressions were intentionally included here because game consoles are considered as technological artefacts that have acquired the role of modern toys. Other common expressions are entertainment, entertaining, fun, play, and games.

However, eight metaphorical expressions were encountered in other contexts as well, such as the World Wide Web, electronic devices, software and personal computers. Six of these expressions are common expressions belonging to terminology, while the other two are original expressions. The former include the expressions PowerToys and SyncToy, which conceptualise a set of programs by Microsoft. Although these programs are essentially tools used to customize Windows, they have been assigned the name of toy, and are presented as a means of entertainment that ‘add fun and functionality to the Windows experience’ (Microsoft Corporation 2010, my emphasis).

The original expressions include the expressions parlor game (Example 4.116) and playground craze. The former expression conceptualises Web 3.0, the evolution of the second-generation Web that is currently used, as a game that can be enjoyed indoors, given that the Web can only be accessed from ‘inside’ a computer or other devices that connect to the Internet. This expression is also connected to the PHYSICAL SPACE

metaphor (Section 4.14), given that it implies an enclosed area. The

latter expression describes an old version of Game Boy as a popular toy among children. This expression may be also related to the

LIFESTYLE

metaphor (Section

4.6), given that the particular toy was also viewed as a fashion trend in the context of handheld games. The full range of metaphorical expressions of the TECHNOLOGY IS A TOY metaphor

is shown in Table 4.10.1 (Appendix 1).

4.10.1 Conclusion The

TOY

metaphor is used to conceptualise technology as a form of entertainment,

mostly encountered in the context of handheld game consoles. However, the

TOY

metaphor is also employed in the context of electronic devices, the World Wide

152

Web, software and personal computers, to conceptualise the respective technologies as ‘objects’ that provide amusement in conjunction with a functional purpose. Technology seems to have extended its role from being just a practical tool with a particular function to being an object that also provides entertainment and is designed to be fun. The

TOY

metaphor brings out the pleasurable aspect of using

technology, by conceptualising it as an enjoyable experience, like having fun with toys. In this manner, the

TOY

metaphor can be related to the

EXPERIENCE

metaphor

(Section 4.13), given that it evokes a pleasurable type of experience when people are interacting with technology.

4.11 The

TECHNOLOGY IS FOOD/COOKING TECHNOLOGY IS FOOD/COOKING

metaphor is another less frequent cross-domain

mapping, and one of the conventional metaphors found in the data. It is encountered in all four magazines, specifically in 28 out of 48 articles under investigation, and contains a total of 183 metaphorical expressions.

The

FOOD

/

COOKING

metaphor contains common expressions occurring from

terminology and typical conceptualisations of technology, and commonly used everyday expressions that provide new meanings to the context of technology. For example: 4.117 4.118 4.119 4.120

[…] and ascertains whether or not it will run Vista happily and which flavour of Microsoft’s new operating system is most suitable. [CA, 30 fresh downloads] Supergeeks have even gotten it to run on home-brew PCs, but I’ve never done anything like that. [PCM, Insider’s Guide to Vista] Zink paper has a crystal substrate sandwiched between its layers that colorizes as it passes through a slim-profile printer. [PCW, Your PC in 2008 and Beyond] May contain nuts. [CA, Everyone loves cookies]

Common everyday expressions are encountered in cases where technology is conceptualised as food to be consumed by the end user, as in example 4.117. The source domain of food has been cited in the work of Lakoff and Johnson (1980/2003:46) for conceptualising the target domain of ideas (IDEAS

ARE FOOD).

Here the metaphor of FOOD highlights various properties of food and maps them onto technology in order to make evaluations about its quality. This aspect is supported by further metaphorical expressions, such as fresh, taste, tastier, go bad, meatier, goodies, and consume in small doses. Technology is also conceptualised as cooking,

153

as in example 4.118. The domain of cooking is used to conceptualise the development of a technology, as in the metaphorical expressions secret sauce, hotoff-the-production-line, home-made, and batch. A number of expressions are also used to describe a technical process (frying the chips, squeeze every drop of performance out of their systems), a wrong combination (water and electronics don’t mix), and to criticise a technology (roast the new formats). Such expressions provide new meanings to technology by alluding to our sense of taste and preparation of food.

Moreover, the

FOOD/COOKING

metaphor employs common expressions for

explanatory purposes. Specifically, a number of expressions are used to describe the form and structure of a technology, as in the metaphorical expressions sandwich (example 4.119) and candybar. The former expression is used to describe the structure of a technology, for example, the structure of LCD screens as liquid crystals being tightly inserted between layers of glass. The latter expression (candybar smart phone) is used to describe a popular mobile phone design that is rectangular in form and resembles a candybar in size and shape. Such expressions are regarded as typical conceptualisations of technology, in that they are widely used in technical language.

Furthermore, a number of common expressions are part of computer terminology, such as the term menus. Other expressions include plate and platter used to conceptualise hardware parts of a computer, kernel used to conceptualise a program that constitutes the central core of a computer operating system (LINFO), feed(s) used to conceptualise a data format for delivering updated information, and del.icio.us, Pageflakes, and Audio Lunchbox used to conceptualise an online bookmarking tool, a personalised homepage, and an online music store respectively. Further metaphorical expressions are the popular term cookie, and the names of software for managing cookies, Cookie Monster and Cookie Spy. The term cookie is used to conceptualise a small text file placed on the hard drive by a Web page server for authentication purposes (Microsoft Press 1997), and derives from the fortune cookie because it contains hidden information. The expression Cookie Monster alludes to a character from the show Sesame Street (Soe 2009:17), while the expression Cookie Spy personifies the software and makes a clear connection to the ROLE/OCCUPATION

submetaphor (the

PERSON

metaphor). Lastly, the term 154

breadcrumbs is used to conceptualise a method of navigation on websites, and derives from the fairy tale of Hansel and Gretel by the brothers Grimm, where Hansel left a trail of breadcrumbs through the woods as a strategy to find his way back home (Rogers and Chaparro 2003).

Lastly, it is worth mentioning an original expression that extends from the term cookie and involves a humorous play on words (example 4.120): the expression may contain nuts, which is a subtitle in the article ‘Everyone loves cookies’ (CA, July 2007). With this expression the author exploits the double meaning of the word cookie and provides a humorous effect between the edible cookie and the text file (named cookie); he provides hints regarding the nature of the data a cookie may contain if it was to be opened, by analogy to the warning printed on cookie packages regarding the risk of allergic reaction if a cookie was to be consumed. The full range of metaphorical expressions of the

FOOD/COOKING

submetaphor is shown in Table

4.11.1 (Appendix 1).

4.11.1 Conclusion The

TECHNOLOGY IS FOOD/COOKING

metaphor is a conventional metaphor, with the

purpose of making the development, qualities and structure of technology comprehensible in terms of food qualities and types of cooking, as well as enriching computer terminology. Similar to the TECHNOLOGY IS AN OBJECT OF DESIRE metaphor which relates to emotions, the

TECHNOLOGY IS FOOD/COOKING

metaphor relates to

one of our basic senses, the sense of taste. By evaluating a technology’s qualities in terms of food qualities, technology seems more intuitive than rational, since the evaluations are subject to personal likings rather than logical processes.

4.12

TECHNOLOGY IS SUPERNATURAL

The SUPERNATURAL metaphor is one of the less prominent cross-domain mappings. It is encountered in all four magazines, specifically in 32 out of 48 articles under investigation, and contains a total of 62 metaphorical expressions. This metaphor conceptualises technology as a supernatural force, event or being that does not belong (or does not seem to belong) to the natural world. It is considered as a

155

conventional metaphor involving three types of expression: common expressions occurring from terminology, expressions commonly used in everyday language, and original expressions. For example: 4.121 4.122 4.123

But all too often, we encounter the dark side of computing. [PCM, The 10 Biggest Problems in Computing and How We’ll Solve Them] I’ve become more comfortable using the OS, but I’m still plagued by some (mostly minor) bugs and glitches, and haunted by some missing features. [ PCM, Insider’s Guide to Vista] It isn’t cheap […] but I’ve seen the magic its wizards can do when consumer-grade tools fail. [PCW, How to Survive the Worst PC Disasters]

Common expressions conceptualise technology as a supernatural force, a supernatural event and a supernatural being. Technology as a force is illustrated in examples 4.121 and 4.123 (dark side, magic) and involves further expressions such as magical, trick(s), sleight-of-hand, bewitching, dark arts, the Force and cursed. Technology as a supernatural event is expressed in example 4.122 (haunted) and includes metaphorical expressions such as wonder (noun), disappearing, miracle, phenomenon, and illusion. Metaphorical expressions that conceptualise technology as a supernatural being, as in example 4.123 (wizards), include ghost, wonder (adjective), exorcise, and demystify.

The metaphorical expressions can be further distinguished into good and bad supernatural forces, events and beings, either by definition or depending on the context in which they were found. For instance, metaphorical expressions such as miracle, wonder and exorcise have positive meanings by definition, while expressions such as dark side, dark arts and cursed have negative meanings. However, in several other expressions the context was necessary in order to make the distinction between good and evil. For example, the metaphorical expression bewitching was used in a positive sense to conceptualise the attractive exterior casing of a game console, while disappearing was used in a negative sense to conceptualise disconnecting network connections; the expression trick(s) was used both in a positive and negative sense depending on whether a technology’s features were considered as helpful or harmful towards the user.

Furthermore, the

SUPERNATURAL

metaphor comprises metaphorical expressions

occurring from computer terminology. Expressions include Network Magic, a program for managing a home network, and wizard, a user interface tool for guiding

156

the users through certain steps for performing a task, such as setting up an Internet connection. The term wizard has its origin in the fictional character the Wizard of Oz in the novel The Wonderful Wizard of Oz written by L. Frank Baum (Soe 2009:18), and its adaptation into a film in 1939. This is mostly evident in the metaphorical expression off to see the wizard found in the data, which alludes to one of the film’s most memorable songs ‘We’re off to see the Wizard’.

Original expressions are found in two similes. The first simile, the mighty interweb is always with you. It’s much like The Force (T3, July 2007) compares the Internet to The Force in the Star Wars films. This metaphorical expression also alludes to one of the most popular and cult quotes in American cinema history ‘May the Force be with you’ (American Film Institue 2003-2009). Although much of the focus is placed on the Internet’s ubiquitous existence, we cannot ignore the fact that it is compared to a famous supernatural force. These literary and film allusions come from works that have created a cultural impact and have been incorporated into the everyday lexicon (American Film Institue 2003-2009). Quotes from works such as The Wonderful Wizard of Oz and Star Wars have achieved symbolic status and seem to constitute clever, creative and humorous wordplays involving technology.

The second simile is quite different from the previous one: The notion of bug-free software seems a lot like time travel, dollar-a-gallon gasoline, and a humble Donald Trump: something we’d all like to see, but won’t (PCM, August 2005). Here, the existence of non-malicious software is compared to three things – time travel, dollar-a-gallon gasoline and a humble Donald Trump – which are by no means related to the supernatural. However, the phrase following the simile (something we’d all like to see, but won’t) provides another point of view; that is, that such things seem to exist only in the sphere of imagination, for the reason that reality proves otherwise. Therefore things like time travel, dollar-a-gallon gasoline and a humble Donald Trump appear to be similar to the supernatural, because none belong to the natural world. Although the definition of supernatural does not include anything of a mundane nature, the fact that time travel, dollar-a-gallon gasoline and a humble Donald Trump simply do not exist means that it is possible to regard them as supernatural. Both similes are regarded as original because they make use of common knowledge in an imaginative way with a humorous effect. The full range of 157

metaphorical expressions of the

SUPERNATURAL

metaphor is shown in Table 4.12.1

(Appendix 1).

4.12.1 Conclusion The SUPERNATURAL metaphor is a conventional metaphor that elevates technology to the status of the supernatural and religion (Liakopoulos 2002:17-19). It may be argued that the

SUPERNATURAL

metaphor reveals a particular way of thinking about

things when people are not capable of grasping them, such as magic. More often than not, when people do not understand something or cannot explain it, they tend to assign higher or even divine powers to its existence. Similarly, when people do not understand how a technology works, the technology then seems mysterious, inexplicable and capable of performing acts that are beyond a layman’s comprehension.

The metaphorical entailments that occur relate to the distinction between good and evil supernatural forces, events and beings. Good supernatural forces, events and beings may be regarded as entities that cannot be explained but that inspire trust in people, that they would provide a helping hand and protection. On the other hand, evil supernatural forces, events and beings may arouse fear and alarm, given that they are considered as malevolent and capable of causing harm, injury and pain. Such entailments can affect the users’ feelings towards technology and influence their value judgements about a particular technology.

4.13 The

TECHNOLOGY IS EXPERIENCE EXPERIENCE

metaphor is another less dominant cross-domain mapping in the

data. It is encountered in all four magazines, specifically in 32 out of 48 articles, with a total of 138 metaphorical expressions. This metaphor conceptualises technology as various experiences, incidents and feelings that the users of technology have experienced through their interaction with technology. The EXPERIENCE metaphor is a similarity-creating metaphor that presents a novel conceptualisation of technology. It involves a range of original expressions either as common everyday expressions

158

expressing new views of technology, or as completely original expressions. For example: 4.124 4.125 4.126 4.127 4.128

Running Vista on such a computer is not necessarily going to be a pleasant experience and features such as the Aero Interface are unlikely to function. [CA, Surviving Vista] […] PSP’s least flamboyant-looking feature is the one that triggers everyone’s necks to crane on the train. [T3, The PSP] Walkman wasn’t originally designed to induce emotional upheaval in unstable teens. [T3, The Sony Walkman] Getting your email away from your home or office used to be a chore in the years bb (before blackberry). [T3, BlackBerry Pearl 8100] Toshiba’s HD DVD players are a horror show of unusability. [PCM, Battle of the new DVDs]

Metaphorical expressions found in the data conceptualise technology as various experiences that can be further distinguished into positive and negative experiences. Examples 4.124, 4.125 and 4.126 illustrate instances of positive experiences, whereas examples 4.127 and 4.128 demonstrate negative ones. Overall, the positive experiences outnumber the negative ones, with 76 and 38 metaphorical expressions respectively.

Moreover, a number of metaphorical expressions convey explicit kinds of experience, such as disastrous situations and drugs. To be more specific, ten metaphorical expressions conceptualise computer problems as disasters which the user should survive (example 4.129), and four expressions conceptualise technology software and hardware as victims that need to be rescued from a disaster (example 4.130). For example: 4.129

4.130

Far too often they crash mission-critical systems, wreaking havoc on business, revenues, and the sanity of technical support departments. [PCM, The 10 Biggest Problems in Computing and How We’ll Solve Them] If you still can’t get the drive to boot, turn to data-recovery software to attempt to salvage lost files. [PCW, How to Survive the Worst PC Disasters]

Another four metaphorical expressions conceptualise technological gadgets as recreational drugs that have the ability to produce pleasurable effects on one’s personality, perception and behaviour. These expressions map knowledge from the domain of drugs to technology regarding the addictive nature of consuming drugs, and imply that the extensive use of a gadget can lead to a similarly strong addiction, specifically referring to the use of crack explicitly mentioned in two expressions. For example: 4.131

[…] but yahoo mail was quick and efficient and by now I was becoming increasingly addicted to my pearl – no wonder they call it CrackBerry! [T3, BlackBerry Pearl 8100]

159

The extensive experience of handling gadgets and regarding them as addictive as crack has also led to the assigning of nicknames, as in the case of BlackBerry having earned the nickname ‘CrackBerry’. According to the Webster's New World College Dictionary ‘CrackBerry’ was the new word of the year 2006 (Wiley and Sons 2006).

Furthermore, numerous other metaphorical expressions conceptualise the interaction between users and technology as experiencing lived through events. For example: 4.132

4.133 4.134 4.135

4.136

By far the most famous [screensavers] were the flying toasters, of which this is a freeware clone. It’s not quite as funky as the original but will bring back a few memories for older readers. And you can almost smell the coffee. Or the burnt toast. [CA, 30 fresh downloads] The Internet will subsume all networks and be as ubiquitous as oxygen. [PCM, 10 The 10 Biggest Problems in Computing and How We’ll Solve Them] Welcome to what we like to call the out-of-Office experience. [CA, Go to work on the web] There are actually people out there, you may be shocked to learn, who live, work, and play without ever partaking of the Redmond Kool-Aid—not a sip! [PCM, Insider’s Guide to Vista] Like the iPod today, it [the Walkman] was not just a “product” but part of the culture. [T3, The Sony Walkman]

The above examples provide a glimpse of the kind of experiences involved in this conceptualisation, from very explicit lived experiences to quite vague ones and from culture-specific experiences to more universal ones. Examples 4.132 and 4.133 illustrate quite clear experiences, such as smelling coffee and toast and being aware of the omnipresence of oxygen. On the other hand, example 4.134 includes a type of experience that may be explicit given that Microsoft Office is a well-known and widely used package of applications, but how each user actually perceives it by using it is quite vague. It also alludes to the out-of-body-experience, a phenomenon for which there is little knowledge, thus enhancing uncertainty as to how the particular experience is to be comprehended.

Examples 4.135 and 4.136 illustrate types of experience that may be regarded as more culture-specific experiences or more universal ones. In particular, example 4.135 is a more culture-specific experience, which involves the drink Kool-Aid manufactured in the USA and alludes to the expression ‘drinking the Kool-Aid’. The idiomatic expression, “drinking the Kool-Aid”, refers to embracing the beliefs of a cult, and is largely used in corporate-speak and politics for immersing oneself in a cult-like culture (Khin 2005:1). In this example, the expression ‘drinking the Kool-

160

aid’ has been paraphrased as partaking of the Redmond Kool-Aid, giving the location of Redmond where Microsoft is based. Thus, in this context the expression means embracing the Microsoft culture. In example 4.136 the expression part of culture reveals a more familiar experience since the experience of culture is one that anyone could relate to. In addition, the worldwide recognition of the Walkman seems to enhance even more the universality of such an experience, given that it truly became part of almost every culture around the world. The full range of metaphorical expressions of the EXPERIENCE metaphor is shown in Table 4.13.1 (Appendix 1).

4.13.1 Conclusion The

EXPERIENCE

metaphor is a novel metaphor with the purpose of describing the

interaction between users and technology in terms of previously lived experiences. By bringing together a variety of experiences – positive and negative ones, disasters, drugs, explicit and vague ones, culture-specific and universal ones – the metaphor illustrates that technology presents advantages and disadvantages, that its development can be at times a ‘blessing’ and a ‘curse’. This diversity of experiences also points to social and cultural aspects of the source domain, in that some experiences are more culture-specific than others.

The metaphorical entailments relate to positive and negative emotional responses incited by the particular types of experience. Positive experiences entail positive emotional responses, as they may provide a sense of pleasure, enjoyment, confidence or excitement. In contrast, negative experiences involve negative emotional effects, since they may cause frustration, anxiety, inconvenience or anger. Therefore, depending on the kind of experience, it is possible to understand the kind of emotional impact brought about by manipulating a technology, and infer value judgements about its usefulness and functionality.

4.14

VIRTUAL SPACE IS PHYSICAL SPACE

The VIRTUAL SPACE IS PHYSICAL SPACE metaphor is the most dominant cross-domain mapping, as it is encountered in all four magazines, and specifically in all 48 articles under investigation. The

VIRTUAL SPACE IS PHYSICAL SPACE

metaphor involves a

161

physical view of technology’s virtual spaces, such as the Internet and software. Here, virtual spaces of technology are conceptualised as physical spaces in various ways, which are reflected in the submappings of this metaphor. This metaphor is further categorised into the submetaphors of SURFACE, CONTAINER, and HIGHWAY,

Metaphor Physical space

TOTAL

PHYSICAL PROCESS, PHYSICAL MOVEMENT,

as presented in Table 9 below.

Submetaphors

Metaphorical expressions 481 Physical process 807 Physical movement 284 Surface 320 Container 447 Highway 34 2373 Table 9 The PHYSICAL SPACE metaphor

% 20% 34% 12% 14% 19% 1% 100%

This metaphor is a conventional metaphor, in line with perceptions of the Internet and the World Wide Web as physical spaces, outlined by Rohrer (2001) and Maglio and Matlock (1998). It presents how our bodily experience guides us in conceiving the intangible world of technology as having a physical nature, and how our interaction with the material world is used to conceptualise our interaction with technology.

This metaphor comprises common expressions from terminology, common everyday expressions, and original expressions extending from common ones. Common expressions that belong to the computer lexicon include expressions such as storage, Windows Meeting Space, Live Spaces, My Places, Library, Gallery, Yahoo universe, Chat rooms and Recycle Bin. Virtual spaces are also conceptualised by a number of common everyday expressions, such as across the length and breadth of the Net, there, everywhere, elsewhere, evicted from servers, find the route to your contacts, background and foreground activity. However, original expressions extending from terminology and common everyday expressions provide a more colourful picture of technology as physical space. For example: 4.137 4.138 4.139 4.140

Instead, keep to the better lit parts of the internet and, like us, you’ll discover a wealth of useful software that many people overlook. [CA, 30 fresh downloads] With so many options available, there is sure to be something out there that meets your needs and helps you develop your own little corner of the internet. [CA, Create a better website] Most can stop these hijacking Trojans at the front door. [PCM, Maximum security] The Registry is a scary place; like Dante’s underworld, it should have a sign reading “Abandon all hope, ye who enter here.” [PCW, 101 Fantastic Freebies]

162

The above examples include original expressions of the Internet and the computer system as physical spaces. Example 4.137 conceptualises the Internet as a place with good and bad neighbourhoods that one should be aware of when surfing the Internet. These good and bad areas of the Internet conceptualise the various websites available to users for downloading free software, which sometimes hide possible dangers, such as spyware. Example 4.138 conceptualises the Internet as a place where one can have his or her own personal area, in a way similar to owning property. In example 4.139 a computer system is conceptualised as a physical space with doors, which provide access to its data. The expression front door is assumed to be derived from and in opposition to the term back door by extension. In computer terminology the term back door refers to a secret way of gaining access to a computer mainly for sinister purposes (Howe 1993). Thus, the expression front door seems to represent the main known point of entry to a computer.

Example 4.140 involves a simile that refers to the famous epic poem The Divine Comedy written by Dante Alighieri. Windows Registry is conceptualised as physical space and compared to the underworld described by Dante. This simile does not intend to compare the Registry to Dante’s underworld, but instead to provide an ironic viewpoint of how daunting the Registry is. The aspect of physical space is even more enhanced by the famous phrase “Abandon all hope, ye who enter here”, which denotes that the Registry is a place that people can enter and exit. The full range of metaphorical expressions of the VIRTUAL SPACE IS PHYSICAL SPACE metaphor is shown in Table 4.14.1 (Appendix 1).

4.14.1

VIRTUAL PROCESS IS PHYSICAL PROCESS

This submetaphor conceptualises virtual processes as physical processes, and consists of numerous common metaphorical expressions that have derived from the design of software and computer systems, in order to convey the respective computer software functions. Such expressions are part of terminology and include expressions such as save, browse, and burn. Moreover, the submetaphor contains original metaphorical expressions that have extended from terminology and are used in a more informal way or to place emphasis on a certain function. These metaphorical

163

expressions are borrowed from processes in the physical world used to manipulate physical things. For example: 4.141 4.142

4.143

There’s even a palette knife for smearing things around. [CA, 30 fresh downloads] But for those who like a system scrubbed really clean, a spyware removal tool can get you to the point where you can search manually for and remove the remainder. [PCM, Maximum security] Though Gmail may not have the prettiest interface of the bunch, it’s speedy, it does away with frills, and it has all kinds of features if you’re willing to do a bit of digging. [PCM, 101 Fantastic Freebies]

The examples above indicate common everyday expressions for describing virtual processes as physical processes. Such conceptualisations have extended from formal corresponding expressions in the computer lexicon, such as from apply to smear around, from remove or delete to scrub, and from search to dig. It can also be argued that they reveal a more intimate relationship between people and technology, in the sense that people have become familiar with technology’s functions, capabilities and shortcomings, and so they are able to talk about technology using more familiar and everyday terms. The full range of metaphorical expressions of the VIRTUAL PROCESS IS PHYSICAL PROCESS submetaphor

4.14.2

is presented in Table 4.14.2 (Appendix 1).

VIRTUAL MOVEMENT IS PHYSICAL MOVEMENT

Similar to the previous submetaphor, the MOVEMENT

VIRTUAL MOVEMENT IS PHYSICAL

submetaphor conceptualises virtual movements as physical movements.

The conceptualisation of virtual movements as physical movements derives from our perception of virtual space as physical space (Maglio and Matlock 1998). Thus, when considering changing locations in virtual space, it seems logical to use expressions that denote movement in physical spaces.

Virtual movements are conceptualised as physical movements in physical spaces. The majority of these metaphorical expressions have derived from our bodily experiences when interacting with space, and by analogy we use this knowledge to recreate our experiences when interacting with the virtual spaces of technology. The submetaphor contains a number of expressions commonly used in technical language such as navigate and surf. However, the majority of expressions are original, extending from such common expressions, as the following examples indicate. For example:

164

4.144 4.145 4.146

[…] it’s time to hit the web to compare prices. [CA, Tailor-made PCs] Identity pirates can gather all sorts of confidential information about you by prowling the Web. [PCM, The 10 Biggest Problems in Computing and How We’ll Solve Them] Click a button and commence stumbling onto a huge variety of sites that have earned a thumbs-up from other Stumblers in one or more categories of your choice […]. [PCW, Build the Perfect Browser]

Similar to the VIRTUAL PROCESS IS PHYSICAL PROCESS submetaphor, expressions such as those above denote a rather informal manner of talking about technology, which indicates that people are familiar with manipulating technology’s virtual spaces, as if moving about in physical spaces. The full range of metaphorical expressions of the VIRTUAL MOVEMENT IS PHYSICAL MOVEMENT

submetaphor is presented in the table

4.14.3 (Appendix 1).

4.14.3

IMAGE-SCHEMAS

According to Turner (1987), our bodily experiences help us conceptualise concepts of space and interacting with space, and give us a sense of spatial orientations, such as up-down, in-out, and front-back. The PHYSICAL SPACE metaphor makes use of two image-schemas in particular: SURFACE and CONTAINER.

4.14.3.1

VIRTUAL SPACE IS A SURFACE

This submetaphor is based on the surface image-schema. Based on our physical experience, a surface is the exterior side of an object, which we can see, with which we come into contact, and which we use to place things upon. According to the data, the

SURFACE

submetaphor is used to conceptualise the computer, operating systems,

the Internet, computer networks, and websites as surfaces. For example: 4.147

Use Virtual PC to install XP on top of Vista to allow older programs to run correctly. [CA, Surviving Vista]

Technology is conceptualised as a surface when emphasis is placed on the exterior location of an object, for the purpose of placing things upon it (what you install on your computer), denoting location (stored on the web), or for gaining access (click on the General tab…and go to Browsing History). The SURFACE submetaphor mainly involves prepositions that signify a surface area, such as on, onto, over, under, and off, and does not present any original metaphorical expressions. The full range of

165

metaphorical expressions of the

VIRTUAL SPACE IS A SURFACE

submetaphor is shown

in Table 4.14.4 (Appendix 1).

4.14.3.2 The

VIRTUAL SPACE IS A CONTAINER

VIRTUAL SPACE IS A CONTAINER

submetaphor is based on the container image-

schema, and is rather basic in terms of how we formulate our experiences. Here, devices, websites, web browsers, operating systems, computer systems, and applications are conceptualised as containers. As opposed to the surface metaphor, the container image-schema emphasises the interior and exterior part of an object and its boundaries (Lakoff 1987:272). For example: 4.148 4.149

The

Ultimate is that – Microsoft has crammed in everything it can. [CA, Surviving Vista] TweakNow RegCleaner Standard is your virtual Virgil, a guide into the depths of the Registry. [PCW, 101 Fantastic Freebies]

CONTAINER

submetaphor is largely based on prepositions that signify an

enclosed area, such as in, into, and out of. It comprises common everyday expressions such as contain, inside/outside, enter, clutter, empty and teeming with. It also presents several original expressions, as the examples above show, which have occurred from our vast experiences with enclosed areas such as rooms and other areas used for going inside or storing objects. Both expressions crammed in and into the depths, are considered as original in the context of technology because they provide a more vivid picture of the image-schema of containment; in the former example, the expression entails the notion that Vista is overflowing with features, while the latter example adds depth and mystery to the Registry. The full range of metaphorical expressions of the

VIRTUAL SPACE IS A CONTAINER

submetaphor is

shown in Table 4.14.5 (Appendix 1).

4.14.4

HIGHWAY

The VIRTUAL SPACE IS A HIGHWAY submetaphor has been analysed by Rohrer (2001) distinguishing two cases of the Internet as an information highway: firstly, the cyberspace, where we picture ourselves and our computers as moving through space to other destinations, either to acquire information or for our enjoyment, and

166

secondly, the cyberfuture case, where the information highway is viewed as a road on which we travel through time heading to the future (Section 2.3, Chapter 2).

The

HIGHWAY

submetaphor comprises two types of metaphorical expression:

common expressions that are part of the computer lexicon, such as shortcut, traffic, and two-way firewall, and original expressions that have extended from computer terminology. For example: 4.150 4.151

Put Your Data in the Fast Lane. [PCW, Your PC in 2008 and Beyond] […] within seconds of its [the video’s] posting, there was severe congestion on the router downstream from NBC’s servers. [PCM, Today’s Ideas, Tomorrow’s Tech]

As the examples above indicate, technology is conceptualised as a highway in the sense of cyberspace, where people and data are travelling through space heading to various destinations. Examples 4.150 and 4.151 contain metaphorical expressions (fast lane, congestion) that do not belong to computer terminology, but are original extensions of the

HIGHWAY

submetaphor. In particular example 4.150 is an original

expression involving wordplay. Based on the fact that data moves through space on virtual routes (highways) and the need for increased transfer speeds, the author maps knowledge from the slow and fast lanes of physical highways to express that data would travel faster to the desired destinations if put in the fast lanes. Similarly, the original expression congestion in example 4.151 has extended from the common expression traffic, meaning the large amount of data transferred to or from a particular route simultaneously. The full range of metaphorical expressions of the VIRTUAL SPACE IS A HIGHWAY

submetaphor is shown in Table 4.14.6 (Appendix 1).

4.14.5 Conclusion The VIRTUAL SPACE IS PHYSICAL SPACE metaphor is quite different from the others, in that it does not conceptualise any elements, functions, state, or appeal of a technological system. The VIRTUAL SPACE IS PHYSICAL SPACE metaphor is a structural metaphor, involving the structural submetaphors of

VIRTUAL PROCESS IS PHYSICAL

PROCESS, VIRTUAL MOVEMENT IS PHYSICAL MOVEMENT HIGHWAY,

and the orientational submetaphors of

VIRTUAL SPACE IS A CONTAINER.

and

VIRTUAL SPACE IS A

VIRTUAL SPACE IS A SURFACE

and

The basic mappings involved are: virtual space,

which corresponds to physical space, surface, container and highway; virtual

167

processes, which correspond to physical processes; and virtual movements, which correspond to physical movements.

The VIRTUAL SPACE IS PHYSICAL SPACE metaphor and its submetaphors function as a means of understanding and talking about the virtual spaces of technology. This metaphor presents how our bodily experiences guide us in conceiving the intangible world of technology as having a physical nature, and how our interaction with the material world makes comprehensible our interaction with technology. Based on the number of original expressions found, it seems that the level of language is moving away from using only computer terminology and is also incorporating creative uses of language when describing the real physical world and physical actions and movements performed there. This may indicate that people have developed a closer relationship to technology, and as they are becoming increasingly familiar with technology they come to understand its workings and are able to expand the conventional metaphor of

VIRTUAL SPACE IS PHYSICAL SPACE

by further original

expressions.

4.15 Discussion The aim of the analysis of the English data was to address the first set of research questions set forth in the present study; namely, how is technology metaphorically conceptualised, and what do these conceptualisations reveal regarding thinking and talking about technology in English popular technology magazines? In particular, the analysis of the English data shows that conceptual metaphor in popular technology magazines is quite abundant and diverse and that technology is conceptualised in a number of ways based on the categories of metaphors formed. These categories are quite diverse comprising a group of dissimilar entities, which vary from animate to inanimate objects, such as

PERSON,

such as

PHYSICAL SPACE.

REVOLUTION,

and

and

TOY,

and from abstract to concrete concepts, The table below recapitulates the main

metaphor categories and presents the frequencies of the metaphorical expressions in the data.

METAPHOR Physical space (c)

METAPHORICAL EXPRESSIONS 2373

PERCENTAGE (%) 35%

168

Person (c) 2100 31% Machine (c) 678 10% Security (c) 364 5% Living organism (c) 336 5% Competition (c) 247 4% Food / cooking (c) 183 3% Experience (n) 138 2% Lifestyle (n) 138 2% Progress (c) 83 1% Supernatural (c) 62 1% Toy (c) 30 0.4% Object of desire (n) 22 0.3% Revolution (c) 19 0.3% TOTAL 6773 100% Table 10 Total of Metaphorical Expressions and Frequency of Occurrence in Dataset

As the table demonstrates, technology is conceptualised by fourteen different metaphors. These metaphors are distinguished into eleven conventional metaphors marked as (c) and three novel metaphors marked as (n) based on their degree of conventionality in technical and everyday language (Section 2.1, Chapter 2). According to the number of metaphorical expressions identified and the frequency of the metaphors’ occurrence in the dataset, it is clear that conventional metaphors are more frequently used in the data than novel metaphors. The metaphor categories ranking higher in frequency are mainly the conventional metaphors of SPACE, PERSON, MACHINE, SECURITY, LIVING ORGANISM

and

PHYSICAL

COMPETITION.

The

frequency of these metaphors seems to support their conventionality in conceptualising aspects of technology. On the other hand, the conventional metaphors of

PROGRESS, TOY, SUPERNATURAL

and

REVOLUTION

rank low in

frequency, which seems to indicate that although conventional, they are less preferred as conceptualisations of technology, thereby giving way to novel conceptualisations, such as the metaphors of the ranking of the novel metaphor of

EXPERIENCE

OBJECT OF DESIRE

and

LIFESTYLE.

Similarly,

among the least frequent

metaphors, suggests that this metaphor may have been recently adopted as conceptualisation and is just making its way in the world of technology.

The latter research question, namely what these conceptualisations reveal regarding thinking and talking about technology in English popular technology magazines, was partly answered within the analysis by the particular uses of each individual source domain for conceptualising technology; for example, the source domain of fortress is used to conceptualise computer security, revealing a close connection with traditional

169

security methods and the real physical space. However, this question also points to a discussion of the functions that these metaphors serve in the English popular technology magazines investigated.

As discussed in Chapter 2 (Section 2.2), the most basic function of metaphor is representing and communicating aspects of reality, knowledge and new ideas, and this representational function can be further explored in terms of Halliday’s (1978) ‘ideational’, ‘interpersonal’ and ‘textual’ functions of language. The ‘ideational’ function relates to the metaphors’ role in representing and constructing aspects of technology. It should be made clear that to some extent all categories of metaphor contribute to a particular representation and understanding of technology. However, focus is placed on those metaphors with source domains that provide useful information in making aspects of technology easy to understand. These are conventional metaphors introduced from computer design, and despite their initial use as ‘theory-constitutive’ metaphors, they have also acquired an ‘exegetical’ role by presenting a rather clear picture of the technological aspects concerned (Boyd 1993:482). Metaphors that are used as a means of understanding technology include the metaphors of

MACHINE, SECURITY, LIVING ORGANISM

and

PHYSICAL SPACE.

The

main meaning foci of their source domains are related to the functioning and the structure of a system. For example, the MACHINE metaphor is related to the operation and condition of a system, the

SECURITY

metaphor is related to the secure operation

of the system, the

LIVING ORGANISM

metaphor is linked to a system’s structure and

condition, and the

PHYSICAL SPACE

metaphor concerns spatial structure. It can be

argued that these metaphors, whose purpose is to make technology comprehensible, are rather reader-oriented, considering that they are targeted at users to facilitate their understanding of how technology works and help them to use it effectively.

The ‘interpersonal’ function involves the use of metaphors in the construction of interpersonal relationships between author and reader. In contrast to the readeroriented metaphors that are part of computer design, this function involves metaphors that are more author-oriented, in the sense that they derive from the author and reach out to the reader. These metaphors reflect the authors’ personal ways of thinking, possibly with the intention of reaching out to the readers and creating a friendly and casual relationship with them. Author-oriented metaphors act as a means 170

of thinking about and communicating technology and include the metaphors of COMPETITION,

EXPERIENCE,

SUPERNATURAL

and

TOY.

REVOLUTION,

PROGRESS,

PERSON,

FOOD/COOKING,

These metaphors seem to be part of the authors’ everyday

vocabulary and their wider conceptual system, and in some cases they may be used for rhetorical purposes and to emphasize the technology described. In addition, some of these metaphors’ source domains are frequently used conceptual domains in the English language, thus, reflecting commonly adopted values in the English-speaking cultures; for instance, the

COMPETITION

metaphor, which is applied to competitive

domains such as business and politics, and also points to a ‘competitive conceptualisation of society in which there are winners and losers’ (Charteris-Black 2004:131). Thus, author-oriented metaphors seem to contribute to the interaction between author and reader by guiding the reader’s perceptions of technology in terms of socio-cultural and physical experiences, and by rhetorical purposes of entertaining (humour, irony) and evoking emotional responses.

The ‘textual’ function is related to the use of metaphor in contributing to the coherent structuring of a text. In the present study, the ‘textual’ function is discussed within a multi-textual setting. Similar to Csábi (2001) (discussed in Chapter 2), a multitextual approach is followed in developing an exposition of the ways technology is currently conceptualised in popular technology discourse. Despite the diversity of magazines, texts and themes, the study shows that conceptualisations of technology are considerably similar, when considering the presence of each metaphor category in the total of the articles under investigation. The metaphor categories encountered in the articles and ordered by distribution are as follows:

METAPHOR Physical space (c) Person (c) Machine (c) Living organism (c) Competition (c) Experience (n) Supernatural (c) Lifestyle (n) Food / cooking (c) Progress (c) Security (c) Object of desire (n) Revolution (c)

No. of ARTICLES 48 48 44 37 35 32 32 29 28 20 18 11 9

PERCENTAGE (%) 100% 100% 92% 77% 73% 67% 67% 60% 58% 42% 38% 23% 19%

171

Toy (c)

7 Table 11 Distribution of metaphor categories in the data

15%

As the table shows, nine out of fourteen metaphor categories feature in more than half of the total articles. Only two metaphors,

PHYSICAL SPACE

and

PERSON,

are

prevalent in all 48 articles under investigation, followed by the metaphors of MACHINE, LIVING ORGANISM

and

COMPETITION,

which are nearly as dominant. From

this it is possible to deduce that spatial relations among physical entities and personification are the principal conceptualisations of technology in the magazines under investigation. Moreover, it is logical for the metaphors of MACHINE and LIVING ORGANISM

to be present in the majority of articles since they are constitutive in the

technological context, although the aspect of machine seems to be outbalanced by a higher tendency towards personifying technology. The high presence of domains, such as competition and experience, seems to suggest that they are becoming constituent parts in popular technology discourse.

From a multi-textual approach, the metaphors of PHYSICAL SPACE and PERSON are the principal conceptualisations of technology that provide support to the coherent structuring of the discourse. Following this, it can be argued that these metaphors may motivate the development of other conceptualisations as well. For instance, the PERSON

metaphor can motivate the emergence of the

OBJECT OF DESIRE

metaphor

from the frequent personification of technology as a desirable man or woman. Similarly, the

SECURITY

metaphor can extend from viewing virtual space as a

physical construction (PHYSICAL SPACE metaphor).

Moreover, the textual function can be examined in terms of the use of a particular metaphor in constituting the backbone of a particular text. In this manner, the prevalence of metaphors within a multi-textual setting can be misleading. For instance, the prevalent metaphor in the articles that examine computer security issues is the SECURITY metaphor, even though it shows a low distribution within the dataset. This also means that even though some metaphors may feature in all or nearly all articles, such as the

PERSON

or the

LIVING ORGANISM

metaphors, it does not

necessarily follow that they also constitute the backbone of the texts in question.

172

Apart from Halliday’s functions, further functions of the metaphors have been identified in the data. These include the metaphor’s role in constructing public representations (or social assumptions) of technology, in image-making, humanising, feeling about and evaluating technology.

The metaphor’s role in constructing public representations in science and technology has been investigated by Liakopoulos (2002) and Christidou et al. (2004) in analyses of metaphors of biotechnology in English (2002), and space-science and astronomy, genetics and biotechnology, natural sciences and engineering, and informatics in Greek (2004). Liakopoulos (2002:10-27) identifies seven super-ordinate categories of metaphor, while Christidou et al. (2004:352-357) identify six super-ordinate categories of metaphor, along with subordinate groupings in brackets:

/ SCARE

PROMISE

PROMISE

(PROGRESS, ECONOMIC)

(DREAM, THREAT/RISK/HORROR, BATTLE/STRUGGLE/WAR, AMBIVALENT USES)

SCARE

CONSTRUCT

(FEAR, EUGENICS, BRAVE NEW WORLD)

(ARTIFACT, PIECE OF ART, COOKING, CLOTHING)

OTHER SCIENCES

EXTENDING FRONTIERS OF KNOWLEDGE

(IT/ENGINEERING, ARCHAEOLOGY)

(MYSTERY

RESOLUTION,

EXPLORATION/ADVENTUROUS

EXPEDITION,

LEARNING A SECRET, EXTENDING HUMAN SENSES VIA

INSTRUMENTS,

SENSITIVE

READING/TRANSLATING/DECODING MESSAGES OF NATURE) RELIGION

SUPERNATURAL PROCESS

(HOLY GRAIL, HUBRIS, MIRACLE, IMMORTALITY)

(RELIGION, MIRACLE/TRICK/MAGIC)

NATURAL ORDER

SUDDEN/VIOLENT PROCESS

(UNNATURAL, MONSTER, ALIEN, SUPER, UNION)

(EXPLOSION,

REVOLUTION,

BIRTH,

RAPID

FORWARD/UPWARD MOTION) GENE PERSON

GRADUAL PROCESS

(GENEALOGICAL SUCCESSION, FUSION/COMBINING PROCESS, ACCUMULATIVE PROCESS) SCIENTIST

Table 12 Liakopoulos’ (2002) (left column) and Christidou et al.’s (2004) findings (right column)

173

In particular, Christidou et al. identify that engineering and informatics are particularly conceptualised by the super-ordinate categories of CONSTRUCT, SUPERNATURAL PROCESS

and

PROMISE/SCARE,

SUDDEN/VIOLENT CHANGE

(2004:359). It

seems that within the wider context of technology encompassing domains from biotechnology to informatics, there is a range of conceptual domains used, which are identified in this study as well. The PERSON metaphor can be related to Liakopoulos’s categories of GENE PERSON and SCIENTIST and the KINSHIP submetaphor to Christidou et al.’s

GENEALOGICAL SUCCESSION

and

BIRTH

as instances of personification; the

metaphor of MACHINE can be related to Liakopoulos’s category of OTHER SCIENCES as instances of comparison of the new technology with older ones; the metaphors of PROGRESS

and

REVOLUTION

are similar to Liakopoulos’s category of

(PROGRESS) and Christidou et al.’s FORWARD/UPWARD MOTION);

et al.’s

CLOTHING,

PROMISE

SUDDEN/VIOLENT PROCESS (REVOLUTION, RAPID

and the metaphor of

LIFESTYLE

is similar to Christidou

both suggesting ‘a marriage of technoscientific knowledge with

consumerism’ (Barns 1993 in Christidou et al. 2004:356). The metaphors of FOOD/COOKING ARTIFACT,

of

and

TOY

can be compared to Christidou et al.’s

and the metaphor of

RELIGION (MIRACLE)

SUPERNATURAL

and Christidou et al.’s

COOKING

and

is similar to Liakopoulos’s category SUPERNATURAL PROCESS,

elevating

technology’s status to that of religion (Liakopoulos 2002:19). This listing aims to show that a range of conceptual domains seem to be commonly recurring with regard to how technology is publicly perceived. This recurrence of perceptions points to the possibility that some of these metaphors may be transferred from one technological domain to another as a result of the technologies’ similar impact on the public.

In addition to finding representations similar to those reported in previous research, the present study also contributes further conceptualisations as social constructions OBJECT OF DESIRE, EXPERIENCE, LIVING

of technology, namely the metaphors of ORGANISM, PHYSICAL SPACE DESIRE

and SECURITY. As mentioned previously, the

metaphor may extend from the

PERSON

OBJECT OF

metaphor and particularly from

viewing technology as a (desired) man or woman. This, in conjunction with intentionally developing a deep connection with the users as in the case of Apple and its product the iPhone (Nacey 2010:11), results in the construction of a love and hate relationship with technology that is manifested in the expressions forming the OBJECT OF DESIRE

metaphor. Similarly, the

EXPERIENCE

metaphor is a manifestation 174

of ‘attributing [technology] with sentient thoughts and motivations’ (Nacey 2010:12), which points to a representation of technology as a generator of experiences.

On the other hand, the metaphors of SECURITY

LIVING ORGANISM, PHYSICAL SPACE

and

constitute typical conceptualisations of technology, introduced from

computer design for theory-constitutive and/or exegetical purposes, and it would seem superfluous to include them here. However, given that the metaphorical expressions have as much say in creating an ‘ideological perspective’ as the conceptual metaphor (Dirven, Frank and Pütz 2003:8), it is fair to argue that they may contribute to constructing public representations of technology via their original metaphorical expressions. Thus, original metaphorical expressions may play a part in enhancing already established public representations of technology, or even altering them by inviting the reader to adopt a new perspective. For instance, Maglio and Matlock (1998:2) have already established that virtual space is represented as physical space in the minds of computer users, and the metaphorical expressions identified in the data support exactly this view, such as across the length and breadth of the Net (Section 4.14). However, original expressions provide a more colourful picture of technology, thereby not only enhancing the public perception of virtual space as physical space, but also introducing new perspectives; for example, the expression keep to the better lit parts of the internet, which adds the element of particular areas of good or ill repute.

Social constructions of technology are manifested by both conventional metaphors and novel metaphors; the former pointing towards more widely accepted perceptions of technology, and the latter reflecting more individualistic viewpoints or less shared ones that are now gaining ground. For example, in the early stages of its development, technology was considered as a machine (MACHINE) for managing, storing and circulating information. Further research into computing and information technologies resulted in the evolution of computer systems (PROGRESS) and the development of the Internet. The latter marked a revolution in modern technology (REVOLUTION), originally as a means of exchanging information without time delays, and later as a means of research, entertainment (TOY), commerce, telephony, e-mail, and many others. By valuing technology as a commodity, and a rather profitable one, 175

this resulted in the establishment and rise of many companies that offered technology products and services. The proliferation of such companies led to the creation of competition (COMPETITION) between products and services in the market, and companies striving to improve their products and surpass their competitors. What was once considered as a mere machine is now part of our lifestyle (LIFESTYLE). The plethora of technological products and devices has opened a new field of consumption, while their popularity, innovativeness and cutting-edge designs have given rise to new fashion trends and future status symbols.

Moreover, it is argued that metaphors act as a means of image-making, humanising, feeling about and evaluating technology. These functions are to some extent interrelated and coexist in more than one category of metaphor. The use of conceptual metaphor as an image-maker of technology is closely related to the metaphors’ role in constructing social representations of technology. This approach presents technology along the lines of advertising techniques that aim at creating an attractive image and luring the consumer audience. In particular, the metaphors of LIFESTYLE, OBJECT OF DESIRE,

and

PERSON

are emphasised based on their main

meaning foci, which relate to fashion trends, glamour, sex appeal and physical appearance. As mentioned in Sections 4.1.4 (GENDER), 4.1.5 (HUMAN 4.1.8 (PHYSICAL

APPEARANCE),

PHYSICAL APPEARANCE

the submetaphors of

BODY)

and

GENDER, HUMAN BODY

and

highlight mainly the female gender by expressions that

describe physical appearance in conjunction with body parts, such as voluptuous flanks, pretty face, irresistible thinness, and it’s got legs to match its looks. These metaphors create an image of technology as part of ideal living and as a celebrity, and manage to equate the image of a glamorous, sexually appealing woman to the image of a cutting-edge technology product. However, it should be noted that most of these metaphors appear within the very specific context of the T3 magazine, which is aimed at a male target readership. Although the magazine does not make any explicit mention of the gender of the target readership, the fact that it uses female models (usually in swimwear or other attractive attire) to pose on the cover along with the technology product of the month is a rather clear statement by itself.

Metaphors act as a means of producing a humanised image of technology by attributing human characteristics and qualities to it. This does not mean that 176

technology appears humane, but rather that its image as a cold, lifeless object is weakened and may be perceived as something that people can relate to, by identifying with its qualities and its characteristics. In particular, the metaphor of PERSON

provides a personified image of technology, while the metaphor of

ORGANISM

LIVING

assigns human functions to technology. As one of the principal

conceptualisations of technology, the PERSON metaphor involves nearly all aspects of a person in describing technology – human activity, personality traits, human body, physical appearance, family member, roles and occupations – with a rather strong emphasis on the human rational side; for example, don’t assume the scanner knows more than you, and antivirus products…trying to understand. The prevalence of the human logical side can be understood in terms of the metaphorical relationship between the

COMPUTER

and the

BRAIN

domain, as in the development of artificial

intelligence (Semino 2008:136). The human emotional side is rather excluded from the structure of the metaphor, given that human emotions were not one of the aspects highlighted in the modelling of the

COMPUTER

domain (ibid.). But the presence of

two metaphorical expressions (desire, happily), implying an emotional side of technology, seems on the one hand odd and original given the context of technology, while on the other hand, it may be seen as natural given that emotions are constitutive elements of a person.

The American psychologist Albert Ellis (1962) claims that there is a strong relationship between cognitions and feelings, and citing Epictetus, states that ‘people are disturbed not by things, but by the views which they make of them’ (Epictetus in Ellis 1962:54). This close relationship between cognitions and feelings is manifested in the ways that metaphors help users to know how to feel about and evaluate technology. By evoking positive or negative emotional responses, metaphors guide people to making respective value judgments about technology. It can be claimed that the majority of, if not all, conceptual metaphors are used in order to provoke emotional reactions from the readers. And bearing in mind that technology magazines have their own agenda to advance, it is almost certain that the evoking of emotion is intentional. One of the most overt ways of arousing feelings towards technology is in the choice of expressions related to physical appearance or personality traits, such as beautiful, sexy, smart, sophisticated, or ugly, gawkylooking, lame duck, unwelcome. The former group of expressions imply positive 177

qualities being valued as assets, which make the users feel that they should appreciate technology and have a favourable view of it. Conversely, the latter group evokes negative feelings towards the technology they are describing and discourages the users from using or acquiring it. Emotions are not only stirred up by expressions related to physical appearance or personality traits. A number of highly charged metaphorical expressions may equally create positive or negative effects. Consider, for example, the metaphorical expressions whenever a broadband connection fails and watch the browser screech to a standstill. In the first case, we have a feeling of discomfort because the system stopped functioning and this has caused us inconvenience in our navigation of the Internet. In the second case, while the same thing is being said, i.e. that the system has stopped working, the emotional impact is more intense. The lexis of the second expression does not simply reflect the functioning state of a system, but rather evokes the unpleasant feeling of a highpitched cry-like noise that results in the machine not working.

4.15.1 Conclusion The analysis of the English metaphors shows diversity in the conceptualisation of technology resulting from technology’s multi-faceted nature. On the one hand, metaphor is used for describing the development of various technologies, applications, devices, and so forth, and on the other hand, it expresses social representations of technology indicative of its high integration into society and its domestication into people’s work and home environments. The present section has discussed the role of conceptual metaphor in popular technology magazines in terms of Halliday’s ideational, textual and interpersonal functions, and identified further functions of metaphor as a means of image-making, humanising, feeling about and evaluating technology, as well as constructing public representations of technology in English-speaking cultures.

The relationship of metaphor and technology has its roots in software and hardware design and development, which gave rise to many theory-constitutive and/or pedagogical metaphors. As such, the

DESKTOP

metaphor launched a revolution in

computer design, metaphor became the medium in computers by putting forward modes of thinking and understanding technology, and people started ‘to think not in 178

words but in symbols’ (Elmer-Dewitt 2001). With the further development of technology and its inculturation into each relevant environment of human activity and interaction, and its domestication in the home environment (Green 2001:43), users of technology not only familiarised themselves with the new medium, but they also expanded the metaphors to new ways of thinking and talking about technology. It is argued that the authors in technology magazines may act as both users of technology and producers of interpretations of technology. In this manner, as users they may use theory-constitutive metaphors for the readership’s understanding, while as producers they may expand already existing metaphors, based on bodily and cultural experience, or introduce novel conceptualisations in order to accommodate new interpretations of technology.

The metaphors tend to show that technology is associated with a variety of social assumptions and ideologies, which are essentially influenced by how technology is manufactured and marketed. Conversely, the various representations of technology contribute, in turn, to the shaping of its socio-cultural facet, as well as its uses and applications (Goggin 2006:126,206). One of the most salient socio-cultural aspects of technology is the way it is represented in terms of celebrity and sexuality, as Goggin (2006:127-128) also observes in the case of the mobile phone, where the consumers’ obsession about celebrity is carried over to the cultural representation of the mobile phone. The concept of celebrity is craftily associated with a service or a handset, thereby giving everyone the opportunity to experience celebrity. A similar association between technology devices and symbols of high status (mostly via paragons) is at work here, and conceptual metaphor is the means for making such associations emerge. The role of sex is interrelated with celebrity and the collective value of attractive physical appearance. Metaphors of sexuality become part of the socio-cultural context of communicating technology and play a significant role in legitimating social values (Christidou et al. 2004:348). This is particularly evident in conceptualisations of technology design, which give rise to a range of meanings associated with ‘identity, fashion, belonging, and the symbols and images that mark out collective and overarching aspects of our cultures’ (Goggin 2006:207). In addition, the systems of sexuality and celebrity bring to mind the ENTERTAINMENT

SHOW

or

metaphor, which is extensively used in the American culture as a

way of understanding various experiences in life, such as politics, war, love, 179

education and business (Kövecses 2005:188). It seems then that the American predilection to relate various experiences in terms of entertainment has rubbed off on wider socio-cultural life and has transferred over to the domain of technology, which was once considered as a mere means of information exchange and communication.

Lastly, the fact that such conceptualisations (and interpretations) occur within the context of technology magazines is quite significant. Given that ‘in every context [people] will be surrounded by a sort of envelope of other people’s talk, writing, attitudes, images, and feelings’ about technology (Edwards 1995:284), the context of popular technology magazines can also contribute to particular constructions and understandings of technology. As mentioned above, the magazine T3 implicitly builds a male-friendly environment by using strictly female models to pose on each monthly cover. This, in conjunction with the fact that it purports to be a technology lifestyle magazine, may lead to the assumption that the magazine uses and/or fabricates metaphors that are devised particularly to construct an alluring image of technology from a male perspective and from the perspective of promoting the lifestyle of the modern man. It should be noted that the other three magazines do not make such statements in terms of the potential target readership. This aspect that ‘technology is a topic of men’ has been also reported in research in technology discourse in Finnish newspapers, which concluded that ‘masculine “technology talk” restructures relations between technology and gender’ (Jauhiainen 2007:84,88). In the present study it is argued that the issue of gender is exploited for image-making and constructing social representations of technology, possibly not with the intention of downgrading women per se, but with the intention of alluring the male readership. However, one cannot ignore the absence of a feminine ‘technology talk’ that could allure the female readership as equal users of technology, on one hand, and help to reconcile the gender gap that is created by such uneven discourse, on the other.

180

Chapter 5 Analysis of Conceptual Metaphor in Greek Translation The present section discusses the translation of the metaphors in the Greek data. The analysis of the Greek data follows the analysis of the English metaphors and involves a sequence of steps. Initially, the translated Greek texts are matched to the English texts, and the Greek metaphorical expressions are matched to the previously identified English expressions. The next step is to look at similarities and differences between the metaphor categories in the two languages. This involves examining whether the metaphor categories are preserved, altered or omitted. If altered, the next step is to look at whether new categories emerge or whether the translated metaphors shift into other, existing categories of main metaphors and submetaphors. The third step is to identify similarities and differences between the metaphorical expressions in the two languages. This involves examining whether the expressions are retained, developed, explicated, paraphrased or omitted in the translated texts. A last step is to consider particular translation patterns that occur, from the similarities and differences between metaphor categories and their expressions in the two languages. For this purpose, the translations are initially examined against the typology of translation procedures that was compiled in Section 2.4 (Chapter 2). The initial typology serves as a point of departure for identifying translation strategies in the Greek texts. In view of the findings from the Greek analysis, the typology is reviewed anew and refined to accommodate the metalanguage used in the study and the translation patterns that have emerged from the similarities and differences between conceptualisations in the two languages.

The resulting translation strategies share many features with the initial typology and corroborate the latter’s validity to a large extent. Though the refined strategies come as a result of the Greek analysis, it was decided to structure the present chapter based on the resulting typology, so as to provide a more comprehensive view of the ways English metaphors of technology are translated into Greek. For this reason, the refined strategies are described below and compared against the initial typology. 1. Metaphors common to the source (ST) and target texts (TT). This category brings together types (1), (2a) and (5). The underlying notion is firstly to examine whether the main metaphor category is retained or altered,

181

and then to examine whether the linguistic expressions are equivalent at the micro-level or the macro-level (Schäffner 2004:1260), or whether they have developed by a literal translation of the English expression. 2. Metaphorical expressions elaborated in the TT. This category brings together types (2b) and (2c). The focus is on how metaphors are developed in translation, by more detailed expressions making entailments explicit, or even by expanding the metaphor with another conceptual domain for explanatory purposes. 3. Shift of submetaphor category in the TT. This category matches type (2d). The focus is on shifts within the main metaphor category. The aspects of the metaphor that may differ in the translations correspond to the submetaphors identified in the English analysis. 4. Shift of metaphor category in the TT. This category links types (3) and (4). The focus is on shifts from one main metaphor (or submetaphor) category into another. A secondary consideration is to examine whether the different conceptualisation is motivated by cultural specificity, or by the authors’ personal preferences. 5. Non-figurative rendition of metaphorical expressions in the TT. This category matches type (6). 6. Omission of metaphorical expressions in the TT. This category matches type (7). 7. No translation provided in the TT. This is a category that was not considered in the initial typology. It occurred from the observation that segments from the ST were not translated into the TT, thus resulting in having a number of English metaphorical expressions without any type of equivalents. 8. Addition of metaphorical expressions in the TT.

The sections that follow present the analysis of the Greek data. The analysis is structured based on the refined translation strategies outlined above following the order of the English analysis and examining each metaphor category individually. Specifically, Section 5.1 presents the metaphors that have been preserved and reproduced in the TT by means of translation at the micro-level and the macro-level or by similarity-creating metaphors. Section 5.2 presents metaphors that are 182

elaborated in the TT. Section 5.3 looks at shifts in submetaphors, which reflect different aspects of the main metaphor category common to ST and TT. Section 5.4 examines shifts in the main metaphor categories in the TT as a result of cultural specificity or the writers’ preferences. Section 5.5 discusses the case of the metaphorical expressions having been rendered non-figuratively, and considers possible explanations motivating this strategy. Lastly, Sections 5.6 and 5.7 presents those cases where the metaphors have been omitted from the text, and the entire fragment of the ST in which the metaphors appear has not been translated or adapted into the TT. Sections 5.1-5.4 include a number of examples of the English and the Greek expression along with back translation of the Greek expression so that similarities and differences between the two languages may become more visible and comprehensible. The full range of metaphorical expressions and their identified translations are distinguished into the refined translation categories and included in Appendices 2-15.

5.1

Metaphors Common to the Source and Target Texts

The first translation strategy involves the same conceptual metaphor and equivalence of linguistic expressions, either at the micro-level or macro-level or by a literal translation of the English expression (similarity-creating metaphors).

The term

micro-level refers to the translation of metaphors that correspond both conceptually and linguistically, and macro-level refers to the translation of metaphors that correspond at the conceptual level but are expressed by different linguistic means (Schäffner 2004:1260). This is the most prevalent strategy, occupying more than half (58%) of all the translated data (Table 5.1, Appendix 1). The first observation to be made here is that the fourteen main metaphor categories identified in the English analysis are preserved in the Greek translations across all the data, while no new categories have emerged from the translated data. A second observation concerns the objective of this translation strategy, which is for the translated expression to achieve a similar conceptualisation to the ST in conjunction with a similar conceptual effect.

183

5.1.1

The PERSON metaphor

The Greek translations preserve the complexity of the metaphor of

PERSON,

by

transferring all the aspects identified in the English analysis with the exception of the EMOTIONS

submetaphor, since the two English expressions of the

EMOTIONS

submetaphor are omitted in the Greek texts. However, the other aspects of activity, lifecycle, gender, human body, kinship, personality, physical appearance and role/occupation are preserved by corresponding expressions conceptually and/or linguistically. The following sections describe the translation of each submetaphor individually.

5.1.1.1 The ACTIVITY submetaphor The metaphorical expressions of the ACTIVITY submetaphor are translated both at the micro-level and the macro-level. For example: 5.1

5.2

Syncback works with Windows Scheduler [CA, 30 fresh downloads] Το Syncback συνεργάζεται µε τις προγραµµατισµένες εργασίες [CA, Τα καλύτερα ‘φρέσκα’ προγράµµατα] (the Syncback works with the scheduled tasks) so that tools […] do not bury themselves in the start up routine [CA, Ease the Windows pain] αποτρέπει εισαγωγές προγραµµάτων από το να εγκαθίστανται…πίσω από την πλάτη σας [CA, Παυσίπονα για τα Windows] (it hinders startup programs from installing themselves…behind your back)

Example 5.1 demonstrates a translation at the micro-level, while example 5.2 works at the macro-level. Such translations at the macro-level preserve the personification of technology as well as achieving a similar humorous effect.

Idiomatic expressions are translated at the micro-level in cases where a similar idiom exists in the target language. For example: 5.3

it would kill internet shopping stone dead [CA, Everyone loves cookies] θα ήταν χαριστική βολή στην υπόθεση internet shopping [CA, Τα µπισκότα δεν είναι πάντα…νόστιµα] (it would be the coup de grace/deathblow in the case of Internet shopping)

Idioms that do not exist in Greek, but are conceptually comprehensible, are transferred by means of a literal translation of the English expression. For example: 5.4

searching tools eat CPU cycles for breakfast [PCM, Why microchips matter (again)] εργαλεία εύρεσης θα "µασουλάνε" κύκλους της CPU για... πρωινό [PCM, AMD vs Intel] (searching tools will ‘chew’ CPU cycles for breakfast).

184

Such expressions are regarded as conceptually comprehensible because they relate to common experiences – in this case, culinary habits and the physiological need of hunger. In addition, this is a particularly well-known expression in the target culture, mainly from English-speaking films and television series.

Another aspect of the

ACTIVITY

submetaphor worth noting is the use of signalling.

Signalling by means of quotation marks is far more common in the TT than in the ST. The data revealed 29 Greek expressions signalled in this way compared with two English expressions. Expressions signalled by quotation marks refer largely to activities

which

would

involve

picturing

a

technology having

physical

characteristics, such as eyes (‘διαβάσει’ – read, ‘παρακολουθεί’ – watch, ‘βλέπουν’ – see), mouth (‘µασουλάνε’ – chew, ‘συνοµιλήσουν’ – talk), hands/fingers (‘γράψει’ – write, ‘τραβώντας’ – pulling

down, ‘αντλήσει’ – pick up, ‘καθαρίζει’ – clean),

forehead/armpits/pores (‘ιδρώνει’ – sweat), legs (‘ανεβοκατεβαίνουν’ – go up and down), and mental abilities (‘θυµάται’ – remember, ‘µαντέψουν’ – guess, ‘ξέχασε’ – forgot). It is assumed that such characteristics enhance technology’s humanised image, while at the same time it may seem unnatural to animate inanimate entities without signalling their metaphoricity. Thus, signalling alleviates the expressions’ shock effect of what one might consider as extreme anthropomorphism given the context of technology.

5.1.1.2 The LIFECYCLE submetaphor The

LIFECYCLE

submetaphor comprises only five expressions. Two of them are

translated at the micro-level. For example: 5.5

the age of its PCs [PCM, Insider’s guide to Vista] την ηλικία των PC [PCM, Vista, Ο πληρέστερος οδηγός για ψαγµένους χρήστες] (the age of the PCs)

The other three expressions are translated at the macro-level. For example: 5.6

5.7

no spring chicken [PCW, Your PC in 2008 and beyond] έχει αρχίσει να δείχνει τα χρόνια του [PCW, Τεχνολογίες 2008...και αργότερα] (has started to show its years) the video games industry has grown up [CA, Play time] έχει ‘ωριµάσει’ η βιοµηχανία ψυχαγωγίας [CA, Ώρα για παιχνίδι] (has ‘matured’ the industry of entertainment)

185

Example 5.6 demonstrates the translation of an idiomatic expression by a Greek conceptually corresponding expression, which means that a person’s age is becoming evident suggesting that he/she is growing old. Example 5.7 involves a Greek translation signalled by quotation marks as metaphorical. The translation alleviates the aspect of physical development and stresses the aspect of mental development.

5.1.1.3 The GENDER submetaphor The GENDER submetaphor is limited to three expressions. Two of them are translated at the micro-level. For example: 5.8

spend more time with her… My DS Lite [T3, The Nintendo Game Boy] περνάω περισσότερο χρόνο µαζί του. Με το DS Lite εννοώ [T3, Nintendo Game Boy] (spend more time with him. With the DS Lite I mean)

Technology is conceptualised as female in the ST, because the English author of this text is male. In the TT, the Greek translator of the text is female so the gender of technology is changed to male to fulfil the metaphor’s effect of user and technology engaging in an emotional relationship.

The third expression is translated at the macro-level: 5.9

the big engines were just as good as […] the little guys [PCW, Search engine shoot-out] µικρούς ‘παίκτες’ [PCW, Μηχανές αναζήτησης σε πόλεµο] (small ‘players’)

The translated expression is quite common in Greek to conceptualise a participant (in competitive activities) and is also prompted from the English expression players mentioned earlier in the text.

5.1.1.4 The HUMAN BODY submetaphor The

HUMAN BODY

submetaphor comprises 32 translated metaphorical expressions,

which are all translated at the micro-level. It contains common expressions that are part of terminology and their translations also pertain to the specific submetaphor of the

HUMAN BODY,

such as the expression memory translated as µνήµη (memory). It

also involves a number of common everyday expressions, such as brains translated as ‘εγκέφαλος’ (brain) or the idiomatic expression Achilles’ heel translated by its Greek equivalent, αχίλλειος πτέρνα (achillean heel).

186

5.1.1.5 The KINSHIP submetaphor The metaphorical expressions of the

KINSHIP

submetaphor are translated both at the

micro- and the macro-level. Translations at the micro-level include common metaphorical expressions occurring from terminology, such as generation translated as γενιά (generation), and expressions commonly used in everyday language, such as father translated as πατέρας (father). It is worth adding to the latter common expressions, the expression brainchild translated as πνευµατικό τέκνο (brainchild). This Greek expression initially means godchild, but has also acquired the meaning of brainchild, after being literally translated from English.

Translations at the macro-level include expressions commonly used in everyday language and common expressions from terminology. For example, the expression parent site is translated as µητρικό site (mother site), and an instance of the expression new generation is translated as πρόγονό του (its ancestor/predecessor). The former translation is guided by cultural specificity, given that the concept of mother entails the source of origin in Greek. The latter translation results from interpreting the English expression from the opposite point of view, like two sides of the same coin. In other words, the DVD is the new generation to the VHS recorder and the VHS is the ancestor/predecessor of the DVD recorder.

5.1.1.6 The PERSONALITY submetaphor The

PERSONALITY

submetaphor is mainly translated at the micro-level, but also

involves a number of notable expressions translated at the macro-level. Translations at the micro-level include expressions that are translated fairly straightforwardly by their linguistic equivalents in Greek, while some of them are signalled by quotation marks (fifteen out of 147). For instance, the common expression smart is translated as έξυπνο (smart) with and without signalling.

Translations at the macro-level involve original expressions that are considered as common in everyday language, but acquire new meanings in the context of technology by adding a humorous or ironic effect to the text. For example:

187

5.10

Sony’s UX50 is the Japanese company’s polite “up yours!” to Microsoft’s Project Origami [T3, Honey, they shrunk the pc!] Με το UX50, η Sony πετάει το γάντι στο Project Origami της Microsoft [T3, Αγάπη µου, συρρίκνωσαν το PC] (with the UX50, Sony throws (down) the glove to the Project Origami of Microsoft)

As the back translation implies, the English vulgar expression up yours! is translated in Greek by a milder expression, possibly by picking up from the adjective polite. Although Greek has its share of vulgar language, the translator may choose to use milder language so as not to provoke any sentiments of offence. Thus, translation at the macro-level involves adapting the ST expression mainly based on cultural specificity reflecting the readers’ expectations.

5.1.1.7 The PHYSICAL APPEARANCE submetaphor The

PHYSICAL APPEARANCE

submetaphor comprises 28 expressions that are

translated at the micro-level and the macro-level. The translations preserve and reproduce the metaphors’ effect of presenting technology’s design and image in terms of human physical appearance. For example: 5.11

5.12

PSP’s luxury appearance [T3, The PSP] η πολυτελής εµφάνιση του PSP [T3, PSP: Το µέλλον είναι φορητό] (the luxurious appearance of the PSP). Hotmail has received a significant makeover [PCW, 101 Fantastic Freebies] Hotmail άλλαξε όνοµα και όψη [PCW, Ο ‘κήπος’ µε τα δώρα] (the Hotmail changed name and look)

Examples 5.11 and 5.12 demonstrate translations at the micro-level and the macrolevel respectively. In example 5.12, the translation seems to spell out the information implied in the ST by the more general expression makeover; that is, the technology’s name and look.

It is worth noting that the

PHYSICAL APPEARANCE

submetaphor seems to be largely

accepted and incorporated into the TT. This is evident in the fact that signalling by quotation marks is used only in two expressions, and that the TT has adopted the use of four English expressions instead of Greek ones: sexy, classy, look and ‘businesslike’.

188

5.1.1.8 The ROLE/OCCUPATION submetaphor The expressions of the

ROLE/OCCUPATION

submetaphor are all translated at the

micro-level. This submetaphor includes mainly expressions from terminology and a few original expressions. In the former case, the English expressions denoting names of software, such as Windows Task Manager, are preserved in English or, if localised, they are translated by their Greek equivalent, such as spelling checker translated as διορθωτής (corrector). In the latter case of original expressions, these are translated by corresponding Greek expressions, for example: 5.13

Punkbuster’s expansion means it has become the online gaming world’s best police force, and it has evolved to become a sophisticated system to prevent cheating. [CA, Get a handle on games] Με λίγα λόγια, η επέκταση Punkbuster κατόρθωσε να γίνει η πλέον αποτελεσµατική ‘αστυνοµία’ στον κόσµο του online gaming, ενώ παράλληλα έχει εξελιχθεί σε ένα περίπλοκο σύστηµα αποτροπής του cheating. [CA, Πάρτε το Παιχνίδι στα Χέρια Σας] (In a few words, the expansion Punkbuster managed to become the most effective ‘police force’ in the world of online gaming, while it has evolved into a sophisticated system of preventing cheating)

As the back translation shows, the English expression police force is reproduced in the TT, thereby also preserving the technology’s role as a police officer in fighting cheating in online gaming.

5.1.2 The

The LIVING ORGANISM metaphor

LIVING ORGANISM

metaphor and its submetaphors are preserved in the Greek

translations. The metaphorical expressions identified in the ST are translated by corresponding expressions in the TT at the micro- and the macro-level. Out of the 152 metaphorical expressions identified, 48 metaphorical expressions are preserved in English in the TT, while eleven Greek expressions (compared with one English expression) are signalled as metaphorical by quotation marks, thereby drawing attention to metaphoricity and guiding the readers’ interpretations. The translation of the Greek data shows consistency in preserving the English conceptualisations and in reproducing the degree of conventionality (or novelty) of the ST. In some expressions the Greek text is largely influenced by the English text, while in others it is a common experiential basis, which provides similar conceptualisations, such as experience regarding the concept of virus. The following sections describe the translation of each submetaphor individually.

189

5.1.2.1 The ANIMAL submetaphor The

ANIMAL

submetaphor is translated at the micro-level, with the exception of a

single expression translated at the macro-level. This submetaphor includes mainly common expressions from terminology, and two original expressions. The common expressions from terminology are transferred to the TT by their Greek equivalents from localisation, such as mouse translated as ποντίκι (mouse), or by preserving the English expression even though Greek equivalents exist, such as the terms bug, and worm, or because they are names of software and no translation exists, such as Firefox.

The original expressions are transferred to the TT by both types of translation, which preserve the conceptual effect of the expression. For example: 5.14

5.15

gigabytes of stored media […] in need of some taming [PCW, 101 fantastic freebies] gigabytes από media […] που θέλετε να ‘τιθασεύσετε’ [PCW, Ο ‘κήπος’ µε τα δώρα] (gigabytes of media that you want to ‘tame’) Just as Lamborghini’s bull suggests a tradition of ferocious power, the Playstation badge, tucked discreetly in the top-left corner of PSP’s fascia, reminds us that this comes from a stable of unmatchable pedigree in its field. [T3, The PSP] Το σήµα του Playstation στην επάνω αριστερή γωνία φαντάζει σαν οικόσηµο, όπως το άλογο στη Ferrari. [T3, PSP Το µέλλον είναι φορητό] (the badge of Playstation in the top left corner is conspicuous like a blazon, as the horse in Ferrari.)

In example 5.14, the English expression is translated by its Greek linguistic equivalent, thereby conveying the image of technology as an undisciplined animal that needs taming. It also signals its metaphoricity so as to make clear that this expression is used to add humour to the difficulty of manipulating excessive amounts of media such as music, images and videos. In example 5.15, the English expression is translated at the macro-level. Although the translation does not match the expression in the ST, nevertheless it can be regarded as a corresponding metaphorical expression, given that both automobile brands have animals as their trademarks. In this manner, the translation not only preserves the conceptualisation of technology as an animal but also preserves the originality of the expression by referring to another famous automobile company of equal status.

190

5.1.2.2 The PLANT submetaphor The

PLANT

submetaphor comprises only four expressions in the Greek texts. Three

out of four expressions are common expressions from computer terminology relevant to the aspect of structure, such as tree and branch. The fourth expression is commonly used in everyday language related to the aspect of growth. All expressions are translated at the micro-level, either by their Greek equivalents, or by preserving the English expression in the TT.

5.1.2.3 The HEALTH/ILLNESS submetaphor The HEALTH/ILLNESS submetaphor is translated at the micro-level, involving common expressions belonging to terminology, which are also regarded as common expressions belonging to everyday language; for example, the expressions virus, infection, diagnosis, symptom, and health are translated by their Greek equivalents, which are both part of terminology and everyday language: ιός (virus), µόλυνση (infection), διάγνωση (diagnosis), σύµπτωµα (symptom), and ‘υγεία’ (health) in quotation marks for signalling the metaphorical conceptualisation of the technology’s condition.

There is one expression translated at the macro-level. The expression ill-intentioned site is translated as µολυσµένο site (infected), which emphasises the result of an infection rather than the intent to infect.

5.1.2.4 The LIFE/DEATH submetaphor The

LIFE/DEATH

submetaphor comprises five expressions, which are all translated at

the micro-level by their Greek linguistic equivalents. For example: 5.16

longer battery life for notebooks [PCM, The 10 biggest problems in computing and how we’ll solve them] παράταση της διάρκειας ζωής των µπαταριών των notebooks [PCM, Λύση στα 10 µεγαλύτερα προβλήµατα των υπολογιστών] (extension of the duration of life of the batteries of the notebooks)

The Greek expression διάρκεια ζωής (duration of life) is a collocation that signifies life expectancy.

191

5.1.2.5 The FUNCTION submetaphor The expressions of the

FUNCTION

submetaphor are all translated at the micro-level.

These include common expressions from computer terminology that are translated by their Greek equivalent terms or preserved in English, and original expressions as extensions of terminology that are translated by Greek equivalent expressions, some signalled by quotation marks. For example: 5.17

Portable printers, scanners and other power-hungry peripherals may need a self-powered hub. [PCW, Laptops user guide] Οι φορητοί εκτυπωτές, τα scanners και άλλα περιφερειακά που ‘πεινάνε’ για ενέργεια, µπορεί να χρειαστούν ένα αυτοενισχυόµενο hub. [PCW, Χρήσιµες συµβουλές για laptop πάντα σε φόρµα] (the portable printers, the scanners and other peripherals which are hungry for power may need a self-powered hub)

Example 5.17 demonstrates an original expression as an extension of conceptualising inputting power to devices as feeding living organisms (Section 4.2.5, Chapter 4). In this manner, devices that need power are viewed as hungry in English. At first glance, the Greek translation seems to correspond to the English expression. However, the Greek language usually makes use of the verb διψάω (to be thirsty) to refer to one’s strong need or desire (for consumption). Thus, it is assumed that this translation was largely influenced by the English expression, but because the Greek language uses another related verb of consumption to conceptualise the same need, the translation can be easily understood and even be unnoticed.

5.1.3

The MACHINE metaphor

The Greek translations do not include all aspects of the

MACHINE

metaphor. In

particular, they preserve the conceptualisation of technology as a machine and specifically as an automobile, with 132 and 103 translated expressions respectively, out of the total of 236 expressions found. However, the submetaphor of

BUS

is

absent, and only one expression from the SHIP submetaphor is encountered.

In the

MACHINE

metaphor, the English metaphorical expressions are translated into

conceptually and linguistically corresponding Greek ones, although for some of the expressions, more than one Greek equivalent is provided. Such expressions involve run, turn on, turn off, to be on, and switch off. For example, run, the most prominent expression in the

MACHINE

metaphor, was encountered 41 times and translated as:

192

τρέχω (run) (34 times, once with signalling), ξεκινώ (start) (twice), λειτουργώ (operate) (twice), λειτουργία (operation) (once), and ενεργοποιούµαι (be activated) (twice). As the frequency of expressions shows, the Greek translation follows the English expression conceptually and linguistically and uses the verb τρέχω both as intransitive and transitive in the same manner as English. This plethora of translations suggests that there is no one-to-one correspondence between English and Greek, and most of these expressions are used interchangeably. What is important here is that all these expressions in Greek indicate that a machine is functioning or has stopped functioning in the same way as the English expressions.

5.1.3.1 The AUTOMOBILE submetaphor In the

AUTOMOBILE

submetaphor, the majority of metaphorical expressions seem to

correspond at the micro-level, whilst a few expressions correspond at the macrolevel. The metaphorical entailments that develop the

AUTOMOBILE

submetaphor are

also carried over to the Greek texts.

The expressions of the first entailment, ENGINEERING,

5.18

DEVELOPING A TECHNOLOGY IS AUTOMOTIVE

are translated at the macro-level. For example:

With its Batmobile-sleek bodywork, that iconic perforated speaker grill, enormous four-inch windscreen and polished black finish, the PSP looked like it had been engineered and tested in wind tunnels by fashionable Italians.[T3, The PSP] Ξεκινώντας από την ποιότητα της κατασκευής του PSP και το στυλ που διαθέτει, θα µπορούσε άνετα να χαρακτηριστεί ως το gadget του Batman! [T3, PSP Το µέλλον είναι φορητό] (commencing from the quality of manufacture of the PSP and the style that it has, it could easily be characterised as the gadget of Batman)

As the back translation shows, the English expression is translated as κατασκευής (manufacture), which encapsulates the very specific aspects of bodywork, and engineered and tested into the general idea of automobile manufacture.

The expressions of the second entailment, PARTS OF A TECHNOLOGY ARE PARTS OF AN AUTOMOBILE, are

translated at the micro-level, either by the Greek equivalents, or by

preserving the English expression. The most prevalent expression is engine, translated as µηχανή (engine).

193

The expressions of the third entailment, OPERATION OF AN AUTOMOBILE,

THE FUNCTIONING OF A TECHNOLOGY IS THE

are mainly translated at the micro-level. The

expressions tweak and crash are translated both at the micro- and the macro-level. The expression tweak is translated as ‘πειράζω’ (interfere, mess about), βελτιώνω (improve), and τροποποίηση (modification). The expression ‘πειράζω’ is signalled as metaphorical in both its instances of appearance and translates tweak at the microlevel, as it is a colloquial expression used in Greek among young people and automobile engineers to mean tweaking an automobile. The other two expressions (βελτιώνω and τροποποίηση) translate the expression tweak at the macro-level as they conceptualise the outcome of tweaking; that is, if you tweak an automobile, you modify its settings in order to improve its operation. The expression crash, meanwhile, is translated as κατάρρευση (collapse), κρασάρω (crash), and διακοπή λειτουργίας (interruption of operation). The expressions κατάρρευση and κρασάρω translate crash at the micro-level; κατάρρευση denotes the system’s breakdown, while κρασάρω (krasáro) is a fabricated expression from how the English word crash sounds in Greek (as /kras/) and the verb suffix –άρω (-áro) used in the formulation of numerous new verbs with similar foreign origin but sounding like Greek. The expression κρασάρω is not included in Greek language dictionaries, but is commonly used in spoken language. The expression διακοπή λειτουργίας translates crash at the macro-level since it denotes the result of a system’s crash, which is the disruption of operation.

The expressions of the fourth entailment, THE PERFORMANCE OF AN AUTOMOBILE,

THE PERFORMANCE OF A TECHNOLOGY IS

are translated mainly at the micro-level by

Greek equivalent expressions of speed, such as ταχύτερη (high-speed), γρήγορη (fast), or αργή (slow), or by preserving the English expressions, such as test-drive, or super γρήγορο (super-fast). It is worth mentioning the translation of a single expression at the macro-level, which also preserves the ST originality: 5.19

Executive Software, which makes Diskeeper, a defragging utility, claims the practice can improve performance—if you have at least 20 percent of your hard disk free. In short: Your mileage may vary. [PCW, Technology: Truth or Fiction] Καλό το defrag για το δίσκο και την οµαλή λειτουργία του συστήµατος, αλλά µην περιµένετε να «τουρµπίσει» το PC. [PCW, Μύθος ή πραγµατικότητα;] (the defrag is good for the disk and the smooth operation of the system, but don’t expect to the PC to ‘turbocharge’)

194

As the back translation shows, the English expression mileage, expressing a PC’s performance in terms of distance travelled, is translated as ‘τουρµπίσει’, which, as the signalling suggests, is used metaphorically. The Greek expression ‘τουρµπίσει’ (tourbísi) is a fabricated expression from the word turbo (short for turbo charge) with the verb suffix –ίζω (-ízo), and seems to mean to become turbocharged, to acquire turbo power. It is not included in Greek language dictionaries, but is an expression commonly used colloquially in the context of tweaking automobiles to make them run faster.

The examples of translations indicate that the target language preserves the conceptualisation of technology as a machine and a vehicle by translations both at the micro- and the macro-level. In addition there is diversity at the linguistic level given the various ways employed for the translation of several expressions. This diversity also shows that the domain of machine is quite a familiar domain in the target culture, and so there is flexibility in conceptualising technology. On the other hand, there is a tendency to fabricate expressions in Greek that are largely influenced by and dependent on the English language. These fabrications fill the gap in concepts that are not available in Greek, and that serve as direct translations of the English expressions. As far as the translation of common and original expressions is concerned, there is a tendency to fall back on common expressions, with a few exceptions of retaining the original expressions.

5.1.3.2 The SHIP submetaphor The

SHIP

submetaphor includes the translation of the English expression rock the

boat at the macro-level. This expression is translated into Greek as ταράζω τα νερά (shake the waters), which corresponds conceptually to the English expression and pertains to the broader domain of ship. Both expressions conceptualise a change in the current state of affairs, but in slightly different ways: the English expression highlights a change in the balance of a boat floating on the water, while the Greek expression highlights a change in the movement of the waters. Both the boat and the waters can be easily disturbed by even the slightest motion.

195

5.1.4

The COMPETITION metaphor

The Greek translations preserve the COMPETITION metaphor and the submetaphors of BATTLE

and

BOXING MATCH,

while the

category. The translations of the

RACE

COMPETITION

submetaphor does not feature in this metaphor highlight the aspects of the

event of the competition, the participants, the performance of each contender, and the outcome of the competition.

The metaphorical expressions in the ST and TT correspond mainly at the microlevel. For instance, the expression competitor is translated as ανταγωνιστής (competitor), competition as ανταγωνισµός (competition), comes a close second as έρχεται δεύτερο (comes second), verdict as ετυµηγορία (verdict), and performed well or slightly better as τα πήγαν καλά ή και κάπως καλύτερα (did well or even slightly better). However, there are a number of expressions translated at the macro-level that show greater diversity in expressions, as well as equal creativity in the conceptualisations. The following expressions have the expression edge in common, but their translations do not show consistency in their wordings: 5.20

5.21

5.22

5.23

5.24

have the edge [T3, Route 66-0] διεκδικώ δάφνες [T3, Στρίψε δεξιά στη Ριζαρείου] (pursue laurels) have the performance edge [PCW, Your PC in 2008 and beyond] επανακτώ τα σκήπτρα της απόδοσης [PCW, Τεχνολογίες 2008...και αργότερα] (regain the reins of performance) maintain its edge [PCW, Search engine shoot-out] διατηρεί την υπεροχή [PCW, Μηχανές αναζήτησης σε πόλεµο] (maintains the supremacy) have a slight edge [PCW, Search engine shoot-out] εµφανίζουν ένα µικρό προβάδισµα [PCW, Μηχανές αναζήτησης σε πόλεµο] (show a small step ahead) edge [PCM, Why microchips matter (again)] πλεονέκτηµα [PCM, AMD vs Intel] (advantage)

As the back translations show, the highlighted Greek expressions are dissimilar linguistically; however, the translations are considered as corresponding because they preserve the conceptualisation of technology as competition.

5.1.4.1 The BATTLE submetaphor The

BATTLE

submetaphor is translated mainly at the micro-level, highlighting the

aspect of an armed conflict, the outcome of the battle, and the opposing forces

196

involved in the battle. For instance, the expressions battle and war are translated as διαµάχες (battles) and πόλεµος (war), the expression winner as νικητής (winner) and camps as στρατόπεδο (military-camp). Only a few expressions are translated at the macro-level. For example: 5.25

Search Engine Shoot-Out [PCW, Search engine shoot-out] Μηχανές αναζήτησης σε πόλεµο! [PCW, Μηχανές αναζήτησης σε πόλεµο] (engines of search at war)

The English expression makes reference to resolving disputes by a gunfight as in the Wild West, while the Greek expression tones down this effect by a more general expression of being in an active state of conflict.

5.1.4.2 The BOXING MATCH submetaphor The

BOXING MATCH

submetaphor preserves the aspects of the participants, the

periods in a boxing match, weight divisions and the outcome of the match, and is translated both at the micro- and the macro-level. Expressions of weight divisions and periods in a boxing match are translated at the micro-level. For instance, the expression round is translated as γύρος (round), undisputed champ as αδιαµφισβήτητος πρωταθλητής (undisputed champion), and heavyweight champ as πρωταθλητής στην κατηγορία των ‘βαρέων βαρών’ (champion in the category of ‘heavy weights’).

Expressions translated at the macro-level refer to the participants and the outcome of the match. For example: 5.26

challengers to the king [PCW, Search engine shoot-out] σφετεριστές του θρόνου [PCW, Μηχανές αναζήτησης σε πόλεµο] (usurpers of the throne)

Both expressions belong to the

BOXING MATCH

submetaphor, and both draw

knowledge from the domain of kingship in order to conceptualise the winner in the particular competition and his or her rivals. The English text conceptualises the winner explicitly as king, whereas the Greek text uses the expression throne metonymically for the king. A second difference is that the English text conceptualises the king’s rivals as challengers, which implies more of a game and

197

gives the impression of fair play, while the Greek text uses the expression usurpers, which entails more physical combat and gives the sense of hostility.

5.1.5

The SECURITY metaphor

All aspects of the

SECURITY

metaphor are preserved in the Greek translations. The

metaphorical expressions are mainly translated at the micro-level. The target text is largely consistent with the source text both linguistically and conceptually. Given that the Greek culture has a long history of engaging in battles and fighting wars, it is no wonder that the majority of translated expressions of the

FORTRESS

metaphor are

conceptually and linguistically in line with the English ones. On the other hand, the use of signalling in the TT indicates that there is a need to point out the presence of metaphoricity, and guide readers’ interpretations.

5.1.5.1 The FORTRESS submetaphor The expressions of the

FORTRESS

submetaphor are translated both at the micro- and

the macro-level. For example: 5.27

The number one threat to your computer’s security is—you! [PCM, Security super guide] ∆υστυχώς, ο πιο αδύναµος κρίκος στην αλυσίδα ασφάλειας του συστήµατός σας είστε... εσείς ο ίδιος. [PCM, Ασφαλείς στο Internet] (unfortunately, the most weak link in the chain of security of your system is yourself)

This is an example of translation both at the micro- and the macro-level. The expression security is translated at the micro-level by the Greek equivalent as ασφάλειας (security). The expression threat is translated at the macro-level by the Greek expression ο πιο αδύναµος κρίκος στην αλυσίδα (the weakest link in the chain), which conceptualises a potential danger as the weakest part in a system that could cause the system to fail (Cambridge Idioms Dictionary 2006).

5.1.5.2 The COMBAT submetaphor The

COMBAT

submetaphor is translated at the micro-level by Greek equivalent

expressions. For example: 5.28

software that fights viruses [PCM, The 10 biggest problems in computing and how we’ll solve them] προγράµµατα καταπολέµησης ιών [PCM, Λύση στα 10 µεγαλύτερα προβλήµατα των υπολογιστών]

198

(programs for fighting viruses)

The English expression is translated by a similar commonly used expression of everyday language from the domain of fighting.

5.1.5.3 The DEFENCE submetaphor The

DEFENCE

submetaphor is largely translated at the micro-level, mainly involving

commonly used expressions in everyday and technical language, such as protection translated as προστασία (protection), and protect as προστατεύω (protect), and common expressions from terminology, such as Defender and firewall, which are preserved in English, with the exception of a single instance of firewall translated as τείχος ασφάλειας (wall of security). The DEFENCE submetaphor also includes a small number of expressions translated at the macro-level.

It is worth mentioning the English expression block because it is the most prominent expression in this submetaphor and is translated into five different expressions: µπλοκάρω (block) (thirteen times), εµποδίζω (obstruct) (three times), σταµατώ (stop) (once), αναχαιτίζω (intercept) (once), and παρέχω προστασία (provide protection) (once). The expression µπλοκάρω (block, blokáro) translates the English expression at the micro-level, as it is a fabricated expression from how the English word block sounds in Greek (as /blok/) and the verb suffix –άρω (-áro). The expression µπλοκάρω (block, blokáro) originates from the Italian word bloccare (Mpampiniotis 2002) and translates the English expression at the micro-level. The expression εµποδίζω (obstruct) seems to be the closest Greek counterpart of block at the microlevel, while the expressions σταµατώ (stop), αναχαιτίζω (intercept) and παρέχω προστασία (provide protection) may be considered as equivalent at the macro-level as they give rise to entailments; if you block an intruder from entering one’s property, you essentially stop him from moving in and you provide protection to people inside.

5.1.5.4 The ATTACK submetaphor The

ATTACK

submetaphor is also mainly translated at the micro-level, involving

commonly used expressions in everyday and technical language, such as attack translated as επίθεση (attack), target as στόχος (target), and hijack translated as 199

‘κατάληψη’ or ‘καταλαµβάνω’ (occupation, occupy). Signalling occurs in a number of expressions related to physical space, such as ‘κατάληψη’ (occupation), and killing and hitting (‘σκοτώνω’, kill and ‘χτυπώ’ hit). A possible explanation for the signalling is that the translator may have felt that such expressions are too semantically strong to be used in the context of technology, because there is no actual physical space or physical killing and hitting involved.

A small number of expressions are translated at the macro-level. For example: 5.29

[…] this arrangement limits the havoc that a zero-day exploit capable of hijacking IE […] could wreak on your PC. [PCW, The threats you can’t see] Έτσι, περιορίζεται ο ολέθριος κίνδυνος ένα περιστατικό τύπου «ηµέρα 0», ικανό να πλήξει τον IE […], να αλώσει το PC σας [PCW, Αόρατες απειλές] (thus, the fatal danger is limited (that) an event of type ‘day 0’, capable of striking the IE, to destroy your PC)

As the back translation suggests, the English expressions are translated by Greek expressions that are equivalent at the conceptual level. The English collocation to wreak havoc is adapted into the TT by the Greek expressions ολέθριος κίνδυνος (fatal danger) and αλώσει (destroy). The expression αλώσει (destroy) also implies a cultural reference to the Fall of Constantinople (Άλωση της Κωνσταντινούπολης) in 1453, which is considered as one of the most destructive events in Greek History, thus charging the meaning of the Greek expression with emotional impact and intensifying the degree of destruction. The expression hijacking is also adapted by using the expression πλήξει (strike), thereby conveying explicitly the meaning of assault.

5.1.5.5 The ESPIONAGE submetaphor The

ESPIONAGE

submetaphor is largely translated at the micro-level, mainly

involving common expressions from terminology, such as spyware, Spyware Doctor and Spy Sweeper, which are preserved in English in the TT. In addition, commonly used expressions in technical and everyday language are also translated at the microlevel by Greek equivalents. For example, the expression record is translated as καταγράφουν (record), spy as κατασκοπεύουν (spy), and steal as κλέβουν (steal). Only a few expressions that conceptualise the activities and behaviour of spyware are translated at the macro-level. For example, the expression reporting back is

200

translated as στέλνουν αναφορές πίσω (send reports back), or the expression sneak through is translated as βρουν σηµείο εισόδου (find point of entrance).

5.1.5.6 The INVASION submetaphor The INVASION submetaphor is translated both at the micro- and the macro-level, thus preserving the conceptualisation of illegally entering a computer system as invading a physical area. For example, the expression intruders is translated at the micro-level as εισβολείς (intruders) and the macro-level as παρείσακτοι (interlopers). The former translation brings to mind an aggressive invasion to an area as if by troops. The latter translation suggests the action of secretly sneaking inside an area where one is not permitted, and is not as semantically charged as the former.

5.1.6

The LIFESTYLE metaphor

The Greek translations of the FASHION

and

CLOTHING

LIFESTYLE

metaphor and the submetaphors of

suggest that the

LIFESTYLE

IDEAL,

metaphor has been

wholeheartedly embraced in the TT. The TTs not only preserve the conceptualisations, but also try to reproduce the same metaphorical expressions, most of the times with success, in an effort to diffuse this kind of conceptualisation to the readership. The

LIFESTYLE

metaphor is exemplified by a single common

metaphorical expression, which conceptualises the everyday use of a technology as way of life. This expression is translated at the micro-level as τρόπος ζωής (way of life).

5.1.6.1 The IDEAL submetaphor Expressions conceptualising technology as a general ideal are translated both at the micro- and the macro-level. For example, the expression currency is translated at the micro-level as νόµισµα (currency), while the expression cultural icon is translated at the macro-level as σύµβολο του σύγχρονου πολιτισµού (symbol of modern civilization).

201

Expressions conceptualising technology as a specific ideal are mostly translated at the micro-level. Such expressions emphasise culturally-specific references, which are preserved in the TT given their presence in the target culture, such as Holy Grail, Batman, Hoover, Rolls-Royce and Yugo. However, it should be noted that the expression ‘Hoover’ does not seem to impart the same effect in the Greek culture as in English. Although the use of Hoover in the Greek text does make the point of a certain status, it does not follow that iPod became the generic word for MP3 players in the same way as Hoover took over the generic word for vacuum cleaners. This is because Hoover as a brand name was never used in place of the electrical appliance in Greece. A more representative example would have been the brand name ‘Vespa’. In Greece ‘Vespa’ referred originally to a particular model of scooter manufactured by the company Piaggio, but because of the massive popularity of Vespas within the country this resulted in the name ‘Vespa’ taking ownership of the word for any type of scooter.

On the other hand, it is somewhat bewildering why the following expression is translated at the macro-level: 5.30

Game Boy did for gaming what Walkman had done for music [T3, The Nintendo Game Boy] το Game Boy προσέφερε στο gaming όσα τα Windows στους ηλεκτρονικούς υπολογιστές [T3, Nintendo Game Boy] (the Game Boy offered to gaming what the Windows to the personal computers)

As the back translation demonstrates, the expression Walkman is altered to Windows. A possible explanation for this is that this change is not about the product per se, but about the translator’s belief that the impact of Windows is greater in the target culture than the Walkman, therefore making it a better candidate for translation. Nevertheless, it is fair to argue that the translation has preserved the effect of the ST and has reproduced the expression accordingly.

5.1.6.2 The FASHION submetaphor The

FASHION

submetaphor is translated at the micro-level, either by preserving the

English expressions or by Greek equivalents. For example, the English expressions must, mainstream, and hot are preserved in English in the TT, probably because they are used as such in contexts of lifestyle to express stylish commodities. Other

202

expressions related to trends and styles are translated by Greek equivalents, such as luxury – πολυτέλεια (luxury), trend – τάση (trend), and popular – δηµοφιλής (popular).

Expressions that describe technology as a fashion trend that comes and goes are translated at the macro-level. For example: 5.31

iPod mini, which stole the limelight [T3, the iPods] iPod mini και έκλεψε την παράσταση [T3, Τα iPods] (iPod mini and stole the performance/show)

This type of conceptualisation brings to mind the

SHOW

or

ENTERTAINMENT

metaphor extensively used in the American culture as a way of understanding various experiences in life, such as politics, war, love, education and business (Kövecses 2005:188). It seems then that the

FASHION

submetaphor suggests that the

American predilection to relate various experiences in terms of entertainment has passed on to technology, and that the translation of the

FASHION

metaphorical

expressions implies that this way of thinking and talking is also carried over to the Greek language and culture via translation.

5.1.6.2.1 The CLOTHING submetaphor The

CLOTHING

submetaphor comprises only four expressions, two of which are

translated at the micro-level and two at the macro-level. The influence of the English texts is quite evident in these translations in an effort to reproduce the English expressions. For example: 5.32

5.33

white hats – corporate security experts [PCM, The 10 biggest problems in computing and how we’ll solve them] ‘λευκά καπέλα’ – ειδικοί στην ασφάλεια επιχειρήσεων [PCM, Λύση στα 10 µεγαλύτερα προβλήµατα των υπολογιστών] (white hats – experts in the security of businesses) This shrunk-to-fit version of the Game Boy Advance [T3, The Nintendo Game Boy] Η ‘µπήκε-στο-πλύσιµο’ έκδοση του Advance [T3, Nintendo Game Boy] (the ‘shrunk-in-the-wash’ version of Advance)

Example 5.32 demonstrates a literal translation, influenced by English both at the linguistic and the conceptual level. Although the Greek expression is signalled by quotation marks, it provides little information that these white hats refer to benevolent hackers. In example 5.33, the Greek translation is an expression commonly used in everyday language to talk about something that has reduced in

203

size as if shrunk in the wash, but this expression is not commonly used in the context of technology (HNC). It is argued that the translation is influenced by the English text at the conceptual level, which is also evident in the similar use of hyphens, a type of punctuation that is not normally used in Greek.

5.1.7

The REVOLUTION metaphor

The metaphorical expressions of the

REVOLUTION

metaphor are largely translated at

the micro-level; for example, the expression brought about a new era is translated as έφερε µια νέα εποχή (brought a new epoch). However, a few metaphorical expressions are translated at the macro-level. For example: 5.34

it doesn’t look like a ground-breaking video product [T3, The iPods] δεν δείχνει ότι µπορεί να φέρει τα πάνω-κάτω στο χώρο του video. [T3, Τα iPods] (it doesn’t look that it can turn things upside down in the domain of video)

Both ST and TT expressions rely on our bodily experiences with the physical environment and how we perceive it when it changes. The English expression suggests that if the ground literally breaks, then we have a new ground, a new environment. Similarly the Greek idiom suggests that if things are inverted, then they are completely different from their previous situation. Both expressions describe the results of external events that can provoke some kind of a cause and effect situation.

Moreover, a particular translation reveals dependence on and influence from the ST in an effort to reproduce the English expression conceptually and linguistically, thereby rendering the TT incomprehensible, as follows: 5.35

[…] the music industry had decided to get on board, and ride the white rocket to stratospheric heights [T3, The iPods] Η µουσική βιοµηχανία […] αποφάσισε να επιβιβαστεί σ’ αυτό και να καβαλήσει τον λευκό πύραυλο µέχρι τη στρατόσφαιρα [T3, Τα iPods] (the music industry […] decided to get on board and ride the white rocket up to the stratosphere)

The Greek translation reproduces the English expression quite literally, and fails to transfer the wordplay between the iPod as a rocket and its extreme success as reaching stratospheric heights (Section 4.7, Chapter 4). The Greek translation does not succeed in achieving the same effect as the ST expression, because the Greek expression used up to the stratosphere carries only the meaning of relating to the

204

stratosphere, unlike the English expression stratospheric heights, which also carries the meaning of extremely high.

Overall, it is observed that the metaphor of REVOLUTION is transferred into the Greek translations. There is a strong tendency to reproduce the English expressions conceptually and linguistically, most of the time successfully, which leads to reproducing many original expressions and preserving the effect of the ST metaphor.

5.1.8

The PROGRESS metaphor

The conceptualisation of technology as progress is not only preserved in the Greek texts but also in ways similar to the English texts. Expressions presenting evaluations of present progress and earlier stages of development are retained and reproduced in the TT at the micro-level, such as traditional – παραδοσιακός (traditional), primitive – πρωτόγονος (primitive) and innovative – καινοτόµος (innovative).

English and Greek texts share the conceptualisation of progress as forward motion, along with the special cases of

AMOUNT OF PROGRESS IS MAGNITUDE OF MOTION

AMOUNT OF PROGRESS IS DISTANCE MOVED

and

(Chapter 4, Section 4.8). While both texts

conceptualise the amount of progress as magnitude of motion, the English texts also signals the direction with the expression forward. In Greek, the direction can be explicit or implicit. For example: 5.36

5.37

leap forward [T3, The Nintendo Game Boy] βήµα προς τα εµπρός [T3, Nintendo Game Boy] (step towards the front) a quantum leap forward [PCM, Why microchips matter (again)] το άλµα […] είναι από τα µεγαλύτερα [PCM, AMD vs Intel] (the leap […] is of the biggest)

In example 5.36, the direction is explicit in both languages, while in example 5.37, the direction is implied in the expression άλµα (leap), which can be a jump upwards or forward (Mpampiniotis 2002).

Progress is also conceptualised as upward motion, a feature shared by both languages, which relies on our experiences of making progress as moving upwards (SUCCESS IS UP). For example: 5.38

rocket toward ever higher levels of realism and detail [PCW, Your PC in 2008 and beyond]

205

κατακτούν νέες κορυφές απόδοσης [PCW, Τεχνολογίες 2008...και αργότερα] (they conquer new peaks of performance)

In example 5.38, the English expression is translated at the macro-level by the Greek expression κορυφές, borrowing from the highest point of a mountain, thereby preserving the conceptualisation of making progress as moving upwards.

Furthermore, Greek and English texts share the conceptualisation of progress as a moving object coming towards a static observer or as a static location that we are moving towards. For example: 5.39

faster broadband is right around the corner [PCM, The 10 biggest problems in computing and how we’ll solve them] ταχύτερη ευρυζωνικότητα περιµένει στη γωνία [PCM, Λύση στα 10 µεγαλύτερα προβλήµατα των υπολογιστών] (faster broadband is waiting at the corner) fuel-cells […] are on the way [PCM, The 10 biggest problems in computing and how we’ll solve them] καθ’ οδόν είναι […] κυψέλες καυσίµων [PCM, Λύση στα 10 µεγαλύτερα προβλήµατα των υπολογιστών] (on the way are fuels cells)

5.40

Examples 5.39 and 5.40 demonstrate translations at the micro-level. In example 5.39, both English and Greek expressions conceptualise progress as a static location that we are moving towards. In example 5.40, both expressions conceptualise progress as a moving object coming towards a static observer.

The translated expressions of the

PROGRESS

metaphor reveal similar conceptual

constructions between the two languages that are motivated by a shared sensorimotor experience. This similarity also seems to corroborate the Event Structure metaphor (ACTIONS

ARE SELF-PROPELLED MOVEMENTS)

as a candidate for a metaphorical

universal.

5.1.9 The

The OBJECT OF DESIRE metaphor

OBJECT OF DESIRE

metaphor involves translations both at the micro- and the

macro-level. For example: 5.41

5.42

It was love at first sight with the Pearl [T3, Blackberry Pearl 8100] ερωτευτήκαµε το Pearl µε την πρώτη µατιά [T3, Blackberry Pearl 8100] (we fell in love with the Pearl with the first glance) So encountering Game Boy for the first time was like being struck in the thumbs with Cupid’s arrow. [T3, The Nintendo Game Boy]

206

Έτσι, η πρώτη επαφή µε ένα Game Boy ήταν σαν να σε χτυπά ο έρωτας µε ηλεκτροφόρο βέλος. [T3, Nintendo Game Boy] (so the first contact with a Game Boy was like cupid striking you with electric arrow)

Example 5.41 presents a translation at the micro-level by a linguistically and conceptually corresponding Greek expression. In Example 5.42, the English simile is translated at the macro-level. The English simile brings to the foreground the aspect of falling in love not through the heart but through the fingers and touching because the Game Boy is a handheld game (Chapter 4, Section 4.9). The translation of the simile preserves the aspect of falling in love by cupid’s arrow, but emphasises the aspect of electricity and being electrified by the feeling of love because the Game Boy is a battery-operated game.

A third type of translations involves particular expressions that are translated in more than one way, either at the micro- or the macro-level. The English expressions identified are infatuation(s), dream and love. For instance, the expression infatuation is translated as µανία (mania) at the micro-level and ενδιαφέροντα (interests) at the macro-level.

In ways similar to the ST, the TT retains the conceptualisation of technology as an object of desire and carries over to the Greek texts this feeling about technology. This tendency to reproduce the expressions with equally emotive language suggests that the Greek culture also views technology in terms of emotional relations and uses the vocabulary of emotions for that purpose.

5.1.10 The TOY metaphor The translation of the metaphorical expressions under the

TOY

metaphor is carried

out at the micro-level. For example: 5.43

This site is more for play than work. [PCW, 101 fantastic freebies] Αυτό το site είναι περισσότερο για παιχνίδι παρά για εργασία. [PCW, Ο ‘κήπος’ µε τα δώρα] (This site is more for play than work)

One of the most frequent expressions of this metaphor used in the Greek texts is the expression παιχνίδι (play, game, toy), which conveys more than one interpretation. The concept of παιχνίδι highlights the aspects of: 1) an amusement (more for play

207

than work), 2) an activity providing entertainment involving a set of rules (games), and 3) an object for playing with (toy, videogame). The translations of the

TOY

metaphor in Greek suggest that technology is conceptualised as a fun experience and an object for playing with, in ways similar to the English texts.

5.1.11 The FOOD/COOKING metaphor The metaphorical expressions under the

FOOD/COOKING

metaphor are translated

largely at the micro-level, and involve mainly computer terms, namely the expressions fresh, feeds, lunchbox, breadcrumbs, kernel, cookies and menu. With the exception of the expression menu, the other expressions have not been translated into Greek and are preserved in English, mostly because they form part of names, e.g. the online music store Audio Lunchbox, the software tools breadcrumbs and the nucleus of the operating system kernel. The expression menu is translated into its Greek counterpart (µενού) in nineteen out of 23 instances. This expression has been localised into Greek by using the same analogy to the written list of options in a restaurant as English. The English expression menu was not translated in four instances because it was referring to the computer feature Start Menu and was preserved as such.

In addition three other expressions are translated; two at the micro-level and one at the macro-level. For example: 5.44

5.45

think small cellophane sandwiches [PCM, The 10 biggest problems in computing and how we’ll solve them] σκεφτείτε τις ως µικρά σάντουιτς από σελοφάν [PCM, Λύση στα 10 µεγαλύτερα προβλήµατα των υπολογιστών] (think of them as small sandwiches from cellophane) Google’s secret sauce [PCW, Search engine shoot-out] Η µυστική συνταγή του Google [PCW, Μηχανές αναζήτησης σε πόλεµο] (the secret recipe of Google)

In example 5.44, the English expression is translated at the micro-level. Both expressions allude to placing a thing between two dissimilar things by analogy to two slices of bread with a filling between them (Collins 2003). In example 5.45, the English expression is translated at the macro-level. Both expressions share the meaning of a secret formula for achieving a goal, although the English expression

208

specifies the type of food involved (a sauce), while the Greek expression only refers to the type of directions involved in preparing food (a recipe).

Although such examples reveal common views of technology based on similar food and culinary habits, it should be noted that the majority of translated expressions shift into other conceptualisations, which suggest that the Greek language and culture shows a preference towards other views of technology.

5.1.12 The SUPERNATURAL metaphor The

SUPERNATURAL

metaphor consists of metaphorical expressions that are all

translated at the micro-level. For example: 5.46

But all too often, we encounter the dark side of computing. [PCM, The 10 biggest problems in computing and how we’ll solve them] Ωστόσο, πολύ συχνά ερχόµαστε αντιµέτωποι και µε τη σκοτεινή πλευρά των υπολογιστών. [PCM, Λύση στα 10 µεγαλύτερα προβλήµατα των υπολογιστών] (however very often we come faced with the dark side of the computers)

The translations of the

SUPERNATURAL

metaphor suggest that the two cultures share

common folk theories of magic and its uses, which assist in providing translations at the micro-level. However, there is a simile that is translated at the macro-level: 5.47

The notion of bug-free software seems a lot like time travel, dollar-a-gallon gasoline, and a humble Donald Trump: something we’d all like to see, but won’t. [PCM, The 10 biggest problems in computing and how we’ll solve them] Η εικόνα του software χωρίς bugs µοιάζει σαν... όνειρο θερινής νυκτός – κάτι που θα θέλαµε να δούµε, αλλά δεν πρόκειται να δούµε. [PCM, Λύση στα 10 µεγαλύτερα προβλήµατα των υπολογιστών] (the image of software without bugs seems like midsummer night’s dream – something that we would like to see but we shall not see)

The simile in the ST compares the existence of non-malicious software to three things – time travel, dollar-a-gallon gasoline and a humble Donald Trump – which are regarded as supernatural because they do not exist in reality, similar to a supernatural phenomenon (Section 4.12, Chapter 4). The simile in the TT alludes to the eponymous play by W. Shakespeare A Midsummer Night’s Dream. This expression has come to mean in the Greek language something unrealisable, unachievable and utopian (Mpampiniotis 2002), and is regarded as conceptually corresponding to the English expression. However, the two expressions differ in terms of originality. The English expression is an original metaphorical expression created on the spot by the ST author, while the Greek expression is a commonly used 209

expression in everyday language when one wishes to present something as wishful thinking. Nevertheless, the use of the Greek expression may be considered as original within the particular context of technology.

5.1.13 The EXPERIENCE metaphor The

EXPERIENCE

metaphor is distinguished into a number of experiences: positive

and negative experiences, disastrous situations, addictive drugs, very explicit experiences and quite vague ones, and ranges from culture-specific experiences to more universal ones (Section 4.13, Chapter 4). The expressions of positive and negative experiences are translated both at the micro- and the macro-level. For example: 5.48

Fuel cells aren’t the only prospects for all-day power without the headache of battery charging. [PCM, The 10 biggest problems in computing and how we’ll solve them] Οι κυψέλες καυσίµων δεν είναι η µόνη προοπτική για ενέργεια όλη την ηµέρα χωρίς τον πονοκέφαλο της φόρτισης της µπαταρίας. {PCM, Λύση στα 10 µεγαλύτερα προβλήµατα των υπολογιστών] (the cells of fuel are not the only prospects for power all the day without the headache of the charging of the battery).

Example 5.48 involves an expression of a negative experience translated at the micro-level. The English and Greek expressions correspond at the conceptual and linguistic levels, as both languages share the experience of headaches and can relate them to situations that seem unpleasant and distressing.

Translated expressions of disastrous situations include expressions that conceptualise computer problems as disasters from which the user should survive. Such expressions are translated at the micro-level. For example: 5.49

Vulnerability scanners can generate a flood of warning messages [PCM, Maximum security] Οι scanners κενών ασφαλείας µπορούν να προκαλέσουν έναν κατακλυσµό προειδοποιητικών µηνυµάτων [PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια] (the scanners of holes of security can cause a flood of warning messages)

In example 5.49, both the English and the Greek expression are based on common grounds; that is, both expressions refer to large numbers or amounts by analogy to the rise of water level (Collins 2003, Mpampiniotis 2002).

The metaphorical expressions conceptualising technology as a recreational drug are translated both at the micro- and the macro-level. Only two expressions are

210

identified: addictive translated at the micro-level and crack-addictive translated at the macro-level. Both expressions are translated as εθιστικό-ή (addictive, neuter, feminine). The prefix crack- is left out of the latter expression and there is no mention of a particular drug. A possible explanation for this omission is that references to distinct categories of drugs are not frequent in Greek in contexts outside drugs, as opposed to English, in which categories of drugs are often used instead of their effects, either on a metaphorical or a literal basis, such as the expression crackaddictive which alludes to a particularly strong addiction (Denny 2005:1458).

A further grouping includes explicit lived experiences and vague ones, as well as culture-specific experiences and more universal ones. Explicit lived experiences refer to situations that all humans may experience (e.g. oxygen, coffee, arthritis), while vague experiences refer to experiences that people do not fully understand, but about which they may have a shared impression, opinion or belief (e.g. out-of-body experience, heaven). For example: 5.50

5.51

Fresh UI is a tweaker’s heaven: With it you can change scores of settings in XP, many of which you probably never knew existed. [PCW, 101 fantastic freebies] Το Fresh UI είναι ο παράδεισος του χρήστη που διψά για δυνατότητες παραµετροποίησης του λειτουργικού συστήµατος.{PCW, Ο ‘κήπος’ µε τα δώρα] (the Fresh UI is the heaven of the user who is thirsty for potential of configuration of the operating system) Easy set-up, a clear screen, and a mini-keyboard that won’t give you arthritis are a must. [T3, Email intuition] Η καλή και ευκρινής οθόνη γιατί µας στραβώνει ο ήλιος, το άνετο πληκτρολόγιο για να µην καίµε θερµίδες από την προσπάθεια [T3, Email της παραλίας] (the good and clear screen because us blinds the sun, the easy keyboard so we do not burn calories from the effort)

Example 5.50 includes a metaphorical expression of a vague experience translated at the micro-level. Both the English and Greek expression share a common ground of religion, enabling the English expression to be straightforwardly translated into Greek, and also share an extended notion of heaven as a state of ultimate bliss and happiness. Example 5.51 includes a metaphorical expression of an explicit lived experience translated at the macro-level. Although the English and Greek expressions are linguistically different, it can be argued that they correspond at the conceptual level. The English expression refers to the experience of getting arthritis because an unmanageable keyboard can hurt one’s hands and fingers. Similarly, the Greek expression refers to the experience of sweating and burning calories because a keyboard that is difficult to manage can be a strenuous task.

211

In relation to culture-specific and universal experiences, only one expression is identified. The expression as familiar as the national anthem is translated at the micro-level as τόσο αναγνωρίσιµη όσο και ο εθνικός µας ύµνος (as familiar as our national anthem). This expression illustrates a type of experience which may be regarded as both culture-specific and universal, because as an anthem, it is specific to each nation-country, but as a concept, it is a universal experience shared by all nation states across the globe. Thus, the experience expressed here is one that can easily be understood and shared between the ST and the TT readers.

5.1.14 The PHYSICAL SPACE metaphor The Greek translations conceptualise the virtual spaces of technology as physical spaces in ways very similar to the English texts, based on common bodily interactions with the physical world. The metaphorical expressions are translated both at the micro- and the macro-level. For example: 5.52

5.53

Blogger is home to tens of thousands of blogs [PCW, 101 fantastic freebies] το Blogger είναι το ‘σπίτι’ δεκάδων χιλιάδων blogs [PCW, Ο ‘κήπος’ µε τα δώρα] (the Blogger is the ‘house’ of tens of thousands of blogs) can stop these hijacking Trojans at the front door [PCM, Maximum security] µπορούν να σταµατήσουν αυτά τα hijacking trojans στο κατώφλι σας [PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια] (will stop these hijacking Trojans at your doorstep)

In example 5.52, the English expression is translated at the micro-level, given that the Greek expression means both house and home. On the other hand, the English expression in example 5.53 is translated at the macro-level, given that the Greek expression uses the doorstep metonymically for the front entrance to an area.

5.1.14.1 The PHYSICAL PROCESS submetaphor The

PHYSICAL PROCESS

submetaphor is translated both at the micro- and the macro-

level. Common metaphorical expressions that have derived from the design of software are translated at the micro-level by the Greek equivalents established from localisation, such as the expressions cut, copy and paste, which are localised as αποκοπή, αντιγραφή and επικόλληση respectively.

212

Original metaphorical expressions that extend from terminology, such as the expression scrub extending from remove/delete and mine extending from search, are translated either at the micro- or the macro-level. For example: 5.54

marketers mining your PC for personal data [PCM, Maximum security] διαφηµιστές ‘σκάβουν’ τον υπολογιστή σας για να βρουν προσωπικά σας δεδοµένα [PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια] (advertisers ‘digging’ your computer in order to find your personal data)

Example 5.54 demonstrates a translation at the micro-level. It can be argued that the Greek expression is influenced by the English text at the conceptual level, on the basis that the two languages share a common conceptualisation of the virtual actions as physical actions. This point becomes more evident through the use of quotation marks, thereby signalling that the particular expression does not refer to any physical action. Similar expressions that are frequently used in the Greek texts are not signalled as metaphorical, such as καθαρίστε το σύστηµα (clean the system).

5.1.14.2 The PHYSICAL MOVEMENT submetaphor Similarly to the previous submetaphor, the

PHYSICAL MOVEMENT

submetaphor is

translated both at the micro- and the macro-level. English expressions commonly used in technical language are translated either at the micro-level by the Greek localised equivalents, such as navigate translated as πλοηγηθείτε (navigate), or at the macro-level by common Greek expressions, such as surf translated as µεταβείτε (go to).

Original metaphorical expressions extending from terminology are translated either at the micro- or the macro-level. For example: 5.55

Tired of wading through the spam [PCW, 101 fantastic freebies] Βαρεθήκατε να περιφέρεστε ανάµεσα στα spam [PCW, Ο ‘κήπος’ µε τα δώρα] (bored of wandering among the spam)

The English expression seems to extend from the term search, and also refers to movement. It is translated at the macro-level by a similar Greek expression that gives the impression of searching in terms of physically moving aimlessly through unwanted emails.

213

5.1.14.3 Image-schemas of SURFACE and CONTAINER The image-schemas of

SURFACE

and

CONTAINER

are translated mainly at the micro-

level in the case of prepositions, such as on, under, and in, translated by the Greek equivalent adverbs in conjunction with prepositions as πάνω σε (on to), κάτω από (under from), and µέσα σε (in to). It is worth noting that while the English expression is quite clear in terms of denoting surface or containment, this is not always evident in the translations, as the adverb is sometimes absent and one could assume either image-schema. For example: 5.56

results appear on a new page [PCW, PC tips] τα αποτελέσµατα θα εµφανιστούν σε µια νέα σελίδα [PCW, 35 tips που κάθε χρήστης PC πρέπει να γνωρίζει!] (the results will appear at a new page)

The English expression refers to the image-schema of

SURFACE,

whereas the Greek

expression can be interpreted by both image-schemas if one were to assume the webpage as a container filled with information, or a surface on which information appears.

A number of common everyday expressions of the

CONTAINER

submetaphor are

translated at the micro-level, while original expressions are translated mainly at the macro-level, thereby reducing the effect of the ST expression. For example: 5.57

5.58

to enter Safe Mode [PCM, Maximum security] για να µπείτε σε Safe Mode [PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια] (in order to enter Safe Mode) to shoehorn that content into a 25GB single-layer Blu-ray disc [PCM, Battle of the new DVDs] για να χωρέσει το παραπάνω περιεχόµενο σε ένα µονής στρώσης δίσκο Blu-Ray των 25GB [PCM, BLU-RAY vs HD-DVD] (in order to fit the above content to a single layer disc Blu-Ray of 25GB)

Example 5.57 demonstrates a translation at the micro-level as both languages conceptualise software modes as enclosed areas that a user can enter and exist. In example 5.58, the English expression is an original expression extending from the common expression to fit into and is translated at the macro-level. The Greek translation uses the common expression χωρέσει (to fit), thereby toning down the humorous effect of the English expression.

214

5.1.14.4 The HIGHWAY submetaphor The HIGHWAY submetaphor is translated at the micro- and the macro-level. Common expressions from the computer lexicon are translated at the micro-level by corresponding Greek terms or at the macro-level by common Greek expressions. For example: 5.59

5.60

outbound traffic [PCM, Maximum security] εξερχόµενη κίνηση [PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια] (outbound traffic) pulls traffic off their overburdened networks [PCM, The 10 biggest problems in computing and how we’ll solve them] απορροφά κυκλοφορία από τα υπερφορτωµένα δίκτυά τους [PCM, Λύση στα 10 µεγαλύτερα προβλήµατα των υπολογιστών] (absorbs circulation from their overburdened networks)

In example 5.59, the English expression is translated at the micro-level by the corresponding Greek term. In example 5.60, the same English expression is translated at the macro-level by a common Greek expression, which pertains to the domain of the highway.

The only original expression encountered in the TT is translated at the macro-level: 5.61

Put Your Data in the Fast Lane [PCW, Your PC in 2008 and beyond] Υπερταχείς δίαυλοι [PCW, Τεχνολογίες 2008...και αργότερα] (high-speed buses)

The translation preserves the domain of highway and the originality of the expression by reproducing the witty wordplay. The English expression conceptualises increasing the transfer speeds of data as putting vehicles in fast lanes, while the Greek translation conceptualises the system bus as a high-speed vehicle.

5.2

Metaphorical Expressions Elaborated in the Target Text

The second category includes the elaboration of metaphors in the target text and occupies 2% of all the data (Table 5.1, Appendix 1). Elaborate metaphors may involve structural components of a common metaphor in the ST that are replaced in the TT by metaphorical expressions that make entailments explicit (Schäffner 2004). Elaborate metaphors may also include metaphorical expressions that are expanded by the use of another domain for explanatory purposes.

215

5.2.1

The PERSON metaphor

Metaphorical expressions elaborated in the TT mainly consist of expressions expanded by further expressions that make entailments explicit. The

PERSON

metaphor comprises 29 metaphorical expressions, of which 26 belong to the submetaphor of ACTIVITY and three to the submetaphor of PERSONALITY. The aim of these elaborated expressions seems to be to spell out the information implied and avoid confusing the TT readers. For example: 5.62

If a site uses pop-up windows as dialogue boxes it’ll be necessary to allow them in your web browser. [CA, Go to work on the web] Αν κάποιο site χρησιµοποιεί π.χ. pop-up παράθυρα, θα πρέπει να ρυθµίσετε τον web browser σας να τα δέχεται και να µην τα ‘κόβει’. [CA, Στήστε το γραφείο σας στο Internet] (if a site uses e.g. pop-up windows, it will be necessary to set your browser to accept them and not to ‘cut’ them)

The Greek translation elaborates the English expression by making explicit the entailment that, in order for the browser to allow pop-up windows, it should not prevent them from opening. Although it seems a logical sequence of events and that this elaboration is unnecessary, it is not so. For example, the settings in Mozilla Firefox provide the option of blocking pop-up windows by ticking the respective box, which follows that if the user wants to allow them he or she should uncheck the box. Thus, it seems logical to elaborate on the expression allow by adding the expression not to cut, because that is how a user may perform the action.

5.2.2 The

The LIVING ORGANISM metaphor LIVING ORGANISM

metaphor comprises only two elaborated expressions, of

which one belongs to the submetaphor of submetaphor of

LIFE/DEATH.

HEALTH/ILLNESS

Elaboration is rare in the

and the second to the

LIVING ORGANISM

metaphor

possibly because the source domain is shared between the two languages and cultures, given that knowledge of health conditions and physiological functions are common to any culture. For example: 5.63

Despite dozens of cell-phone carriers, we’ve got countless dead spots. [PCM, The 10 biggest problems in computing and how we’ll solve them] Παρά τους αρκετούς παροχείς κινητής τηλεφωνίας, υπάρχουν αµέτρητα νεκρά σηµεία [δηλαδή, σηµεία χωρίς κάλυψη από τα αντίστοιχα δίκτυα]. [PCM, Λύση στα 10 µεγαλύτερα προβλήµατα των υπολογιστών] (despite the sufficient providers of mobile telephony, there are countless dead spots [that is, spots without coverage from the respective networks])

216

In example 5.63, the English expression is elaborated by another metaphorical domain. The English expression dead spots is translated literally as νεκρά (dead) and elaborated by the expression χωρίς κάλυψη (without coverage), which belongs to the metaphor of

PHYSICAL SPACE.

In addition, the Greek translation is also accompanied

by the expression δηλαδή (that is), thereby signalling that this is an explanation of the previous metaphorical expression. This elaboration seems to take place because the expression dead is a literal translation from the English language, and it may not be understood directly without clarification.

5.2.3

The MACHINE metaphor

The MACHINE metaphor comprises ten elaborated metaphorical expressions, of which five belong to the main metaphor of submetaphor of

AUTOMOBILE.

MACHINE

and five expressions to the

The expressions are elaborated by further structural

components of the metaphor thereby making entailments explicit. The aim is probably to spell out any missing information that may seem important to the understanding of the TT readership, which seems to be implied or unnecessary in the ST. Elaboration in this context can be regarded as similar to the process of explicitation in translation studies. For example: 5.64

[…] a ‘god’ mode where the player is granted all weapons and tools and is also granted invulnerability in gameplay. [CA, Get a handle on games] […] να ενεργοποιείτε τη λειτουργία ‘god mode’ που σας χαρίζει «θεϊκές» δυνάµεις, όλο το διαθέσιµο οπλισµό, ενώ παράλληλα είστε φυσικά απόλυτα άτρωτοι. [CA, Πάρτε το παιχνίδι στα χέρια σας!] (to activate the function ‘god mode’ that grants you ‘divine powers’, all the available weaponry while at the same time you are naturally absolutely invulnerable.)

The metaphorical expression ‘god’ mode is elaborated in the TT by the expression λειτουργία (function), which specifies what this mode is, and is further combined with the expression ενεργοποιείτε (activate), which specifies that this function can be switched on and off. In this manner, the Greek expression is much more detailed than the English one in regard to what the particular feature is (i.e. a function) and how it operates (i.e. activated).

217

5.2.4 The

The COMPETITION metaphor

COMPETITION

metaphor comprises only three expressions, which all belong to

the main metaphor of

COMPETITION.

The elaborated expressions explicate

entailments related to the ferocity of the competition, difference in ranking, and losing distinction due to bad performance. For example: 5.65

Again, it had left the competition for dead. [T3, The iPods] Για µία ακόµη φορά, άφησε τον ανταγωνισµό να ακολουθεί παραπατώντας, σαν µαραθωνοδρόµος στα όρια της εξάντλησης. [T3, Τα iPods] (for one time more it left the competition to follow staggering, like a marathon-runner on the verge of exhaustion

The idiomatic expression left the competition for dead is translated into an elaborated metaphorical expression, which makes explicit the ferocity of the competition by means of a simile. The simile compares the technologies that are barely keeping up with the competition with marathon-runners on the verge of exhaustion. This translation may be regarded as an original expression created on the spot, which expands the English expression by a further domain (race) and makes explicit the personification of technology as a human participant in a competition.

5.2.5 The

The SECURITY metaphor SECURITY

metaphor comprises nine elaborated expressions: one expression

under the main metaphor of under the submetaphor of DEFENCE.

Similarly to the

SECURITY,

one under the submetaphor of

COMBAT,

one

ATTACK,

and six expressions under the submetaphor of

MACHINE

metaphor, elaboration spells out information in

the TT that may be implied in the ST. For example: 5.66

But remember—since no single antispyware program can detect and kill all spyware, Spybot should be just one piece of your security arsenal. [PCW, 101 fantastic freebies Προσοχή όµως: δεδοµένου ότι κανένα antispyware ούτε εντοπίζει ούτε «σκοτώνει» µόνο του όλα τα spyware, το Spybot πρέπει να αποτελεί µέρος των ‘οπλικών συστηµάτων’ του ‘οπλοστασίου’ σας. [PCW, Ο ‘κήπος’ µε τα δώρα] (but beware: given that no antispyware neither detects nor ‘kills’ by itself all the spyware, the Spybot should be part of the ‘weapon systems’ of your ‘arsenal’.)

The English expression security arsenal of the COMBAT submetaphor is translated at the micro-level by a corresponding expression (‘οπλοστάσιο’ – ‘arsenal’), and is further elaborated by the expression ‘οπλικών συστηµάτων’ (‘weapon systems’), thus making explicit the entailment that an antispyware program is not just a tool but a

218

weapon. Although such elaboration may seem unnecessary in many expressions, it adds to the conceptualisation of technology and enhances the effect of the metaphor.

5.2.6 The

The LIFESTYLE metaphor LIFESTYLE

submetaphor of

metaphor consists of five expressions, which all belong to the FASHION.

The elaborated expressions emphasise aspects of

popularity and style that enhance technology’s image. Elaboration also implies an air of confidence in the TT in restructuring the conceptualisations of technology and suggests some degree of independence from the ST. For example: 5.67

Home pages are passé—what you really want is a Webtop, a personal Web space you can customize with news feeds, chat tools, weather info, and plenty more. [PCW, 101 fantastic freebies] Ο ορισµός απλώς µιας σελίδας web ως αρχικής του browser είναι ξεπερασµένος. Η νέα τάση είναι το webtop, δηλαδή ο προσωπικός χώρος Web που µπορείτε να παραµετροποιήσετε µε news feeds, εργαλεία για chat, πληροφορίες για τον καιρό και πολύ περισσότερα. [PCW, Ο ‘κήπος’ µε τα δώρα] (the setting of just one web page as initial (=home page) of browser is passé. The new trend is the webtop, that is the personal web space that you can configure with news feeds, tools for chat, information about the weather and many more)

The English expression passé is translated at the micro-level by the Greek expression ξεπερασµένος (passé). The translation is elaborated by the expression, η νέα τάση (the new trend), which specifies that what is to follow in the text is a description of what is currently popular. The elaboration also makes explicit that, like fashion, technology has new and old trends, one succeeding the other.

5.2.7

The REVOLUTION metaphor

The REVOLUTION metaphor consists of one metaphorical expression: 5.68

five projects clever enough to reinvent modern computing [PCM, Today’s ideas, tomorrow’s tech] πέντε έξυπνες ιδέες, ικανές να αλλάξουν το τεχνολογικό τοπίο [PCM, ∆ιαβάζουµε το µέλλον!] (five clever ideas, capable of changing the technological landscape)

The translation of the English expression reinvent is considered as translation at the macro-level as well as elaboration, because it can be regarded as entailments made explicit. The translations reveal two kinds of entailment. Firstly, when something is reinvented it can cause significant changes to the pre-existing order of things, and secondly, it can revitalise people’s views of it. The Greek language does not have a

219

single corresponding expression for the English expression reinvent, apart from the idiom reinvent the wheel (ανακαλύπτω τον τροχό – invent the wheel), in which the aspect of inventing anew is implied. On the other hand, there is the expression ανακαλύπτω ξανά (invent again), which reads as an awkward reconstruction of the English expression and falls short of expressing the same idea. Therefore, the Greek translation is regarded as elaboration that derives from particular entailments and, in turn, makes them explicit.

5.2.8 The

The PROGRESS metaphor

PROGRESS

metaphor comprises three metaphorical expressions. The elaborated

expressions make explicit the impact of progress in terms of invigorating technology, and specify technology’s progress as a path with upward direction. For example: 5.69

Greg Jozwiak has been with Apple since the beginning, and watched the rise of the iPod. [T3, The iPods] ο Greg Jozwiak ήταν στην Apple από την αρχή και παρακολούθησε την πορεία του iPod προς την κορυφή. [T3, Τα iPods] (Greg Jozwiak was at Apple since the beginning and watched the path of the iPod to the top)

As seen in previous analyses of the

PROGRESS

metaphor (Section 4.8, Chapter 4 and

Section 5.1.8, Chapter 5), one of the constituent metaphors is the UPWARD MOTION

PROGRESS IS

metaphor, exemplified in the English expression rise. The Greek

translation makes explicit this move from a lower to a higher position as a course of action leading to the highest level of achievement.

5.2.9

The OBJECT OF DESIRE metaphor

Elaborated metaphorical expressions have not been identified under the DESIRE

OBJECT OF

metaphor.

5.2.10 The TOY metaphor Elaborated metaphorical expressions have not been identified under the

TOY

metaphor.

220

5.2.11 The FOOD/COOKING metaphor Elaborated metaphorical expressions have not been identified under the FOOD/COOKING

metaphor.

5.2.12 The EXPERIENCE metaphor The

EXPERIENCE

metaphor consists of twelve expressions. The elaborated

expressions flesh out the experiences implied in the metaphor, and guide the interpretation of the English expressions. For example: 5.70

You can also improve your Web experience […] by increasing the number of download sessions in your browser. [PCW, PC tips] Μπορείτε ακόµη να βελτιώσετε την αίσθηση της περιήγησής σας στο Internet, αυξάνοντας τον αριθµό των download sessions στον browser. [PCW, 35 tips που κάθε χρήστης PC πρέπει να γνωρίζει!] (you can also improve your sense of navigation on the Internet, increasing the number of download sessions in the browser)

In example 5.70, the translation specifies the experience of navigating the Internet and interprets this experience in terms of improving the sense that navigating provides to the user.

5.2.13 The SUPERNATURAL metaphor The SUPERNATURAL metaphor comprises one metaphorical expression: 5.71

You might not want to dabble in PSP’s dark arts, but knowing you can gives it an extra frisson of danger. [T3, The PSP] δεν θέλετε να ‘χαλάσετε’ κάτι τόσο πολύτιµο όσο αυτή η µικρή αλλά θαυµατουργή δηµιουργία της Sony […]. [T3, PSP Το µέλλον είναι φορητό] (you don’t want to ‘ruin’ something as precious as this small but wondrous creation of Sony.)

The English expression dark arts, referring to the technology as having extraordinary qualities, is rendered as θαυµατουργή (wondrous), which refers to being capable of performing wonders (Mpampiniotis 2002). The Greek translation is regarded as elaboration because it makes explicit the entailment of performing magical acts, although it does not retain the air of mystery and suspense of the English expression.

221

5.2.14 The PHYSICAL SPACE metaphor The

PHYSICAL SPACE

metaphor comprises 39 elaborated expressions: four under the

PHYSICAL SPACE metaphor,

22 under the PHYSICAL PROCESS submetaphor, three under

the PHYSICAL MOVEMENT submetaphor, four under the SURFACE submetaphor, and six under the

CONTAINER

submetaphor. Similarly to the

MACHINE

and the

SECURITY

metaphors, the elaborated expressions spell out information in the TT that may be implied in the ST. In this manner, they add extra information that may seem important to the understanding of the TT readership, and provide more precise interpretations of the English expressions, while preserving the source domain of physical space. For example: 5.72

Next, download and run Dr. TCP [website]. [PCW, PC tips] Στη συνέχεια κατεβάστε και εκτελέστε το Dr. TCP από το [website] – δεν χρειάζεται να το εγκαταστήσετε. [PCW, 35 tips που κάθε χρήστης PC πρέπει να γνωρίζει!] (next, download and execute Dr. TCP from the [website] – you don’t need to install it)

The English expression download is elaborated by the expression install, which makes clear that this program does not need installation. The Greek translation builds on common knowledge that downloading usually entails installation, so it adds extra information that seems useful to the TT reader.

5.3

Shift of Submetaphor Category in the Target Text

The third category includes shifts from one submetaphor category into another. Here, while the metaphor category is common to the ST and the TT, there is a change of submetaphor. This category occupies 2% of all the translated data (Table 5.1, Appendix I), and includes only the metaphors that have submetaphors: LIVING ORGANISM, MACHINE, COMPETITION, SECURITY, LIFESTYLE,

and

PERSON,

PHYSICAL

SPACE.

As discussed in the introduction, two types of shift are identified: shift of submetaphor and shift of metaphor category. Although distinct as translation strategies, they share the aspect of altering source domain and presumably produce particular effects occurring through translation. When examining the English metaphorical expressions and their translations one by one, the metaphor and submetaphor shifts pointed to four (possible) effects resulting from the translation:

222

1. Downplaying the metaphor in the TT. This effect minimises (obscures) the source domain used to conceptualise technology in the TT and keeps the focus on the content of the information rather than on the linguistic form used to present the information. 2. Accentuating the metaphor in the TT. As opposed to the previous one, this effect intensifies the source domain used to conceptualise technology in the TT and draws attention to the linguistic form used in the presentation of information. Whereas downplaying makes the metaphor unnoticeable, accentuation renders it clear and eye-catching. 3. Explanation. This effect makes the metaphor of the ST more explicit. In case a ST metaphorical expression can be interpreted in more than one way, the translation selects one of its possible interpretations and transfers the selected interpretation to the TT, thus causing the ST metaphor to change category in the TT. 4. Adaptation. Adaptation is in line with reproducing conceptually the metaphorical expressions of the ST, and reconstructing the original metaphorical expressions of the ST by using different creative linguistic means in the TT, thus resulting in a shift of metaphor.

In addition, a possible motivation accounting for metaphor shifts is terminology and localisation, given that a metaphor deriving from computer terminology has a standardised translation in the target language, which may have shifted from the metaphor domain of the source language. The focal point of these categories of metaphor and submetaphor shifts is the main meaning focus of the metaphors of the ST, which is of much significance and assistance to understanding and justifying the shifts.

In this section, I shall attempt to examine the shifts of submetaphors in terms of the effects they produce in the translations, and consider possible motivations that may account for them. Particularly, I shall try to identify what kinds of effect occur due to the shifts in each metaphor category, and whether the shifts point to particular patterns of effects.

223

5.3.1 In the

The PERSON metaphor PERSON

metaphor, seven submetaphor categories present shifts into six other

submetaphors, with a total of 24 metaphorical expressions. The submetaphor categories from which the metaphors shift are

ACTIVITY, PERSONALITY, PHYSICAL

APPEARANCE, ROLE/OCCUPATION, KINSHIP, HUMAN BODY

shifts are into the submetaphors of ROLE/OCCUPATION, HUMAN BODY

and

HUMAN LIFECYCLE;

the

ACTIVITY, PERSONALITY, PHYSICAL APPEARANCE,

and

HUMAN LIFECYCLE.

Table 13 below presents a

detailed view of the shifts and the number of metaphorical expressions in each category.

ST Submetaphor Category

TT Submetaphor Category  PERSONALITY (2)  ROLE/OCCUPATION (3)  ACTIVITY (5)  ACTIVITY (3)  HUMAN LIFECYCLE (1)  ACTIVITY (1)  PERSONALITY (2)  HUMAN BODY (1)  ACTIVITY (2)  PHYSICAL APPEARANCE (1)  ACTIVITY (1)  ROLE/OCCUPATION (1)  PERSONALITY (1)

ACTIVITY (5) ROLE/OCCUPATION (5) PERSONALITY (4) PHYSICAL APPEARANCE (4)

HUMAN BODY (3) KINSHIP (2) HUMAN LIFECYCLE (1)

Table 13 Shifts of submetaphor in the PERSON metaphor

As Table 13 shows, the submetaphors of demonstrate the most shifts. The

ROLE/OCCUPATION

consistent, by shifting only into the APPEARANCE

ACTIVITY

ACTIVITY

and

ROLE/OCCUPATION

submetaphor is also the most

submetaphor, while the

PHYSICAL

submetaphor involves greater variety in shifts than any other

submetaphor. The shifts within the PERSON metaphor produce primarily the effect of adaptation, and secondarily, the effect of explanation. Some shifts derive from cultural specificity while others are due to personal choice or are motivated by localisation. Adaptation is evident in metaphorical expressions that shift submetaphor to provide a conceptually corresponding expression in the TT and preserve the originality of the English expressions. For example:

224

5.73

The tech was tired – the move to a colour LCD was almost the only leap forward; Nintendo needed to up its game. [T3, The Nintendo Game Boy] Η τεχνολογία του είχε αρχίσει να δείχνει σηµάδια γήρανσης και η µετάβαση στην έγχρωµη οθόνη LCD ήταν στην ουσία το µοναδικό βήµα προς τα εµπρός. [T3, Nintendo Game Boy] (its technology had started to show signs of oldness […])

Example 5.73 demonstrates a shift from the submetaphor of PERSONALITY to HUMAN LIFECYCLE.

While the English expression conceptualises an uninteresting, old-

fashioned and well-worn technology as lacking energy, the Greek expression conceptualises it as lacking youth. Both expressions seem to bring to mind images of exhaustion or wrinkles, thus painting a similar, unflattering image of technology.

Explanation is used in expressions that may involve more than one interpretation, but are made explicit in the TT. For example: 5.74

Of all the programs that try to mimic the Apple Mac Dock, Rocketdock is the one that’s had the most fat trimmed off it. [CA, 30 fresh downloads] Από όλα τα προγράµµατα που προσπαθούν να µιµηθούν το χαρακτηριστικό Apple Mac […], το Rocketdock είναι αυτό που τα καταφέρνει καλύτερα. [CA, Τα καλύτερα ‘φρέσκα’ προγράµµατα] (of all the programs that try to mimic the characteristic Apple Mac Dock […], the Rocketdock is the one that manages better)

The English expression had the most fat trimmed off it in the present context encompasses the meanings of requiring less storage space on a computer and/or being better looking than the other programs. As the back translation shows, the translator opted for an all-inclusive interpretation that relates directly to the program’s capability of mimicking best the Apple Mac toolbar, and leaves out any particular mention of size or appearance. However, it is worth mentioning that the following sentence in the TT makes clear that the aspects implied are both size and aesthetics.

Localisation seems to motivate shifts where both ST and TT submetaphors constitute parts of the terminology, but belong to different conceptual domains, such as the shifts from the ROLE/OCCUPATION metaphor to the ACTIVITY metaphor. For example, the English expression software RSS reader conceptualises a machine that can recognise and process data as a person who reads. The strategy commonly followed in Greek for the translation of such expressions is to emphasise the action (of reading) and relate it to the particular technology that performs the action, such as εφαρµογές ανάγνωσης RSS (applications of reading RSS). The same strategy is also

225

applied to the other expressions, namely: αφαίρεση (removal) for remover, επεξεργασία (editing) for editor, διαχείριση (management) for manager, and απεικόνιση (view) for viewer.

5.3.2 The

The LIVING ORGANISM metaphor

LIVING ORGANISM

metaphor involves shifts from the main metaphor into one of

the submetaphors, and from one submetaphor category into another, with a total of ten metaphorical expressions. The majority of metaphorical expressions shift from the main metaphor of

LIVING ORGANISM

into the

ANIMAL

submetaphor, while the

submetaphor category ANIMAL shifts into the submetaphor of HEALTH/ILLNESS. Table 14 below presents a detailed view of the shifts and the number of metaphorical expressions in each category.

ST Submetaphor Category LIVING ORGANISM (9) ANIMAL (1)

TT Submetaphor Category  ANIMAL (9)  HEALTH/ILLNESS (1)

Table 14 Shifts of submetaphor in the LIVING ORGANISM metaphor

The metaphorical expressions shifting from the main metaphor of into the

ANIMAL

LIVING ORGANISM

submetaphor are motivated by terminology, and involve a single

metaphorical expression with nine instances: fuel cell(s). The expression fuel cell(s) is a term from the domain of electronics that designates an electrochemical device that produces electricity (PCM, August 2005). It has been translated into Greek in two ways, as κυψέλες καυσίµων (hives of fuels) and as κύτταρο καυσίµων (cell of fuels), the latter translation preserving the English expression. However, the TT used the former translation in all nine instances, probably because the expression κυψέλη (hive) infers the structure of a storage area in the same way as cells in a honeycomb.

The shift from the ANIMAL into the HEALTH/ILLNESS submetaphor gives the effect of explanation. It seems to occur from the need to provide a conceptualisation that would be more obvious in the target language and that would need less deliberation. For example: 5.75

Antivirus companies […] can spot new worms that operate like older ones. [PCM, The 10 biggest problems in computing and how we’ll solve them]

226

Εταιρείες κατασκευής προγραµµάτων κατά των ιών […] µπορούν να εντοπίσουν νέους ιούς που λειτουργούν όπως κάποιοι παλιότεροι. [PCM, Λύση στα 10 µεγαλύτερα προβλήµατα των υπολογιστών] (companies manufacturing programs against viruses […] can spot new viruses that operate like some older ones)

The English expression worms is translated as viruses in the TT, although the term is translated in terminology as σκουλήκια (worms), which is also the lexis of the respective invertebrates in Greek (Microsoft Press 1997). A possible reason for this shift is to avoid confusion in terms of the differences between worms, viruses and the like, since a worm is essentially a type of virus. Thus, the term virus works as an umbrella term for all such malicious software.

5.3.3 In the

The MACHINE metaphor MACHINE

metaphor, the shifts occur from the submetaphor of

AUTOMOBILE

to

the main metaphor of MACHINE, with a total of nine metaphorical expressions. Unlike the previous metaphors, there is consistency in the shifts, in that all expressions shift from the same submetaphor into the main metaphor. Two types of metaphorical expression are mainly identified: those related to a technology breaking down as a crashing vehicle (crashed and crashes), and those associated with a technology’s response times as a speeding vehicle (speed up, speed and faster). For example: 5.76

577

With this feature on, you can’t find out why your PC crashed. [PCW, PC tips] Με τη λειτουργία αυτή ενεργή δεν µπορείτε να ανακαλύψετε τι πήγε στραβά, όταν ‘κολλήσει’ ο υπολογιστής. [PCW, 35 tips που κάθε χρήστης PC πρέπει να γνωρίζει!] (with this function active you cannot find out what went wrong, when the computer gets ‘stuck’) Enabling this option often speeds up graphics cards [PCW, Hardware tips] Με την ενεργοποίηση αυτή της επιλογής ενδέχεται να παρατηρήσετε αύξηση των επιδόσεων σε κάρτες [PCW, Τα καλύτερα 40 hardware κόλπα] (with the activation of this option it is possible that you see an increase of the performance in cards)

The shifts move from the specific domain of automobiles to the general domain of machines, thereby producing the effect of downplaying the

AUTOMOBILE

submetaphor. The Greek expressions do not make any references to crashes or speed, but to a machine’s condition of functioning (example 5.76) and its performance (example 5.77).

227

5.3.4

The COMPETITION metaphor

In the

COMPETITION

submetaphors of and from the

metaphor, the shifts occur from the main metaphor to the

RACE

BATTLE

and

BATTLE,

to the

RACE

from these submetaphors to the main metaphor, submetaphor, with a total of nine metaphorical

expressions. Table 15 below presents a detailed view of the shifts and the number of metaphorical expressions in each category.

ST Submetaphor Category COMPETITION (2) RACE (1) BATTLE (6)

TT Submetaphor Category  BATTLE (2)  COMPETITION (1)  COMPETITION (5)  RACE (1)

Table 15 Shifts of submetaphor in the COMPETITION metaphor

According to Table 15, the majority of metaphorical expressions shift from the BATTLE

submetaphor into the main metaphor of

COMPETITION,

followed by the

reverse shift from the COMPETITION metaphor to the BATTLE submetaphor.

Unlike the PERSON or the LIVING ORGANISM metaphor, where the shifts occur between categories of submetaphors, here the shifts mainly occur to and from the main metaphor, with the exception of a shift from the

BATTLE

to the

RACE

submetaphor.

Given that the majority of shifts occur from specific domains to the general domain, it could be argued that the TT tries to simplify the conceptualisation by reducing it to the more general domain of competition, thereby producing the effect of downplaying the metaphor, because the ST expressions are more charged than the TT expressions. For example: 5.78

DVD+RW would have had more trouble catching up with DVD-RW [PCM, Battle of the new DVDs] η τεχνολογία DVD+RW θα επικρατούσε της DVD-RW θα επικρατούσε [PCM, BLU-RAY vs HD-DVD] (the technology DVD+RW would have prevailed over DVD-RW)

The English expression entails movement, as if running in a race, and points to the submetaphor of

RACE.

However, in the translation, the Greek expression does not

seem to make any reference to a race or to any other specific type of competition, but only denotes being victorious in a competition.

228

Conversely, the shifts occurring from the main metaphor to the submetaphor of BATTLE

move from the general domain of competition to a more specific domain and

give the effect of accentuating the metaphor. For example: 5.79

world-beating gadgets [T3, The iPods] έχει κερδίσει όλες τις µάχες [T3, Τα iPods] (has won all the battles)

In example 5.79, the translation specifies the type of competition and stresses the struggle involved in prevailing in this contest.

5.3.5 The

The SECURITY metaphor SECURITY

metaphor contains shifts from one submetaphor to another

submetaphor, with a total of five metaphorical expressions. The categories shifting are the submetaphors of

COMBAT, DEFENCE

ESPIONAGE, COMBAT, DEFENCE and INVASION,

ST Submetaphor Category COMBAT (2) DEFENCE (1) ATTACK (2)

and

ATTACK

into the submetaphors of

as shown in Table 16.

TT Submetaphor Category  ESPIONAGE (1)  DEFENCE (1)  COMBAT (1)  INVASION (2)

Table 16 Shifts of submetaphor in the SECURITY metaphor

These shifts of submetaphor convey the effect of adaptation. These shifts cannot be considered as clear-cut shifts, as in other domains (i.e. the

LIVING ORGANISM

metaphor), given that the different submetaphors represent war strategies that can overlap at times. This means that even though a ST expression can shift from one submetaphor into another, it does not necessarily take the ST submetaphor completely out of the picture. For example: 5.80

security researcher […] took home a $10,000 prize for hijacking a MacBook Pro running Mac OS 10.4. [PCW, Technology: Truth or Fiction] ο ερευνητής […] επέστρεψε στο σπίτι του µε 8.000 ευρώ στην τσέπη ως βραβείο, επειδή κατάφερε να διεισδύσει σε ένα Mac Book Pro εξοπλισµένο µε Mac OS 10.4. [PCW, Μύθος ή πραγµατικότητα;] (the researcher returned home with 8.000 euros in his pocket as prize, because he managed to penetrate into a Mac Book Pro equipped with Mac OS 10.4)

Example 5.80 demonstrates a shift from the

ATTACK

to the

INVASION

submetaphor.

The English expression relates to physical assault, while the Greek expression

229

emphasises the aspect of entering in an area, usually secretly, and implies the intent of attacking. The domain of attack involves a more direct form of assault, whereas the domain of invasion implies a more indirect and more intricate form of attack, given that it requires entering first and then attacking.

In addition, the shift from the

COMBAT

submetaphor to the

DEFENCE

submetaphor

produces the effect of downplaying the submetaphor. For example: 5.81

Microsoft will share the Vista kernel with these security vendors, to fight malware. [PCM, Insider’s guide to Vista] H Microsoft θα δώσει τελικώς τη δυνατότητα πρόσβασης/τροποποίησης του kernel στις εταιρείες ανάπτυξης προγραµµάτων ασφαλείας. [PCM, Vista Ο πληρέστερος οδηγός για ψαγµένους χρήστες] (Microsoft will give finally the capability of accessing/configuring the kernel to the companies developing programs of security)

The English metaphorical expression to fight malware is rendered in the TT as ανάπτυξης προγραµµάτων ασφαλείας (developing programs of security). The highly charged expression of active fighting in the ST seems to be downplayed in the TT by a more passive expression of providing a safe environment.

5.3.6

The LIFESTYLE metaphor

Shifts of submetaphor have not been identified in the LIFESTYLE metaphor.

5.3.7

The PHYSICAL SPACE metaphor

In the

PHYSICAL SPACE

metaphor, four submetaphor categories shift into the main

metaphor and into other submetaphors, with a total of 55 metaphorical expressions. The submetaphor categories shifting are SURFACE

and

CONTAINER.

PHYSICAL PROCESS, PHYSICAL MOVEMENT,

Table 17 below presents a detailed view of the shifts and

the number of metaphorical expressions in each category.

ST Submetaphor Category PHYSICAL SPACE (3)

PHYSICAL PROCESS (2) PHYSICAL MOVEMENT (12)

TT Submetaphor Category  PHYSICAL PROCESS (1)  PHYSICAL MOVEMENT (1)  CONTAINER (1)  PHYSICAL MOVEMENT (2)  PHYSICAL PROCESS (10)  CONTAINER (2)

230

SURFACE (32)

CONTAINER (6)

 PHYSICAL SPACE (15)  PHYSICAL PROCESS (4)  CONTAINER (13)  PHYSICAL SPACE (3)  PHYSICAL MOVEMENT (1)  SURFACE (2)

Table 17 Shifts of submetaphor in the PHYSICAL SPACE metaphor

As Table 17 demonstrates, the majority of metaphorical expressions shift from the SURFACE

submetaphor into the main metaphor of

PHYSICAL SPACE

and the

submetaphor of CONTAINER. This suggests, on the one hand, that there is a tendency to move from the specific domain of surface to the generic domain of space; on the other hand, it suggests that the image-schemas of surface and container are used interchangeably in the context of technology, given that virtual space does not constitute actual space, and that it is relative how the same virtual space may be perceived, sometimes as surface and at other times as container.

Thus, it is regarded that all shifts give the effect of adaptation. For example, consider a shift from the PHYSICAL MOVEMENT to the PHYSICAL PROCESS submetaphor: 5.82

Go to Settings•Control Panel•Automatic Updates. [PCW, PC tips] Ανοίξτε το Settings>Control Panel>Automatic Updates. [PCW, 35 tips που κάθε χρήστης PC πρέπει να γνωρίζει!] (Open the Settings>Control Panel>Automatic Updates)

The English expression go to denotes that the start menu in Windows is a static location and the user is moving to that location. The Greek expression ανοίξτε (open) denotes that the start menu is a closed space that needs to be opened by the user. In the data, both types of conceptualisation are used by both languages. It is possible that such shifts are motivated by the English authors’ and the Greek translators’ personal preferences of talking about virtual space in terms of how they visualise it and perceive it each time.

5.4

Shift of Metaphor Category in the Target Text

The fourth category includes shifts from one metaphor category into another metaphor. This category looks at deviation from the main conceptualisation in the ST and identifies changes in the conceptualisation in the TT. It occupies 5% of all the translated data (Table 5.1, Appendix 1), and is the second most dominant type of

231

translation strategy after the category of metaphors common to ST and TT (Section 5.1).

Similarly to the previous section, I will attempt to examine the shifts of metaphors from the viewpoint of effects produced from the translation and look for possible motivations. Particularly, I will try to identify what kinds of effect are produced by the shifts in each metaphor category, and whether the shifts point to particular patterns of effects. The effects identified are downplaying, accentuating, explanation, and adaptation. As before, terminology is identified as a possible motivation accounting for metaphor shifts between ST and TT metaphors, both deriving from computer terminology. The focal point in all the effects is the main meaning focus of the metaphors of the ST, which provides assistance to understanding and justifying the shifts.

5.4.1 The

The PERSON metaphor

PERSON

metaphor displays the majority of metaphor shifts encountered in the

translated data, with a total of 86 metaphorical expressions. The expressions of the PERSON

metaphor shift into the metaphors of

LIVING ORGANISM, MACHINE,

COMPETITION, SECURITY, PROGRESS, LIFESTYLE, OBJECT OF DESIRE, EXPERIENCE, SUPERNATURAL

and

PHYSICAL SPACE.

Table 18 below presents the shifts in detail

including main metaphor and submetaphor category, and the number of metaphorical expressions in each category.

ST Submetaphors of the PERSON metaphor ACTIVITY (32)

TT Metaphor PHYSICAL SPACE (6)

TT Submetaphor PHYSICAL PROCESS (8) CONTAINER (2)

MACHINE (8) OBJECT OF DESIRE (2) LIFESTYLE

IDEAL (1) FASHION (1)

SECURITY

COMBAT (1)

PROGRESS (1) EXPERIENCE (2) HUMAN LIFECYCLE (14)

PROGRESS (13) EXPERIENCE (1)

HUMAN BODY (12)

PHYSICAL SPACE (3)

CONTAINER (5)

232

PERSONALITY (20)

LIVING ORGANISM

ANIMAL (1) PLANT (3)

LIVING ORGANISM

HEALTH / ILLNESS (1) ANIMAL (1)

MACHINE (4) COMPETITION (1) PROGRESS (7) OBJECT OF DESIRE (2) EXPERIENCE (1) SUPERNATURAL (1) PHYSICAL SPACE (2) PHYSICAL APPEARANCE (8)

LIVING ORGANISM

PLANT (1)

LIFESTYLE

FASHION (2) CLOTHING (1)

PHYSICAL SPACE (1)

PHYSICAL PROCESS (2) SURFACE (1)

Table 18 Shifts of metaphor in the PERSON metaphor

As indicated in Table 18 the PERSON metaphor involves numerous shifts from five of its submetaphors into ten different main metaphors and ten submetaphors. Given the number of shifts, each ST submetaphor will be examined individually, in terms of the effects produced by the shifts.

5.4.1.1 The ACTIVITY submetaphor The ACTIVITY submetaphor comprises 32 metaphorical expressions that present shifts into the metaphors of REVOLUTION

and

PHYSICAL SPACE, MACHINE, OBJECT OF DESIRE, PROGRESS,

EXPERIENCE,

CONTAINER, IDEAL, FASHION

and the submetaphors of

PHYSICAL PROCESS,

and COMBAT. The shifts seem to produce the effects of

downplaying the metaphor in the TT, accentuating the metaphor, explanation and adaptation. Specifically, the

ACTIVITY

submetaphor is downplayed in metaphorical

expressions that shift into the metaphors of MACHINE (six out

5.83

PHYSICAL SPACE

(four out of six) and

of eight). For example:

This utility sits in the background and every 20 minutes makes a backup of everything that’s been changed. [CA, 30 fresh downloads] Το πρόγραµµα εκτελείται στο παρασκήνιο και κάθε 20 λεπτά δηµιουργεί ένα backup όλων των αλλαγών που έχουν επέλθει στον υπολογιστή σας. [CA, Τα καλύτερα ‘φρέσκα’ προγράµµατα] (the program is executed in the background […])

As example 5.83 indicates, the

ACTIVITY

submetaphor shifts into the

MACHINE

metaphor. The English expression sits denotes the action of running the utility as a

233

particular human activity, while the Greek translation (εκτελείται – executed) uses the formal term of running a program. As the back translation indicates, the human dimension of the ST submetaphor is minimised, and the focus is placed on the mechanical aspect of technology and on the technical content of the information conveyed.

Moreover, the

ACTIVITY

shifting into the

submetaphor is accentuated by metaphorical expressions

OBJECT OF DESIRE

metaphor and the submetaphor of

FASHION.

For

example: 5.84

But PSP isn’t swaggering through the corridors of our Hall of Fame purely as a result of its iconic styling and breathtaking screen. [T3, The PSP] […] το PSP δεν αποκαλείται από εµάς (και όχι µόνο) ‘αντικείµενο του πόθου’ επειδή διαθέτει εξαιρετικό styling ή η οθόνη του έχει απίστευτη ανάλυση εικόνας. [T3, PSP Το µέλλον είναι φορητό] (the PSP is not called by us (and not only) ‘object of desire’ […])

In example 5.84, the

ACTIVITY

submetaphor shifts into the

OBJECT OF DESIRE

metaphor. In the ST, technology is given a human dimension by means of displaying arrogant conduct, which seems to be exploited and intensified even more in the TT by attributing to technology a sexual dimension. The main meaning focus of the ST expression is technology being the centre of attention, which is transferred into the TT as technology being the utmost desirable being.

The third effect, explanation, is observed in metaphorical expressions that shift into the metaphors of CONTAINER.

the

MACHINE

and

PHYSICAL SPACE,

and into the submetaphor of

As mentioned previously, the shifts from the

MACHINE

ACTIVITY

submetaphor to

metaphor move away from the human aspect of technology and closer

to the mechanical aspect. The objective is to make the information in the metaphor explicit in the TT, by guiding the interpretation of the ST expression. For example: 5.85

[…]so that you can tell the difference between a useful cookie and one that might potentially carry information that shouldn’t be shared. [CA, Everyone loves cookies] [...] ώστε να µπορείτε να διαχωρίσετε ένα χρήσιµο cookie από ένα άλλο το οποίο πιθανώς να εµπεριέχει πληροφορίες που δεν θα πρέπει να γίνουν αντικείµενο διαµοιρασµού. [CA, Τα µπισκότα δεν είναι πάντα…νόστιµα] ([…] that potentially might contain information that should not become object of sharing)

In example 5.85, the expression carry can be interpreted as to communicate, transmit, hold or contain. The selection of one of these interpretations could determine if the metaphor remains the same or shifts in the TT. In this case there is a

234

shift from the

ACTIVITY

to the

CONTAINER

submetaphor. The TT expression

εµπεριέχει (contain) makes a clear reference to the image-schema of containment, and presents technology as having a spatial construction, as opposed to the ST expression, which views technology as a human agent carrying information in the same way as holding a concrete object.

Adaptation is produced by shifts into the metaphors of

PROGRESS, REVOLUTION,

EXPERIENCE, OBJECT OF DESIRE, MACHINE and PHYSICAL SPACE, and

of

IDEAL

and

COMBAT.

the submetaphors

This effect is observed in metaphorical expressions that shift

the subject of the action from technology to the human agent who uses the technology. For example: 5.86

when Windows opens a file [PCM, Security super guide] κάθε φορά που ανοίγετε ένα νέο αρχείο [PCM, Ασφαλείς στο Internet] (each time you open a file)

Adaptation is also observed in original metaphorical expressions. Given that original metaphorical expressions are more challenging to transfer to another language due to potential linguistic limitations, adaptation comes into play by employing different yet creative linguistic means. For example: 5.87

It was the gadget that changed the world; played a billion hits; scorched the musical landscape; saved my teenage self from having to endure my parents wittering on about drill bits and yoga. The Walkman. [T3, The Sony Walkman] Η τεχνολογική επανάσταση στην καλύτερη της υλοποίηση. Το ένα µοναδικό gadget που κατάφερε να γίνει είδωλο, ορολογία, µάθηµα για τους απανταχού marketers, το σύµβολο µιας ολόκληρης γενιάς και ο βασικός λόγος για τον οποίο σήµερα κάθοµαι σε αυτή την καρέκλα και γράφω […].[T3, The Sony Walkman] (the technological revolution at its best materialisation. The one and only gadget that managed to become an idol, terminology, lesson to all marketers, the symbol of an entire generation and the main reason for which today I am sitting in this chair and writing […])

As the back translation shows, the ST is rather altered, thus resulting in a shift from the

ACTIVITY

submetaphor to the

IDEAL

submetaphor. In the ST, technology is

conceptualised as a person whose actions bring about changes (scorched) and emotions (saved) to the users. It can be assumed that technology is represented as a heroic figure in the ST, and so technology is adapted into the TT as an idol and a symbol. Thus, the translated expressions reproduce the main meaning focus of the ST expressions and preserve their originality.

235

5.4.1.2 The HUMAN LIFECYCLE submetaphor The

HUMAN LIFECYCLE

submetaphor includes fourteen metaphorical expressions:

thirteen instances of the metaphorical expressions old (seven) and older (six), and a single instance of the expression acne. All expressions produce the effect of adaptation.

The English expressions old and older describe earlier versions of software/hardware or earlier technologies. The translations of the expressions old and older as παλιός (old) and παλαιότερος (older) indicate a shift from the submetaphor into the expression

(old)

to

PROGRESS

refer

to

HUMAN LIFECYCLE

metaphor. The English language uses the same advanced

age

and

existing

earlier

than

something/someone else (Collins 2003), while the Greek language specifies different expressions for old as advanced in age (ηλικιωµένος) and old as existing or developed earlier than something else (παλιός). It should be noted that although the English expressions old and older convey in the texts the latter meaning of existing earlier than something/someone else, it is considered that their basic meaning as defined by the Pragglejaz Group (2007:3) relates to advanced age. With this in mind, it can be argued that the expressions shift from the domain of human lifecycle into the domain of progress as they are adapted in the TT to suit the conventions of the target language.

Adaptation is also observed in the shift into the EXPERIENCE metaphor: 5.88

Let the acne pink buttons on the original 1989 Game Boy take some of the rap. [T3, The PSP] […] απλούστατες κατασκευές χωρίς κάτι το ιδιαίτερο (για να µη θυµηθούµε τα ροζ κουµπιά…) [T3, PSP Το µέλλον είναι φορητό] ([…] simplistic creations without something special (let’s not remember the pink buttons…)

The English expression acne conceptualises the technology as pubescent and undeveloped, and ironically relates the pink buttons of the handheld Game Boy console to pimples due to acne (Section 4.1.2, Chapter 4). In the translation, the aspect of the pink buttons of the device is retained, but the ST has been completely altered. It can be argued that the pink buttons bring back memories of the technology’s early stages of development, which may arouse feelings of

236

embarrassment. Thus, it is suggested in the TT that the buttons better remain forgotten because they represent an immature stage in technology’s development.

5.4.1.3 The HUMAN BODY submetaphor The

HUMAN BODY

submetaphor comprises twelve metaphorical expressions that

present shifts into the metaphors of CONTAINER, ANIMAL

and

PLANT.

PHYSICAL SPACE

and into the submetaphors of

The shifts produce the effects of downplaying the

metaphor in the TT, explanation, and adaptation.

The effect of downplaying the metaphor in the TT is observed in shifts into the submetaphor of

CONTAINER.

These shifts particularly concern metaphorical

expressions that conceptualise the inside parts of a computer or software as the human visceral area. The human dimension of technology is obscured by expressions that denote spatial relations in terms of containment. For example: 5.89

There’s an Intel Core processor and 80GB hard drive stuffed into the lifebook’s metal guts – plenty of room for those videos, music and photos. [T3, PC of the future] Στο εσωτερικό του υπάρχει ένας επεξεργαστής Intel Core […] [T3, Το PC του µέλλοντος] (in its interior there is a process Intel Core […])

The effect of explanation is observed in shifts into the PHYSICAL SPACE metaphor, as in the following example: 5.90

The new OS is far more than Windows XP with a pretty new face. [PCM, Insider’s guide to Vista] H νέα έκδοση των Windows δεν είναι σε καµία περίπτωση απλά µια βελτιωµένη εκδοχή των XP µε ένα πιο όµορφο γραφικό περιβάλλον. [PCM, Vista Ο πληρέστερος οδηγός για ψαγµένους χρήστες] (the new version of Windows is not at all just an improved version of XP with a more beautiful graphical environment)

Explanation is at work here because the Greek metaphorical expression makes clear which part of the new operating system is implied by the expression face, namely the Windows desktop.

Adaptation is produced by a shift into the ANIMAL submetaphor, as follows: 5.91

As you push the fabric back and forth, across the face of the mouse, the cursor moves on your PC display. [PCM, Today’s ideas, tomorrow’s tech] Το Soap είναι ένα ποντίκι στον... αέρα, και ουσιαστικά αποτελείται από τα µηχανικά µέρη ενός laser mouse, που περιβάλλονται από ένα ‘κουκούλι’ φτιαγµένο από ειδικό αφρώδες µαλακό υλικό που το “πιέζετε” σε όποια κατεύθυνση θέλετε, µέσα στη χούφτα σας. [PCM, ∆ιαβάζουµε το µέλλον!]

237

(the soap is a mouse in the…air, and basically is constituted by the mechanical parts of a laser mouse, which are surrounded by a ‘cocoon’ made from special foamy soft material that you ‘push’ in any direction you want, inside your palm)

As indicated in example 5.91, the entire segment of the ST has been adapted into the TT. The English expression face is adapted in the TT by a description of the fabric. The TT author describes the exterior fabric of the mouse as a cocoon given that they are both soft materials and act as casings. This shift seems to be motivated by cultural specificity, in that objects are usually assigned sides in Greek rather than faces, and that it would sound awkward to talk about pressing one’s face.

Moreover, the shifts from the HUMAN BODY to the PLANT submetaphor are motivated by terminology, since both ST and TT metaphors are part of the specialised lexicon, but belong to different conceptual domains. For example: 5.92

Over the past 20 years, speeds have risen from a measly 10 Mbps to the 10 Gbps widely used on today’s Internet backbone. [PCM, The 10 biggest problems in computing and how we’ll solve them] Τα τελευταία 20 χρόνια, οι ταχύτητες έχουν αυξηθεί από τα φτωχικά 10Mbps στα 10Gbps που χρησιµοποιούνται σήµερα ευρέως στον κορµό του Internet. [PCM, Λύση στα 10 µεγαλύτερα προβλήµατα των υπολογιστών] (the last 20 years, the speeds have increased from the poor 10 Mbps to the 10 Gbps that are used today widely in the trunk of the Internet)

Departing from the spinal column, which forms the supporting basis of the human body, the expression backbone is transferred to the domain of computing to refer to the main communications network that carries data to other smaller networks (Microsoft Press 1997). The expression has been translated into Greek as δίκτυο στήριξης (network of support) and as δίκτυο κορµού (network of trunk). These expressions are used interchangeably to mean the Internet backbone, usually with the English term included in brackets. The former translation expresses the network’s fundamental role of offering support to smaller networks. The latter translation uses a similar analogy to the English expression by drawing from the domain of plants. The expression κορµός (trunk) is used metaphorically in Greek to describe the central feature of a thing by analogy to the human or animal torso (Mpampiniotis 2002). Therefore, the trunk of a plant is used by analogy to the backbone of the body as central features that provide support.

238

5.4.1.4 The PERSONALITY submetaphor The

PERSONALITY

submetaphor comprises twenty metaphorical expressions shifting

into the metaphors of

MACHINE, COMPETITION, PROGRESS, OBJECT OF DESIRE,

EXPERIENCE, SUPERNATURAL, HEALTH/ILLNESS

and

ANIMAL.

and

PHYSICAL SPACE,

and into the submetaphors of

The shifts produce the effects of downplaying the

metaphor in the TT, explanation and adaptation.

Downplaying the metaphor in the TT is observed in shifts into the metaphors of MACHINE and PHYSICAL SPACE. For

5.93

example:

IE View: It behaves like IE Tab, except that it starts up Internet Explorer to display a selected page. [PCW, Build the perfect browser] Προσφέρει λειτουργικότητα παρόµοια µε του IE Tab, µε τη διαφορά ότι ξεκινά τον Internet Explorer για να εµφανίσει τη σελίδα που έχετε επιλέξει. [PCW, ‘Κτίστε’ τον τέλειο browser!] (it offers functionality similar with the IE Tab, with the difference that it starts up Internet Explorer in order to display the page you have selected)

The English expression behaves is downplayed in the TT, as the Greek expression προσφέρει λειτουργικότητα (offers functionality) obscures the personality trait by relating to the mechanical aspect of technology and to its technical capabilities. Such shifts also produce the effect of explanation, as they make clear what is implied by the English expressions; that is, a browser’s behaviour refers to its functions.

Explanation is also observed in shifts into the metaphor of

PROGRESS

and the

submetaphor of HEALTH/ILLNESS metaphor. For example: 5.94

More sinister adware shadows your online activity, phones home, and tailors ads for you. [PCM, Security super guide] Τα πιο εξελιγµένα θα ελέγξουν την online συµπεριφορά σας για να µπορέσουν να σας παρουσιάσουν διαφηµίσεις στοχευµένες ειδικά σε εσάς. [PCM, Ασφαλείς στο Internet] (The more advanced will check your online behaviour so they can present to you ads targeted specially at you)

Example 5.94 demonstrates a shift into the

PROGRESS

metaphor. The English

expression sinister does not involve a definition of advanced, innovative or sophisticated, as the Greek expression implies. However, it derives from the ST that more sinister technology involves being more advanced, while less sophisticated technology is less threatening. Therefore, it can be argued that the Greek expression εξελιγµένα (advanced) builds from the entailment of progress implied by the English expression and guides the interpretation of the expression.

239

Adaptation is observed in shifts into the metaphors of OBJECT OF DESIRE, SUPERNATURAL and

5.95

COMPETITION, EXPERIENCE,

the submetaphor of ANIMAL. For example:

Since YouTube hit it big, streaming movies and music have gone positively bananas. [PCW, PC tips] Καθώς sites όπως το YouTube έχουν γίνει της µόδας, και δικαιολογηµένα, τα streaming movies και η µουσική αποτελούν δέλεαρ για τους απανταχού χρήστες. [PCW, 35 tips που κάθε χρήστης PC πρέπει να γνωρίζει!] (since sites such as the YouTube have become fashionable, and justifiably, the streaming movies and the music constitute enticement for users around the world)

Example 5.95 presents a shift into the metaphor of

OBJECT OF DESIRE.

The intense

emotional and mental state of technology revealed by the English expression go bananas is adapted in the TT by presenting technology as something that seduces. Both conceptualisations of technology occur as a result of its massive popularity; in the ST technology seems to be out of control since users are streaming media to a huge extent, while in the TT technology seems to be some kind of bait that lures users into constantly streaming media.

5.4.1.5 The PHYSICAL APPEARANCE submetaphor The

PHYSICAL APPEARANCE

submetaphor comprises eight metaphorical expressions

shifting into the metaphor of

PHYSICAL SPACE

FASHION, CLOTHING, PHYSICAL PROCESS

and into the submetaphors of PLANT,

and SURFACE. The shifts produce the effects

of downplaying the metaphor in the TT, explanation and adaptation.

Downplaying is produced by metaphorical expressions shifting into the metaphor of PHYSICAL SPACE and

5.96

into the submetaphor of SURFACE. For example:

From the core to the cosmetic, there’s a lot to like in Vista. [PCM, Insider’s guide to Vista Από τα ενδότερα έως και την επιφάνεια εργασίας, τα στοιχεία των Vista που θα λατρέψετε είναι πολλά. [PCM, Vista Ο πληρέστερος οδηγός για ψαγµένους χρήστες] (from the insides up to the surface of work, the features of the Vista that you will adore are many)

Example 5.96 presents a shift from the PHYSICAL APPEARANCE submetaphor into the submetaphor of SURFACE. The English expression cosmetic is rendered in the TT as επιφάνεια εργασίας which is literally translated as surface of work but is actually the translation of the desktop. Thus, the desktop area conceptualised in the ST as the

240

decorative part of the OS is obscured in the TT by an expression that refers both to the external part of the OS and the actual desktop area.

Explanation is observed in shifts into the submetaphors of PLANT. For

5.97

PHYSICAL PROCESS

and

example:

Small but perfectly formed, this miniature pc screams “trophy gadget” at the top of its tiny lungs. [T3, Honey, they shrunk the PC!] Μικρό αλλά πλήρως αναπτυγµένο, αυτό το PC µινιατούρα φωνάζει ‘το τέλειο gadget’ µε όλη τη δύναµη των µικροσκοπικών πνευµόνων του. [T3, Αγάπη µου, συρρίκνωσαν το PC] (small but fully developed, this PC miniature screams ‘the perfect gadget’ with all its strength of its microscopic lungs)

Example 5.97 demonstrates a shift into the submetaphor of

PLANT.

The English

expression formed is transferred into the TT as αναπτυγµένο (developed). The Greek expression draws knowledge from the fact that physical appearance also implies physical development, and emphasises the aspect of growth from the domain of plant.

Adaptation is achieved by shifts into the submetaphors of PHYSICAL PROCESS. For

5.98

FASHION, CLOTHING

and

example:

In order to share files and printers, the Mac cleverly assumes the guise of a PC. [PCW, Make your network better] Για το διαµοιρασµό των αρχείων και των εκτυπωτών ο Mac φορά έξυπνα τη ‘µάσκα’ του PC. [PCW, Κάντε το δίκτυό σας καλύτερο!] (for the sharing of the files and the printers, the Mac wears cleverly the ‘mask’ of the PC)

Example 5.98 shows a shift into the submetaphor of

CLOTHING.

The English

expression assumes the guise is rendered as φορά τη ‘µάσκα’ (wears the ‘mask’). Both conceptualisations refer to changing physical appearance. However, the Greek expression is more specific than the English, by emphasising one of the most common ways of changing one’s appearance, which is by wearing a mask.

5.4.2 The

The LIVING ORGANISM metaphor

LIVING ORGANISM

metaphor comprises 26 metaphorical expressions that shifted

metaphor category in the translation process. The involves shifts from four of its submetaphors, LIFE/DEATH,

into six main metaphors,

EXPERIENCE and PHYSICAL SPACE, and

LIVING ORGANISM

metaphor

ANIMAL, PLANT, HEALTH/ILLNESS

and

PERSON, MACHINE, SECURITY, PROGRESS,

eight submetaphors, ACTIVITY, KINSHIP, IDEAL,

241

DEFENCE, COMBAT, ATTACK, PHYSICAL PROCESS

and

CONTAINER.

Table 19 below

presents the shifts in detail and the number of metaphorical expressions in each category.

ST submetaphors of the metaphor ANIMAL (8)

TT Metaphor

TT Submetaphor

LIVING ORGANISM

PERSON

ACTIVITY (3) KINSHIP (2)

LIFESTYLE

IDEAL (1)

PHYSICAL SPACE (2) PLANT (5)

PROGRESS (1)

HEALTH / ILLNESS (7)

SECURITY

COMBAT (4)

PHYSICAL SPACE

PHYSICAL PROCESS (1)

MACHINE (1) EXPERIENCE (2)

LIFE / DEATH (6)

SECURITY (1)

ATTACK (2)

PHYSICAL SPACE / SECURITY

PHYSICAL PROCESS / ATTACK (1)

PERSON

ACTIVITY (1)

MACHINE (3) SECURITY

DEFENCE (1)

PHYSICAL SPACE

CONTAINER (1)

Table 19 Shifts of metaphor in the LIVING ORGANISM metaphor

5.4.2.1 The ANIMAL submetaphor The

ANIMAL

submetaphor contains eight metaphorical expressions shifting into the

metaphor of PHYSICAL SPACE and the submetaphors of ACTIVITY, KINSHIP, and IDEAL. The expressions relate to the aspects of breeding and animal behaviour. The shifts seem to produce three kinds of effect: downplaying the metaphor in the TT, explanation, and adaptation of the ST metaphor in the TT.

The effect of downplaying the metaphor can be observed particularly in the shifts into the PHYSICAL SPACE metaphor, where aspects of animal behaviour and breeding are obscured by expressions relating to aspects of physical space. For example: 5.99

Three new services – […] – have already taken the first steps toward this new breed of media search. [PCM, Web 3.0] Τρεις νέες υπηρεσίες που υπάρχουν αυτήν τη στιγµή, προχωρούν ήδη προς αυτήν την κατεύθυνση. [PCM, Έρχεται το Web 3.0] (three new services that exist this moment, are walking already towards this direction)

242

In example 5.99, the English expression breed is downplayed in the TT by the expression κατεύθυνση (direction). It can be argued that the Greek expression builds from the expression taken the first steps toward and produces the entailment TECHNOLOGY IS A NEW DIRECTION, ARE DESTINATIONS

in terms of the generic-level metaphor

A NEW

PURPOSES

of the Event Structure metaphor (Lakoff 1993). In addition,

downplaying the particular expression is also in line with the general intention of the TT to change altogether the conceptualisation of technology as having a pedigree, belonging to a breed, and being a purebred animal (Section 4.2.1, Chapter 4). This is probably because such features have been used in Greek to conceptualise human races and football players (HNC), but they have not been used to conceptualise technology. The Greek text draws from the domain of kinship and human activity to talk about computer lineage, as the effects of explanation and adaptation demonstrate below.

Explanation can be observed in shifts into the ACTIVITY submetaphor, where aspects of animal behaviour and breeding are explicated by expressions relating to human activity. For example: 5.100

It’s from the community that brought us the Firefox web browser and Thunderbird email program, so it’s got a great pedigree to go with its open, clean design and plenty of features. [CA, 30 fresh downloads] Το πρόγραµµα προέρχεται από την οµάδα που δηµιούργησε τον Firefox και το Thunderbird, οπότε υπόσχεται ευχρηστία και πληθώρα εντυπωσιακών χαρακτηριστικών. [CA, Τα καλύτερα ‘φρέσκα’ προγράµµατα] (the program comes from the team that created Firefox and Thunderbird, so it promises easy of use and plethora of impressive features)

In example 5.100, the English expression pedigree is transferred into Greek as υπόσχεται (promises), which makes explicit that pedigree entails integrity and commitment. As mentioned previously in example 5.99, the Greek language does not use the expressions pedigree and breed in the same way as English. It seems that the Greek language/culture does not favour expressions of animal ancestry to conceptualise lineage in the context of technology, probably because animals are considered as inferior creatures. Thus, it seems more appropriate to relate technology to humans, who are considered as superior to any type of living being, since technology is viewed as a manifestation of intelligence and progress.

243

Adaptation can be observed in shifts into the

KINSHIP

and

SYMBOL

submetaphors,

where again aspects of breeding are modified by expressions relating to kinship relations and genealogical symbols. For example: 5.101

Just as Lamborghini’s bull suggests a tradition of ferocious power, the Playstation badge, tucked discreetly in the top-left corner of PSP’s fascia, reminds us that this comes from a stable of unmatchable pedigree in its field. [T3, The PSP] Το σήµα του Playstation στην επάνω αριστερή γωνία φαντάζει σαν οικόσηµο, όπως το άλογο στη Ferrari. [T3, PSP Το µέλλον είναι φορητό] (the badge of Playstation in the top left corner seems like a blazon, as the horse in Ferrari)

Example 5.101 demonstrates a shift into the

SYMBOL

submetaphor. The TT focuses

on what pedigree represents, which is a reputable background, and translates the ST expression by using a symbol of aristocratic lineage (blazon). Again the source domain of animals of the ST metaphor is changed into the domain of human symbols in the TT, thereby projecting the superiority of humans over animals.

5.4.2.2 The PLANT submetaphor The

PLANT

submetaphor contains five metaphorical expressions that shift into the

metaphor of

PROGRESS,

and the submetaphor of

COMBAT.

The expressions relate to

the aspects of growth and uprooting. In the PLANT submetaphor, all shifts produce the effect of explanation. For example: 5.102

If you fall victim to a hijack, use a spyware scanner […] to root out the bad code. [PCM, Maximum security] Εάν πέσετε θύµα κατάληψης, χρησιµοποιήστε έναν spyware scanner […] για να εξαλείψετε τον κακόβουλο κώδικα. [PCM,Ύψιστη ασφάλεια] (if you fall victim of occupation, use a spyware scanner […] to eliminate the malicious code)

Example 5.102 demonstrates a shift into the

COMBAT

submetaphor, where the

English expression to root out is transferred as εξαλείψετε (eliminate), although the corresponding Greek expression ξεριζώνω (root out) could have been used. It is observed that getting rid of unwanted and dangerous software is conceptualised in the Greek texts mainly as destroying a hostile enemy rather than as tearing out roots, as expressed in English. A possible explanation for this is personal preference towards the

SECURITY

metaphor when referring to protecting the computer system

and fighting electronic enemies such as viruses, Trojan horses and other malicious software.

244

5.4.2.3 The HEALTH/ILLNESS submetaphor The

HEALTH/ILLNESS

submetaphor comprises seven metaphorical expressions that

shift into the metaphors of PROCESS, ATTACK

(SECURITY) and

MACHINE, EXPERIENCE,

the submetaphors of

PHYSICAL

and into a combination of two conceptual domains,

PHYSICAL PROCESS

(PHYSICAL

SPACE).

ATTACK

The combination of two

domains means that a metaphorical expression can be part of two conceptual domains. The shifts seem to produce all four effects.

The effect of downplaying is achieved by the metaphor of MACHINE. For example: 5.103

Once these issues are remedied, the problem should not crop up again. [PCW, How to survive the worst PC disasters] Εφόσον τα διορθώσετε, τα συγκεκριµένα προβλήµατα είναι σχετικά απίθανο να επανεµφανιστούν. [PCW, Οδηγός επιβίωσης στις…Θεοµηνίες του PC] (once you repair them, the specific problems are rather improbable to reappear)

The translation obscures the aspect of fixing computer problems in terms of curing a disease and emphasises the aspect of repairing a technical fault. Although the expression remedy is quite commonly used in Greek to refer to repairing, correcting and finding solutions, it seems that the expression διορθώσετε (repair) was chosen as more appropriate, given that the ST refers to technical issues, such as checking Windows settings and running Windows update. Following this, it can be assumed that technology is viewed in the TT more as machine in need of maintenance and repairing than as an organism needing a check-up and a cure.

Accentuating is achieved by a shift into the submetaphor of ATTACK. For example: 5.104

Your odds of picking up malware decrease if you deny automatic connections to unknown networks. [PCW, Make your network better] Οι πιθανότητες να ‘βοµβαρδιστείτε’ µε κακόβουλο κώδικα µειώνονται, εάν απορρίψετε τις αυτόµατες συνδέσεις µε άγνωστα δίκτυα. [PCW, Κάντε το δίκτυό σας καλύτερο!] (the odds of ‘being bombarded’ with malicious code decrease, if you deny the automatic connections with unknown networks)

The English expression picking up, understood as coming down with a disease, is transferred as ‘βοµβαρδιστείτε’ (‘being bombarded’) into the TT. Again, although a similar Greek expression would have been acceptable, the TT emphasises the source domain of

ATTACK

to conceptualise the harmful effects of getting malware in the

computer. In both the ST and the TT, the user stands for the computer system; in the ST the user is coming down with a disease, while in the TT the user is the victim of

245

an attack. However, it can be argued that the metaphor is accentuated in the TT because it dramatises the case of getting malware as a destructive and irreversible situation, while in the ST the conceptualisation of getting malware as a disease is much more optimistic since it also entails the possibility of curing the situation with medicine.

Explanation can be observed in a shift into the submetaphor of

PHYSICAL PROCESS.

For example: 5.105

Disinfect your PC at the first sign of trouble (spyware tends to snowball). [PCW, How to survive the worst PC disasters] Ενεργοποιήστε το System Restore και καθαρίστε τον υπολογιστή µε την πρώτη ένδειξη ‘µόλυνσης’. [PCW, Οδηγός επιβίωσης στις…Θεοµηνίες του PC] (activate the System Restore and clean the computer at the first sign of ‘infection’)

The translation seems to separate the English expression into its constituent parts, namely cleaning (καθαρίστε) and infection (µόλυνσης). Thus, it can be assumed that there is a need to explain the concept of disinfecting a computer system in the TT, by making it more explicit in terms of the physical process of cleaning.

Adaptation is observed in the shifts into the metaphor of combination of the

ATTACK (SECURITY)

and

EXPERIENCE

and the

PHYSICAL PROCESS (PHYSICAL SPACE)

submetaphors. For example: 5.106

Also, you can’t set a system restore point in case you accidentally delete critical files during a disinfection routine. [PCW, Die, spyware, die!] Επίσης, δεν δίνεται η δυνατότητα δηµιουργίας restore points για τις περιπτώσεις εκείνες που κατά λάθος διαγράφεται ένα κρίσιµο αρχείο συστήµατος κατά τη διάρκεια του καθαρισµού από απειλές. [PCW, Επόµενος στόχος: Spyware] (also, the capability of creating restore points is not available for those cases that by accident a critical file of system is deleted during the cleaning up from threats.)

Example 5.106 presents a shift into the combination of PHYSICAL PROCESS

(PHYSICAL

SPACE).

ATTACK (SECURITY)

and

The English expression disinfection is

rendered as καθαρισµού από απειλές (cleaning up from threats). As opposed to example 5.108, the expression καθαρισµού (cleaning up) does not imply an infection, but explicitly refers to threats from malicious software. In the TT, technology is conceptualised as a physical structure that needs to be cleaned from threats. From this it can be assumed that the threats are viewed as physical objects that can be removed from the system, and once removed the system will be clean; or that the threats stand metonymically for the malicious software that provokes these threats.

246

Therefore, the translation adapts the concept of removing microorganisms that could potentially infect an organism, into removing harmful objects that could potentially attack a physical structure.

5.4.2.4 The LIFE/DEATH submetaphor The

LIFE/DEATH

submetaphor involves six metaphorical expressions shifting into the

metaphors of MACHINE and the submetaphors of ACTIVITY, DEFENCE and CONTAINER. The shifts seem to produce the effects of downplaying the metaphor in the TT, and adaptation. In particular, ST expressions conceptualising technology as a deceased organism and expressions conceptualising the termination of a function as killing are downplayed by the metaphor of CONTAINER.

5.107

MACHINE

and the submetaphors of

ACTIVITY

and

For example:

Problem: Your pitch to the VCs just went south when your presentation croaked. [PCW, How to survive the worst PC disasters] Το πρόβληµα: Την ηµέρα µίας σηµαντικής παρουσίασης ανακάλυψα ότι το αρχείο (PowerPoint ή Word) της εργασίας µου δεν άνοιγε µε τίποτα. [PCW, Οδηγός επιβίωσης στις…Θεοµηνίες του PC] (the problem: the day of an important presentation I found out that the file (PP or W) of my assignment would not open at all)

Example 5.107 demonstrates a shift into the metaphor of

ACTIVITY.

The English

expression croaked is downplayed in the TT by the expression δεν άνοιγε (would not open). The Greek translation downplays the originality of the English expression and states explicitly that the technology cannot perform a particular function.

The effect of adaptation is produced by the following shift into the metaphor of DEFENCE:

5.108

[…] to kill all pop-ups, select High. [PCW, PC Tips] Για µεγαλύτερη προστασία ρυθµίστε το στο επίπεδο High. [PCW, 35 tips που κάθε χρήστης PC πρέπει να γνωρίζει!] (for more protection set it to the level High)

As the back translation shows, the ST is altered in translation. The English expression kill conceptualises the prevention of pop-up windows and is adapted in the TT as προστασία (protection). It is suggested that the Greek expression builds from the entailment that by preventing pop-ups a computer is better protected from malicious software. Thus, the TT interprets the outcome of preventing pop-ups, namely protection, rather than the particular expression.

247

It may be argued that the

LIFE/DEATH

submetaphor is not favoured in the Greek

language/culture, given that the majority of translated expressions of the LIFE/DEATH submetaphor have shifted into other metaphors. A possible explanation is because the issue of death is considered as rather taboo in the Greek culture; it is not always discussed openly and by tradition mentions of death usually follow particular gestures denoting aversion and warding off the ‘evilness’ of death. Thus, if the above argument holds, it follows that the shifts of the

LIFE/DEATH

submetaphor are

motivated by cultural specificity relating to folk beliefs and thinking.

5.4.3 The

The MACHINE metaphor MACHINE

metaphor comprises 54 metaphorical expressions which that shift

metaphor category in the translation process. The

MACHINE

from the main metaphor and the submetaphors of different main metaphors,

AUTOMOBILE

and

BUS

into seven

PERSON, LIVING ORGANISM, PROGRESS, LIFESTYLE,

FOOD/COOKING, EXPERIENCE, SUPERNATURAL

submetaphors,

metaphor involves shifts

and

PHYSICAL SPACE,

and nine

ACTIVITY, PERSONALITY, HUMAN LIFECYCLE, ROLE/OCCUPATION,

PLANT, LIFE/DEATH, FASHION, PHYSICAL PROCESS,

and

CONTAINER.

Table 20 below

presents the shifts in detail including main metaphor and submetaphor category, and the number of metaphorical expressions in each category.

ST Submetaphors of the MACHINE metaphor MACHINE (8)

TT Metaphor

TT Submetaphor

PERSON

ACTIVITY (1) HUMAN LIFECYCLE (1) PERSONALITY (1)

PHYSICAL SPACE

PHYSICAL PROCESS (3)

EXPERIENCE (1) FOOD/COOKING (1) AUTOMOBILE (43)

PERSON

ACTIVITY (7) PERSONALITY (1)

LIVING ORGANISM

LIFE/DEATH (1) PLANT (1)

COMPETITION (1) PROGRESS (1) LIFESTYLE

FASHION (1)

SUPERNATURAL (2) EXPERIENCE (1)

248

PHYSICAL SPACE (4) BUS (3)

PHYSICAL PROCESS (22) CONTAINER (1)

PHYSICAL SPACE (3)

Table 20 Shifts of metaphor in the MACHINE metaphor

The

MACHINE

metaphors of

metaphor displays eight metaphorical expressions shifting into the EXPERIENCE

and

FOOD/COOKING,

and the submetaphors of

HUMAN LIFECYCLE, PERSONALITY and PHYSICAL PROCESS.

ACTIVITY,

The shifts seem to produce

the effects of accentuating the metaphor in the TT, and adaptation. In particular, accentuating the metaphor in the TT is shown by the shift into the HUMAN LIFECYCLE submetaphor, as follows: 5.109

As AMD improves the current architecture, those faster memory chips will really start to kick in. [PCM, Why microchips matter (again)] Η πλατφόρµα χρειάζεται κάποιο χρόνο ακόµη για να ‘ωριµάσει’. [PCM, AMD vs Intel] (the platform needs some time to ‘mature’)

The English metaphorical expression kick in is accentuated in the TT by the expression ‘ωριµάσει’ (‘mature’). The English expression relates to the functioning of microchips, while the Greek translation relates to their level of sophistication. As opposed to previous examples (5.83, 5.89, 5.93, 5.96) where the human aspect of technology was downplayed, in example 5.109 technology’s human side is accentuated by conceptualising technology’s operation as mental development.

Adaptation is observed in the shifts into the metaphors of EXPERIENCE,

and the submetaphors of

PROCESS. For

example:

5.110

FOOD/COOKING

ACTIVITY, PERSONALITY

and

and

PHYSICAL

We love the interface, which works more like desktop e-mail software than traditional Web mail does. [PCW, 101 fantastic freebies] […] ξεχωρίζει για το εκπληκτικό interface της, που θυµίζει περισσότερο εφαρµογή desktop e-mail παρά υπηρεσία web. [PCW, Ο ‘κήπος’ µε τα δώρα] ([…] it stands out for its wonderful interface that reminds more of a desktop e-mail application than a web service)

Example 5.110 demonstrates a shift into the EXPERIENCE metaphor. In order to make sense of a new application, the English expression associates it with the ways another similar application operates, while the Greek expression associates it with the lived experience of another familiar technology.

249

As observed in the shift into the FOOD/COOKING metaphor, adaptation is motivated by terminology. In particular, the English expression to power graphic cards is transferred in the TT as τροφοδοσία των καρτών γραφικών (feeding of graphic cards). The Greek expression means to provide food, and by extension, to provide power to a machine (Mpampiniotis 2002), thereby linking feeding to supplying power. A similar conceptualisation can be traced in the English expression juice deriving from the

FOOD/COOKING

metaphor, which means the fuel for an engine or

electric current. Thus, it can be argued that both languages and cultures favour the conceptualisation of food and feeding to fuel and supplying power.

5.4.3.1 The AUTOMOBILE submetaphor The AUTOMOBILE submetaphor comprises 43 metaphorical expressions that shift into COMPETITION, PROGRESS, SUPERNATURAL, EXPERIENCE,

the metaphors of PHYSICAL SPACE,

and the submetaphors of

and

ACTIVITY, PERSONALITY, PLANT,

LIFE/DEATH, FASHION, PHYSICAL PROCESS and CONTAINER. The

shifts seem to produce

the effects of accentuating the metaphor in the TT, explanation and adaptation.

The effect of accentuation can be observed in shifts into the metaphors of SUPERNATURAL LIFE/DEATH. For

5.111

and

COMPETITION,

and the submetaphors of

ACTIVITY

and

example:

Problem: Your trusty hard drive has crashed. [PCW, How to survive the worst PC disasters] Το πρόβληµα: Ο «αξιόπιστος» σκληρός δίσκος µου τα… τίναξε! [PCW, Οδηγός επιβίωσης στις…Θεοµηνίες του PC] (the problem: My ‘trustworthy’ hard disk kicked the bucket!)

Example 5.111 demonstrates a shift into the submetaphor of

LIFE/DEATH.

The

English expression crashed relating to the malfunction of a technology is transferred in the TT by the Greek expression τα τίναξε (kicked the bucket), which is a colloquial expression used contemptuously or reprovingly and means to die. The Greek expression shifts the conceptualisation of technology from a crashing automobile to the dying of a living being, thereby elevating technology from an inanimate to an animate entity. As mentioned previously, although the issue of death is rather taboo in the Greek culture, it is used here as a means of adding to the gravity of the problem. The effect of the Greek expression seems much more intense than the

250

English one, given that the death of a living creature is much more serious and irreversible as opposed to the breakdown of any machine or vehicle.

Explanation is observed in shifts into the metaphors of EXPERIENCE,

and the submetaphors of

PHYSICAL SPACE

and

ACTIVITY, PERSONALITY, PHYSICAL PROCESS

and CONTAINER. For example: 5.112

For PCs less than two years old, 512MB is a reasonable total amount (the forthcoming Windows Vista Premium mandates at least this much), though 1GB will give you a much smoother ride. [PCW, Hardware tips] Για PCs που έχουν λιγότερα από δύο χρόνια ζωής, 512 MB είναι µια λογική ποσότητα µνήµης, αν και το 1GB θα σας προσφέρει πολύ καλύτερη εµπειρία χρήσης. [PCW, Τα καλύτερα 40 hardware κόλπα] (for PCs that have less than two years of life, 512 MB is a reasonable amount of memory, even though the 1GB will offer you a much better experience of use.)

Example 5.112 demonstrates a shift into the

EXPERIENCE

metaphor. The English

expression smoother ride conceptualises a PC with 1GB of memory as a pleasurable journey in an automobile. The Greek expression εµπειρία χρήσης (experience of use) is motivated by the English term user experience, which refers to the experience and pleasure that a user enjoys from using a product or a system. Therefore, the Greek expression makes explicit the fact that a PC with 1GB of memory provides a better experience in terms of use.

Adaptation is observed in shifts into the metaphors of SPACE,

and the submetaphors of

PROGRESS

ACTIVITY, PLANT, FASHION

and

and

PHYSICAL

PHYSICAL PROCESS.

As Table 10 shows, the majority of metaphorical expressions shift from the AUTOMOBILE

submetaphor into the

PHYSICAL PROCESS

and

ACTIVITY

submetaphors.

These expressions relate to the adaptation of the expression run as εκτελώ (to execute), when the user is performing the program execution as a physical action (PHYSICAL PROCESS), or εκτελούµαι (to be executed), when technology is performing the action (ACTIVITY).

Adaptation is also observed in shifts that preserve the originality of the ST expression. For example: 5.113

There’s no denying, that despite being almost aerodynamically slim, PSP feels more attractive because it’s heavy. [T3, The PSP] Για παράδειγµα, παρά τη σικ εµφάνισή του, είναι όσο βαρύ χρειάζεται[…]. [T3, PSP Το µέλλον είναι φορητό] (for example, despite its chic appearance, it is as much heavy as is necessary […])

251

Example 5.113 demonstrates a shift into the

FASHION

submetaphor. Technology’s

design is described in the English text as aerodynamically in terms of automotive engineering, and in the Greek text as σικ (chic) in terms of fashion. This shift seems to be motivated by the author’s personal preferences with the intent to preserve the ST expression’s originality.

5.4.3.2 The BUS submetaphor The

BUS

submetaphor comprises three metaphorical expressions that shift into the

metaphor of PHYSICAL SPACE, motivated by terminology. For example: 5.114

[…] if the system bus can’t carry the traffic anyway [PCW, Your PC in 2008 and beyond] […], εάν ο δίαυλος συστήµατος δεν µπορεί να διαχειριστεί την επιπλέον κίνηση [PCW, Τεχνολογίες 2008...και αργότερα] ([…] if the channel of the system cannot manage the extra traffic)

As example 5.114 indicates, the English expression system bus is transferred in the TT by the Greek expression δίαυλος συστήµατος (channel of the system). Both expressions are part of the specialised lexicon of technology and are corresponding terms. The English expression draws knowledge from the motor-driven vehicle to conceptualise the collection of wires that contain and transfer data along a specific route (Section 4.3.1.2, Chapter 4), whereas the Greek expression draws from the narrow channel connecting two seas and conceptualises this collection of wires as a physical construction that facilitates the transfer of data between two physical areas.

5.4.4 The

The COMPETITION metaphor COMPETITION

metaphor comprises ten metaphorical expressions that present

shifts of metaphor category. The shifts occur from the main metaphor of COMPETITION EXPERIENCE

and

IDEAL.

and the submetaphors of

and

PROGRESS,

RACE

and

and three submetaphors,

BATTLE

into two metaphors,

ACTIVITY, ROLE/OCCUPATION

Table 21 below presents the shifts in detail including main metaphor and

submetaphor category, and the number of metaphorical expressions in each category.

ST Submetaphors of the COMPETITION metaphor

TT Metaphor

TT Submetaphor

252

COMPETITION (7)

ACTIVITY (3)

PERSON EXPERIENCE (1) PROGRESS (3)

RACE (2) BATTLE (1)

The

PERSON

ROLE/OCCUPATION (1)

LIFESTYLE

IDEAL (1)

ROLE/OCCUPATION (1) Table 21 Shifts of metaphor in the COMPETITION metaphor PERSON

COMPETITION

the metaphors of

metaphor involves seven metaphorical expressions shifting into EXPERIENCE, PROGRESS,

and the submetaphor of

ACTIVITY.

The

shifts seem to produce the effects of downplaying the metaphor in the TT and adaptation. In particular, downplaying is produced by shifts into the

ACTIVITY

submetaphor. For example: 5.115

But when the first generation iPod was born, it didn’t look like it would emulate that success. [T3, The iPods] […] γι’ αυτό και όταν γεννήθηκε το iPod, δε φαινόταν ικανό να µιµηθεί την επιτυχία της Sony µε το Walkman. [T3, Τα iPods] ([…] that’s why when the iPod was born, it didn’t look capable to imitate the success of Sony with the Walkman)

The English expression emulate the success is downplayed in the TT by the Greek expression µιµηθεί την επιτυχία (imitate the success). While the English expression encompasses both the aspect of competition and imitation, the Greek expression denotes only the aspect of imitation, thereby minimising the metaphor’s effect.

Adaptation can be observed in shifts into the metaphors of EXPERIENCE.

5.116

PROGRESS

and

For example:

The integration of news stories with Web-search results is a work in progress, with Ask.com leading the way. [PCW, Search engine shoot-out] Η ενοποίηση των ειδήσεων µε τα αποτελέσµατα εύρεσης στο Web χρειάζεται ακόµη δουλειά. Πρωτοστάτης στον τοµέα αυτό είναι το Ask.com. [PCW, Μηχανές αναζήτησης σε πόλεµο] (the integration of news with the search results on the Web still needs work. Pioneer in this domain is Ask.com)

Example 5.116 demonstrates a shift into the

PROGRESS

metaphor. This shift adapts

the conceptualisation of technology from a participant excelling in competition to an innovator. In this manner, the search engine, Ask.com, is viewed as a protagonist in the development of a new feature in web search. Thus, a pioneer is both a person leading the way, and also one who contributes to the progress of a particular field.

253

5.4.4.1 The RACE submetaphor The

RACE

submetaphor includes two metaphorical expressions shifting into the

submetaphors of

ROLE/OCCUPATION

and

IDEAL.

The shifts produce the effect of

adaptation, which is observed in the shifts into the submetaphors of ROLE/OCCUPATION. For

5.117

IDEAL

and

example:

The other big runner is Thinkfree Office [website], which takes a comparative age to load the first time but rewards its users with an interface as slick as any computer-bound equivalent. [CA, Go to work on the web] Το άλλο µεγάλο όνοµα του χώρου είναι το Thinkfree Office (website), το οποίο µπορεί να αργεί να φορτώσει την πρώτη φορά, αλλά θα σας ανταµείψει τελικά µε ένα περιβάλλον εργασίας αντάξιο µε αυτό των offline σουιτών γραφείου. [CA, Στήστε το γραφείο σας στο Internet] (the other big name in the field is Thinkfree Office […])

As example 5.117 indicates, the English expression big runner is transferred in the TT as µεγάλο όνοµα του χώρου (big name in the field), thereby shifting the conceptualisation of technology as a participant in a race into a big-name celebrity. The Greek expression alludes to the broader domain of lifestyle, given that the expression όνοµα (name) usually stands metonymically for fame and reputation, and relates to celebrity. At the same time, it seems to imply the aspect of rivalry given that celebrities are also engaged in an implicit competition for fame and recognition.

5.4.4.2 The BATTLE submetaphor The

BATTLE

submetaphor includes one metaphorical expression that shifts into the

submetaphor of ROLE/OCCUPATION, and produces the effect of adaptation, as follows: 5.118

Battle of the New DVDs [PCM, Battle of the New DVDs] ο βασιλιάς απέθανε, ζήτω ο βασιλιάς [PCM, BLU-RAY vs HD-DVD] (the king is dead, long live the king)

The English expression is adapted in the TT by a traditional proclamation of succession that frequently figures as a headline in the media. While the English expression conceptualises the two new DVD formats, Blu-ray and HD-DVD, as rivals in battle, the Greek translation relates the new formats as successors to the king. Although rivalry between the two new formats is implied in the TT, the translation mainly emphasises the fact that the older technology, the standard DVD format, is becoming outdated and obsolete, and that a newer format is coming to take its place.

254

5.4.5 The

The SECURITY metaphor SECURITY

metaphor comprises twelve metaphorical expressions that present

shifts from the submetaphors of metaphor of

MACHINE,

HEALTH/ILLNESS.

COMBAT, DEFENCE, ATTACK

and the submetaphors of

and

ESPIONAGE

into the

ACTIVITY, PERSONALITY

and

Table 22 below presents the shifts in detail including main

metaphor and submetaphor category, and the number of metaphorical expressions in each category.

ST Submetaphors of the SECURITY metaphor COMBAT (2) DEFENCE (5) ATTACK (4)

TT Metaphor

TT Submetaphor

PERSON

ACTIVITY (2)

PERSON

ACTIVITY (3) PERSONALITY (2)

PERSON

ACTIVITY (1) PERSONALITY (1)

LIVING ORGANISM

HEALTH/ILLNESS (1)

MACHINE (1) ESPIONAGE (1)

PERSON ACTIVITY (1) Table 22 Shifts of metaphor in the SECURITY metaphor

5.4.5.1 The COMBAT submetaphor The

COMBAT

ACTIVITY

submetaphor contains two metaphorical expressions shifting into the

submetaphor. These shifts produce the effects of downplaying and

explanation. For example: 5.119

Prevx1 Easily scans your system for, finds, and destroys malware and suspicious files. [PCM, Security super guide] Το Prevx1 µπορεί εύκολα να εντοπίσει και να διαγράψει κακόβουλα προγράµµατα από τον υπολογιστή σας. [PCM, Ασφαλείς στο Internet] ([…] and delete malicious programs from your computer)

As example 5.119 shows, the Greek translation removes the aspect of physical fighting from the ST expression and describes what the program actually does, which is to delete malware. In this manner, the translation both downplays and explains the English expression by specifying the activity that technology actually performs.

5.4.5.2 The DEFENCE submetaphor The DEFENCE submetaphor comprises five metaphorical expressions shifting into the submetaphors of

ACTIVITY

and

PERSONALITY.

The shifts into the

ACTIVITY

255

submetaphor produce the effect of downplaying and explicating the ST metaphor as in example 5.119, while the shifts into the

PERSONALITY

submetaphor produce the

effect of adaptation. For example: 5.120

True believers in the Mac’s inherent impregnability found their faith sorely tested recently, when security researcher Dino Dai Zovi took home a $10,000 prize for hijacking a MacBook Pro running Mac OS 10.4. [PCW, Technology: Truth or Fiction] Οι ‘πιστοί’ του άτρωτου χαρακτήρα των Macintosh δέχτηκαν τεράστιο πλήγµα, όταν ο ερευνητής Dino Dai Zovi επέστρεψε στο σπίτι του µε 8.000 ευρώ στην τσέπη ως βραβείο, επειδή κατάφερε να διεισδύσει σε ένα Mac Book Pro εξοπλισµένο µε Mac OS 10.4.[ PCW, Μύθος ή πραγµατικότητα;] (the ‘believers’ of the invincible character of the Macintosh received a huge shock when […])

Example 5.120 demonstrates a shift into the

PERSONALITY

submetaphor, which

produces the effect of adaptation. The English expression impregnability is altered in the TT as άτρωτου χαρακτήρα (invincible character). While the English expression is related to the conceptualisation of the computer system as an indestructible fortress, the Greek expression relates the computer system to a human being with invincible powers. The translation produces the effect of adaptation because both conceptualisations seem to depart from the same notion of having the ability to endure an attack, one in terms of a physical structure and the other in terms of physical strength.

5.4.5.3 The ATTACK submetaphor The

ATTACK

metaphor of

submetaphor includes four metaphorical expressions shifting into the MACHINE

HEALTH/ILLNESS.

and the submetaphors of

ACTIVITY, PERSONALITY

and

The shifts produce the effects of downplaying the ST metaphor,

explanation and adaptation.

Downplaying is produced by the shift into the MACHINE metaphor, as follows: 5.121

At some predefined point they strike. [PCM, Security super guide] Σε κάποιο προκαθορισµένο από τον κατασκευαστή τους σηµείο ενεργοποιούνται. [PCM, Ασφαλείς στο Internet] (at some predefined by their manufacturer point they are activated)

The ST conceptualises technology as a human agent attacking, whereas the TT emphasises the mechanical aspect of technology, thereby toning down the ST expression’s negative effect.

256

Explanation is observed in the shift into the ACTIVITY submetaphor, as follows: 5.122

Rootkits won’t be able to hide by subverting the Windows kernel. [PCM, Insider’s guide to Vista] […] τα rootkits δε θα είναι σε θέση να κρύψουν τον εαυτό τους τροποποιώντας τον kernel των Windows […] [PCM, Vista Ο πληρέστερος οδηγός για ψαγµένους χρήστες] (the rootkits will not be in a position to hide themselves by modifying the kernel of Windows)

The translation substitutes the aspect of attack (subverting) in the ST with the aspect of human activity (τροποποιώντας, modifying). In this manner, the TT expression, by making explicit the kind of damage that rootkits cause to the system, also obscures the ST expression’s negative effect.

Adaptation is achieved by the shifts into the

PERSONALITY

and

HEALTH/ILLNESS

submetaphors. For example: 5.123

[…] online thugs used at least two such zero-day assaults to attack millions of people by exploiting holes in a rarely used Microsoft image format. [PCW, The threats you can’t see] […] οι online κακοποιοί χρησιµοποίησαν τουλάχιστον δύο τέτοιες επιθέσεις «ηµέρα 0» για να προσβάλουν εκατοµµύρια ανθρώπους, εκµεταλλευόµενοι τα κενά σε ένα σπανίως χρησιµοποιούµενο format εικόνων της Microsoft. [PCW, Αόρατες απειλές] ([…] online criminals used at least two such attacks ‘day 0’ to infect millions of people […])

Example 5.123 demonstrates a shift into the

HEALTH/ILLNESS

submetaphor. The

conceptualisation of technology as a fortress under attack in the ST is adapted in the TT as a living organism becoming infected. It can be argued that this shift is motivated by the author’s personal preference given that the metaphor of and the

HEALTH/ILLNESS

SECURITY

submetaphor are interrelated (Sections 4.2.3 and 4.5,

Chapter 4).

5.4.6 The

The PROGRESS metaphor

PROGRESS

metaphor comprises only three metaphorical expressions, which shift

into the submetaphors of ACTIVITY and PLANT, and produce the effect of adaptation. Table 23 below presents the shifts in detail including main metaphor and submetaphor category, and the number of metaphorical expressions in each category.

ST Submetaphors of the PROGRESS metaphor PROGRESS (3)

TT Metaphor PERSON

TT Submetaphor ACTIVITY (1)

PLANT (2) Table 23 Shifts of metaphor in the PROGRESS metaphor LIVING ORGANISM

257

The example below demonstrates a shift into the

PLANT

submetaphor, producing

adaptation. 5.124

With the rise of online gaming and modding, the concept of unfairly balancing games became an increasingly nefarious affair […]. [CA, Get a handle on games] Με την ‘άνθηση’ του online gaming και της εµφάνισης πληθώρας από mods, το ζήτηµα των cheats έχει λάβει διαστάσεις επιδηµίας […]. [CA, Πάρτε το παιχνίδι στα χέρια σας!] (with the ‘bloom’ of online gaming and the appearance of a plethora of mods, the issue of the cheats has acquired dimensions of an epidemic)

The English expression rise is transferred in the TT as ‘άνθηση’ (bloom), which emphasises the aspect of development and views technology as a living being. This shift seems to be motivated by the author’s personal preferences, and seems to entail the conceptualisation of progress as growth (Schäffner 2004:1266) based on the underlying notion that both progress and growth entail development.

5.4.7

The REVOLUTION metaphor

The REVOLUTION metaphor does not include any shifts of metaphor category.

5.4.8 The

The LIFESTYLE metaphor

LIFESTYLE

metaphor comprises eight metaphorical expressions, which shift into

six main metaphors, EXPERIENCE, PROCESS.

and

PROGRESS, REVOLUTION, OBJECT OF DESIRE, FOOD/COOKING,

PHYSICAL SPACE,

and two submetaphors,

SURFACE

and

PHYSICAL

Table 24 below presents the shifts in detail including main metaphor and

submetaphor category, and the number of metaphorical expressions in each category.

ST Submetaphors of the LIFESTYLE metaphor IDEAL (1) FASHION (6)

TT Metaphor

TT Submetaphor

REVOLUTION (1) PROGRESS (2) OBJECT OF DESIRE (1) FOOD/COOKING (1) EXPERIENCE (2)

CLOTHING (1)

PHYSICAL SPACE

PHYSICAL PROCESS (1)

Table 24 Shifts of metaphor in the LIFESTYLE metaphor

258

5.4.8.1 The IDEAL submetaphor The

IDEAL

submetaphor involves one metaphorical expression that shifts into the

metaphor of REVOLUTION, and produces the effect of adaptation. For example: 5.125

How tumbling Russian blocks in four shades of grey made Game Boy the handheld-gaming messiah. [T3, The Nintendo Game Boy] Πως ορισµένα ρωσικά τετράγωνα σε τέσσερις αποχρώσεις του γκρι έκαναν το Game Boy τον εξάγγελο της επανάστασης του φορητού gaming. [T3, The Nintendo Game Boy] (the messenger of the revolution of the portable gaming)

The English expression relates to a widely known symbol from the domain of religion, which is adapted in the TT as εξάγγελο της επανάστασης (messenger of the revolution). The translation adapts the conceptualisation of the Game boy as the ‘saviour’ of traditional handheld gaming into the ultimate innovation. It can be argued that the shift seems to be motivated by cultural specificity given that religion occupies a significant position in Greek culture. The symbol of messiah is used metaphorically in Greek to conceptualise usually men whose work and activities are considered quite revolutionary. Thus, it would seem outlandish or even hubris to some, if an inanimate object was conceptualised as a messiah. The domain of revolution may be considered a more acceptable and suitable conceptualisation, since technology and revolution are closely related concepts.

5.4.8.2 The FASHION submetaphor The FASHION submetaphor involves seven metaphorical expressions that shift into the metaphors of PROGRESS, OBJECT OF DESIRE, FOOD/COOKING, EXPERIENCE, and produce the effects of explanation and adaptation. Explanation is observed in the shift into the PROGRESS

5.126

metaphor, as follows:

The snazziest graphics cards are like miniature computers […]. [CA, Tailor-made PCs] οι σύγχρονες κάρτες γραφικών διαθέτουν δικό τους επεξεργαστή […]. [CA, PC στα µέτρα σου!] (the modern graphic cards have their own processor […])

The English expression snazziest graphics cards is rendered in the TT as σύγχρονες κάρτες γραφικών (modern graphics cards). This shift makes explicit the entailment that usually the most fashionable trends in technology are also the most current innovations. In addition, the domain of fashion can appear as superficial because it prompts users to evaluate technology in terms of its popularity, as opposed to progress, which prompts users to evaluate technology in terms of its technical 259

specifications. Thus, it can be assumed that this shift is motivated by the author’s personal preferences, in terms of which conceptualisation seems more reliable.

Adaption is produced by shifts into the metaphors of FOOD/COOKING

and

EXPERIENCE.

PROGRESS, OBJECT OF DESIRE,

Original metaphorical expressions relating to

technology as a fashion trend and a stylish commodity are adapted in the TT by conceptually corresponding expressions. For example: 5.127

This is the year the microchip makes a comeback. [PCM, Why microchips matter (again)] Φέτος λοιπόν, θα είναι η χρονιά που η λέξη "πυρίτιο" αποκτά επιτέλους το νόηµα που όλοι περιµέναµε εδώ και καιρό. [PCM, AMD vs Intel] (this year will be the year that the word ‘silicon’ acquires finally the meaning that we all have been waiting for a long time)

Example 5.127 demonstrates a shift into the

EXPERIENCE

submetaphor. The English

expression makes a comeback relates technology to a fashion trend that comes and goes, while the translation αποκτά το νόηµα (acquires the meaning) seems to give technology more substance and quality. Both ST and TT conceptualisations of technology can be regarded as corresponding in terms of the evaluations they convey. Both ST and TT view the new generation of microchips positively, and convey the idea that this long awaited comeback will provide a substantial user experience.

5.4.8.3 The CLOTHING submetaphor The

CLOTHING

submetaphor involves one metaphorical expression, which shifts into

the submetaphor of

PHYSICAL PROCESS,

and produces the effect of adaptation, as

follows: 5.128

If you’re partial to animations, 3D effects, sounds, and other kinds of froufrou in your e-mail program, this downloadable software is the choice for you. [PCW, 101 fantastic freebies] Αν σας αρέσουν τα animations, τα 3D εφέ, οι ήχοι και θέλετε, γενικότερα να στολίζετε τα emails σας, αυτή η εφαρµογή είναι ακριβώς ό,τι αναζητάτε. [PCW, Ο ‘κήπος’ µε τα δώρα] (if you like the animations, the 3D effects, the sounds and you generally want to decorate your e-mails, this application is exactly what you are looking for)

The English expression froufrou is transferred in the TT as στολίζετε (decorate), thereby preserving the aspect of ornamentation. Although a similar expression exists in Greek (φρουφρού, froufrou), the author seems to choose a less playful expression which nonetheless expresses a similar conceptualisation.

260

5.4.9

The OBJECT OF DESIRE metaphor

The OBJECT OF DESIRE metaphor does not comprise any shifts of metaphor category.

5.4.10 The TOY metaphor The

TOY

metaphor comprises one metaphorical expression, which shifts into the

main metaphor of PHYSICAL SPACE, as follows: 5.129

Want to make your PC more productive, secure, informative, and entertaining? [PCW, 101 fantastic freebies] Ο ‘κήπος’ µε τα δώρα [PCW, Ο ‘κήπος’ µε τα δώρα] (the ‘garden’ with the gifts)

This shift produces the effect of adaptation, as the ST has altered completely in the TT. The translation can be said to be motivated by the article’s topic about the plethora of free downloads and services that can be found on the Internet and can make the computer more productive, secure, informative, and entertaining. In this manner, the topic of the text has motivated a shift in the metaphor from conceptualising the PC as a toy to conceptualising the Internet and downloads as a physical space with physical objects. The Greek expression draws from the domain of physical space to conceptualise the virtual space of the Internet as an open space area where one can stroll around and gather free downloads.

5.4.11 The FOOD/COOKING metaphor The

FOOD/COOKING

metaphor comprises nine metaphorical expressions that present

shifts into two main metaphor categories, submetaphors,

MACHINE

and

ACTIVITY, CLOTHING, PHYSICAL PROCESS

and

EXPERIENCE,

and four

CONTAINER.

Table 25

below presents the shifts in detail including main metaphor and submetaphor category, and the number of metaphorical expressions in each category.

ST Submetaphors of the FOOD/COOKING metaphor FOOD/COOKING (9)

TT Metaphor PERSON

TT Submetaphor ACTIVITY (1)

MACHINE (3) EXPERIENCE (1) LIFESTYLE

CLOTHING (1)

PHYSICAL SPACE

PHYSICAL PROCESS (1) CONTAINER (1)

261

EXPERIENCE (1)

Table 25 Shifts of metaphor in the FOOD/COOKING metaphor

The shifts produce the effects of downplaying the ST metaphor, explanation and adaptation. Downplaying is observed in the shifts into the metaphor of MACHINE and the submetaphor of PHYSICAL PROCESS. For example: 5.130

Crunching the web with ruthless efficiency, it found the hotel’s address and phone number in seconds. [T3, Blackberry Pearl 8100] Απλά ανοίγουµε το web browser και βρίσκουµε τη διεύθυνση του ξενοδοχείου. [T3, Blackberry Pearl 8100] (we simply open the web browser and find the address of the hotel)

Example 5.130 demonstrates a shift into the PHYSICAL PROCESS submetaphor. The ST conceptualises the technology’s efficiency to navigate the web by an original metaphorical expression, which is downplayed in the TT by a commonly used expression in technical language. Although the translation fails to reproduce the ST expression’s humorous effect, it manages to give the impression that this technology is very easy to handle.

Explanation is observed in the shift into the

PHYSICAL SPACE

submetaphor, as

follows: 5.131

HAMR […] uses lasers to heat the surface of a drive’s platters […] [PCW, Your PC in 2008 and beyond] Η τεχνική αυτή συνίσταται στη χρήση λέιζερ για την τοπική θέρµανση της επιφάνειας αποθήκευσης (platter) του δίσκου […] [PCW, Τεχνολογίες 2008...και αργότερα] (this technique concerns the use of laser for the local heating of the surface of storage (platter) of the disk […])

The English expression platter is rendered as αποθήκευσης (storage) whilst including the English expression in brackets. The expression platter is part of the computer term hard disk platter and refers to the circular disk that stores the magnetic data in the hard disk drive (Microsoft 1997). The Greek expression does not constitute the corresponding translated term, which is πλάκα, but translates the disk’s function, which is to store data, thereby making explicit the English expression in the TT.

Adaptation is observed in the metaphors of

MACHINE,

and

EXPERIENCE,

and the

submetaphors of CLOTHING and ACTIVITY. For example: 5.132

The phone gets its name from the ‘pearl’ multi-directional trackball. It goes through menus like a dose of salts. [T3, Blackberry Pearl 8100] Η συσκευή παίρνει το όνοµά της από το trackball πολλών κατευθύνσεων «pearl», χάρη στο οποίο η πλοήγηση στα µενού γίνεται παιχνιδάκι. [T3, Blackberry Pearl 8100]

262

(the device gets its name from the trackball of many directions ‘pearl’, thanks to which the navigation in the menus becomes child’s play)

Example 5.132 demonstrates a shift into the metaphor of

EXPERIENCE.

The English

expression denotes a manner of speed, which is adapted in the TT by a common expression that refers to manner of ease, thereby suggesting that since navigation is easy it will also be very quick. This shift suggests that the translation is motivated by cultural specificity, given that the English idiom is a culture-specific expression that is not shared by the Greek linguistic community. The translation therefore relies on the main meaning focus of the metaphor to make sense of the English expression and provide a corresponding expression.

5.4.12 The EXPERIENCE metaphor The

EXPERIENCE

metaphor comprises six metaphorical expressions that shift into

three main metaphors, submetaphors,

PROGRESS, REVOLUTION

PERSONALITY

and

CLOTHING.

and

SUPERNATURAL,

and two

Table 26 below presents the shifts in

detail including main metaphor and submetaphor category, and the number of metaphorical expressions in each category.

ST Submetaphors of the EXPERIENCE metaphor EXPERIENCE (6)

TT Metaphor

TT Submetaphor

PERSON

PERSONALITY (1)

LIFESTYLE

CLOTHING (1)

PROGRESS (2) REVOLUTION (1) SUPERNATURAL (1) Table 26 Shifts of metaphor in the EXPERIENCE metaphor

The shifts produce the effects of accentuating the ST metaphor and adaptation. Accentuating is observed in the shifts into the metaphors of PROGRESS, REVOLUTION and SUPERNATURAL. For example, 5.133

Although it may feel as if Google’s invisible fingers are touching everything, that isn’t really the case. [PCM, The 10 biggest problems in computing and how we’ll solve them] Μπορεί το Google να µοιάζει πανταχού παρόν, ωστόσο δεν υπάρχει τίποτε…µαγικό πίσω του. [PCM, Λύση στα 10 µεγαλύτερα προβλήµατα των υπολογιστών] (Google may seem omnipresent, however there is nothing magical behind it)

263

Example 5.137 demonstrates a shift into the SUPERNATURAL metaphor. While the ST presents Google’s presence as a physical sensation, the TT accentuates the metaphor by giving Google supernatural qualities.

The effect of adaptation is observed in the shifts into the metaphor of PROGRESS, and the submetaphors of PERSONALITY and CLOTHING. For example: 5.134

Surviving Vista [CA, Surviving Vista] Windows Vista στα µέτρα σας [CA, Windows Vista στα µέτρα σας!] (Windows Vista tailor-made)

Example 5.134 presents a shift into the

CLOTHING

submetaphor. Both ST and TT

expressions constitute titles of articles. The ST views the operating system Vista as an imminent disaster from which users need to survive, while the TT views Vista as a garment that can be adapted to the users’ preferences, purposes and uses. In addition, the ST, by posing as a guide to survival, evokes fear and negativity, while the TT presents a more positive view as a guide to tailoring. Thus, this shift may be motivated by the author’s decision to use an expression that would not alarm the users but would make them feel relaxed about learning how to use the new OS.

5.4.13 The SUPERNATURAL metaphor The

SUPERNATURAL

metaphor comprises five metaphorical expressions that present

shifts into the submetaphors of

ROLE/OCCUPATION, IDEAL

and

PHYSICAL PROCESS.

Table 27 below presents the shifts in detail including main metaphor and submetaphor category, and the number of metaphorical expressions in each category.

ST Submetaphors of the

TT Metaphor

TT Submetaphor

SUPERNATURAL metaphor SUPERNATURAL (5)

PERSON

ROLE / OCCUPATION (2)

LIFESTYLE

IDEAL (1)

PHYSICAL SPACE PHYSICAL PROCESS (2) Table 27 Shifts of metaphor in the SUPERNATURAL metaphor

The shifts produce the effects of downplaying the ST metaphor, explanation and adaptation. Downplaying is observed in the shift into the submetaphor of PROCESS.

5.135

PHYSICAL

For example:

A more elegant way to exorcise Windows Messenger is with XP-Antispy [CA, Ease the Windows pain]

264

Ένας πιο ‘κοµψός’ τρόπος για να ξεφορτωθείτε το Messenger είναι µε το πρόγραµµα XPAntispy [CA, Παυσίπονα για τα Windows] (a more ‘elegant’ way to get rid of the Messenger is with the program XP-Antispy)

The English expression exorcise is rendered in the TT as ξεφορτωθείτε (get rid of). Although the translation downplays the ST expression and its effect in the TT, it comes close to producing a negative view of technology, since getting rid of something implies that it is unwelcome.

Explanation is observed in the shift into the submetaphor of ROLE/OCCUPATION: 5.136

Then run the Add Printer wizard in XP’s ‘Printers and Faxes’ window. [PCW, Make your network better] Στη συνέχεια τρέξτε το βοηθό Add Printer από το παράθυρο ‘Printers and Faxes’ των Windows XP. [PCW, Κάντε το δίκτυό σας καλύτερο!] (then run the helper of Add Printer from the window ‘Printers and Faxes’ of Windows XP)

The English expression wizard is a computer term for an interactive program in an application that guides the user step by step through a specific task, and is translated in Greek as οδηγός (guide) and as βοηθός (helper). Both translations of wizard produce the effect of explanation, since they clarify the role of the specific program.

Adaptation is observed in the shift into the metaphor of IDEAL, as follows: 5.137

The microchip lost its mojo. [PCM, Why microchips matter (again)] Τα microchips απλώς έχασαν την αίγλη που είχαν. [PCM, AMD vs Intel] (the microchips just lost the prestige that they had)

In the ST, technology is conceptualised by the colloquial expression mojo as having magical powers that fascinate the users. In the TT, technology is conceptualised by the common expression αίγλη (prestige) as being highly esteemed and glamorous, thereby suggesting that technology is part of a high-class lifestyle. Although both expressions are commonly used in everyday language, they are regarded as original by providing new meanings to the context of technology.

5.4.14 The PHYSICAL SPACE metaphor The

PHYSICAL SPACE

metaphor comprises 21 metaphorical expressions, which

present shifts into five metaphors, FOOD/COOKING,

and

COMBAT.

MACHINE, SECURITY, EXPERIENCE, PROGRESS,

and four submetaphors,

and

ACTIVITY, PERSONALITY, HEALTH/ILLNESS

Table 27 below presents the shifts in detail including main metaphor

265

and submetaphor category, and the number of metaphorical expressions in each category.

ST Submetaphors of the

TT Metaphor

TT Submetaphor

PHYSICAL SPACE metaphor PHYSICAL SPACE (6)

ACTIVITY (1) PERSONALITY (1)

PERSON MACHINE (1) SECURITY (1) EXPERIENCE (2)

PHYSICAL PROCESS (12)

PERSON

ACTIVITY (6)

LIVING ORGANISM

HEALTH/ILLNESS (1)

MACHINE (2) COMBAT (1)

SECURITY PROGRESS (1) FOOD/COOKING (1) PHYSICAL MOVEMENT (2) CONTAINER (1)

The

ACTIVITY (1) PERSONALITY (1)

PERSON

MACHINE (1) Table 28 Shifts of metaphor in the SUPERNATURAL metaphor

PHYSICAL SPACE

metaphor comprises six shifts, which all produce the effect of

adaptation. For example: 5.138

The Registry is a scary place; like Dante’s underworld, it should have a sign reading “Abandon all hope, ye who enter here.” [PCW, 101 fantastic freebies] Ο όρος ‘Registry’ τροµάζει τους αρχάριους και µερικές φορές αποδεικνύεται ‘πονοκέφαλος’ ακόµη και για τους πεπειραµένους χρήστες. [PCW, Ο ‘κήπος’ µε τα δώρα] (the term ‘Registry’ scares the beginners and sometimes proves to be a ‘headache’ even for the experienced users)

Example 5.138 indicates a shift into the

EXPERIENCE

metaphor. The ST contains an

original expression involving an imaginative simile that conceptualises the users’ fear of the Registry in terms of Dante’s underworld. The TT does not provide such a colourful representation or such a dramatic effect, but relates the Registry to the unpleasant experience of a headache. In this manner, both fear and pain are feelings that can equally intimidate the users from approaching the Registry.

5.4.14.1 The PHYSICAL PROCESS submetaphor The

PHYSICAL PROCESS

submetaphor comprises twelve expressions that produce the

effects of accentuating the ST metaphor, explanation and adaptation. Accentuating is observed in a shift into the COMBAT submetaphor. For example:

266

5.139

[…] so even if you’ve cleaned out some malware, a rollback may bring reinfection. [PCM, Maximum security] […] γι’ αυτό, ακόµη και εάν έχετε εξαλείψει κάποιο malware, αυτό µπορεί να επανέλθει, εάν επαναφέρετε το σύστηµα σε προηγούµενη κατάστασή του. [PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια] (so even if you have eliminated some malware, it can return, if you bring back your system to its previous condition)

The English expression cleaned out is accentuated by the Greek expression εξαλείψει (eliminated), as it highlights the aspect of fighting enemies instead of merely cleaning out an area. This example is in contrast to example 5.119 (Section 5.4.5.1), which shows a shift from the

COMBAT

submetaphor into the

PHYSICAL PROCESS

submetaphor with the effect of downplaying the ST metaphor.

Explanation is observed in shifts into the MACHINE and the PROGRESS metaphors. For example: 5.140

Technologies are unrolling that hopefully will cover America with a wireless cloud […]. [PCM, The 10 biggest problems in computing and how we’ll solve them] Αυτήν τη στιγµή εξελίσσονται τεχνολογίες που θα καλύψουν τις ΗΠΑ […]. [PCM, Λύση στα 10 µεγαλύτερα προβλήµατα των υπολογιστών] (this moment technologies are being developed that will cover the USA)

The example indicates a shift into the

PROGRESS

metaphor. The TT makes explicit

the aspect of development implied in the ST expression.

Adaptation is achieved by shifts into the

FOOD/COOKING

metaphor and the

submetaphors of ACTIVITY and HEALTH/ILLNESS. For example: 5.141

Wring Out More Power [PCW, Hardware tips ‘Ξεζουµίστε’ την ισχύ [PCW, Τα καλύτερα 40 hardware κόλπα] (‘squeeze-out-the-juice’ from the power)

Example 5.141 indicates a shift into the

FOOD/COOKING

metaphor. The Greek

translation is regarded as equivalent to the English expression: they are both regarded as original expressions that refer to obtaining more processing power as squeezing out liquid. The only difference is that the Greek expression refers to extracting juices as if from a fruit, and as such leads to shifting metaphor category.

267

5.4.14.2 The PHYSICAL MOVEMENT submetaphor The

PHYSICAL MOVEMENT

submetaphors of

ACTIVITY

metaphor comprises two expressions that shift into the and

PERSONALITY,

and produce the effect of adaptation.

For example: 5.142

[…] but you have to configure outgoing filtering yourself in a screen that you reach by typing wf.msc at a command prompt […]. [PCW, Make your network better] [..] ωστόσο το φιλτράρισµα των εξερχοµένων δεδοµένων πρέπει να το ρυθµίσετε µόνοι σας σε µία οθόνη που θα την καλέσετε πληκτρολογώντας wf.msc στη γραµµή εντολών […]. [PCW, Κάντε το δίκτυό σας καλύτερο!] (but the filtering of outgoing data have to set yourselves at a screen that you will call by typing wf.msc at the line of commands)

Example 5.142 indicates a shift into the submetaphor of

ACTIVITY.

The English

expression reach is rendered as καλέσετε (call). In the ST, the screen is viewed as a location where the user wants to go and the typing of a command is the vehicle that transfers the user. In contrast, in the TT, the user is static, the screen is personified as a person who appears when the user calls him, and the typing of a command is the means of calling. It can be argued that these conceptualisations make use of the two prominent conceptualisations of technology, PERSON and PHYSICAL SPACE, and act as two sides of the same coin; on one side, technology is a location and the user is moving towards it, and on the other side, technology is a person moving towards the user who is static.

5.4.14.3 The CONTAINER submetaphor The

CONTAINER

submetaphor displays one shift into the

MACHINE

metaphor, which

produces the effect of downplaying the ST metaphor. For example: 5.143

I could dip into Windows if I absolutely needed to. [PCM, Insider’s guide to Vista] Μπορώ να εκκινήσω Windows αν θέλω. [PCM, Vista Ο πληρέστερος οδηγός για ψαγµένους χρήστες] (I can start up Windows if I want)

The English expression dip into is downplayed by the Greek expression εκκινήσω (start up) in two regards: the Greek translation does not involve the image-schema of containment or convey the sense of immersing into technology, and does not involve an original expression. The translation merely conveys the capability of operating technology as a machine by a commonly used expression in technical language.

268

5.5

Non-Figurative Rendition of Metaphorical Expressions in the Target Text

The fifth category involves English metaphors that are rendered non-figuratively in the TT, and occupies 6% of the data (Table 5.1, Appendix 1). This strategy downplays the effect of the ST metaphor and guides the interpretation of the English expression. The majority of the translated expressions constitute paraphrases that explain and clarify the information implied by the ST expression. For example: 5.144

Windows Defender, though better than nothing, is hardly best-of-breed. [PCM, Insider’s guide to Vista] Ο Windows Defender είναι καλύτερος από το τίποτα, αλλά σε καµία περίπτωση αρκετός. [PCM, Vista Ο πληρέστερος οδηγός για ψαγµένους χρήστες] (Windows Defender is better than nothing, but in no way sufficient)

The English expression best-of-breed is translated literally as αρκετός (sufficient), which specifies that the particular technology does not suffice to protect the computer system.

Moreover, a number of metaphorical expressions are translated by the actual referents; for example, the expression machine is often translated as σύστηµα (system) and υπολογιστής (computer). Non-figurative rendition is also preferred in expressions that involve a humorous effect, although equivalent expressions may exist in Greek. For example: 5.145

the Wii is your man [CA, Play time] το Wii είναι η επιλογή σας [CA, Ώρα για παιχνίδι] (the Wii is your choice)

The English expression is paraphrased, although the equivalent expression in Greek is είναι ο άνθρωπός σας (is your man), which can be used regardless of gender. A possible explanation for such literal renditions is that the TT author may regard such conceptualisations as too exaggerated for use in the context of technology, so he opts for a more conventional way of rendering the ST expression.

Although in the initial typology it was assumed that non-figurative rendition would involve culture-bound metaphors, the data showed that this is not the case in the context of technology, as any of those English expressions could have been translated into Greek metaphorical expressions. What is not clear, however, is whether this strategy was assumed intentionally or unintentionally by the translator. It may be argued that it was intentional in expressions where the translator may have

269

felt that there was a need to guide interpretation and be more specific as to the information conveyed, and in expressions that involved humour that seemed excessively expressive in that context. On the other hand, this strategy could have been unintentional in the case of replacing metaphorical expressions with their literal referents, as an alternative and more direct way of expressing the particular feature implied.

5.6

Omission of Metaphorical Expressions in the Target Text

This category involves the English metaphors that are omitted from the TT, and accounts for 5% of the data (Table 5.1, Appendix 1). This strategy takes place in cases where the metaphorical expression can be implied; for example, the English expression with a couple of mouse clicks is translated as µε λίγα µόνο κλικ (with just a few clicks), because the expression clicks is often used as short for mouse clicks in Greek, and so the mouse device is implied without having to state it. Moreover, a number of metaphorical expressions are not translated, but are instead substituted by pronouns, in order to avoid repetition in the TT. A third case concerns the omission of metaphorical expressions because the source text was freely adapted and only the gist was retained. Lastly, omission seems to occur when the metaphorical expression may be regarded as redundant in the TT. For example: 5.146

Similarly, you’d have to log on every time you visited a password-protected site. [CA, Everyone loves cookies] Παροµοίως, θα έπρεπε να συνδέεστε κάθε φορά που επισκέπτεστε ένα site. [CA, Τα µπισκότα δεν είναι πάντα…νόστιµα] (similarly, you would have to log on each time you visit a site)

As the back translation shows, the expression protected is not transferred into the TT. This seems to be a case of redundancy that can be justified by the knowledge that you only log onto sites that are protected by password. Thus, this piece of information seems redundant, and as such does not need to be included in the translation, and so the translator opts for omitting similar expressions.

In contrast to non-figurative rendition, it seems that the omission of metaphors in the TT is intentionally employed by the translator as part of his wider approach to adapting the ST. This becomes evident by the fact that the majority of metaphorical expressions omitted are part of texts that have been largely altered and adapted in the

270

TT. Thus, metaphorical expressions were omitted as part of the wider intention to exclude information from the TT.

5.7

No Translation Provided in the Target Text

This category was not considered in the initial typology, but occurred from the observation that segments from the ST were not translated into the TT. This resulted in 22% of English metaphors without any type of equivalents, metaphorical or literal (Table 5.1, Appendix 1). Such a high percentage of untranslated metaphorical expressions cannot be ignored in the data, given the strong tendency to retain the metaphors and reproduce the expressions in the TT. However, the reasons for this cannot be proven, but can only be assumed. A first assumption is that these metaphorical expressions were employed mostly for rhetorical purposes, or they did not play a constitutive role in the text and were therefore excluded altogether from the TT. For example, the expression The Fix: You’ll have to play Sherlock Holmes to figure out what’s dead (the

LIFE/DEATH

submetaphor, the

LIVING ORGANISM

metaphor). Although it seems humorous and witty and could easily be translated into Greek, it is completely excluded from the TT, probably because it provides no information on how to fix the computer problem at hand.

A second assumption suggests that segments from the ST were not translated into the TT because they contained original metaphorical expressions that may have seemed too extravagant, redundant, or even too challenging to attempt to translate just for the sake of reproducing an original expression. For example: 5.147

PSP didn’t just break the mould of portable gaming. It put it through a garbage compactor, set fire to the resultant electro-mechanical block, then did a little dance on the still-smouldering ashes. [T3, The PSP]

As discussed in the analysis of the English data (Section 4.7, Chapter 4), this is an original expression created on the spot by the article’s author in order to make his point about how revolutionary the portable game PSP is. Although the expression could have been translated or adapted into the Greek text by a similar original expression, the translator opted for excluding it from the text. In addition, this reveals certain reluctance in translating such original expressions that may be influenced by cultural specificity with regard to this type of writing. In other words, Greek popular

271

discourse may involve conceptual metaphor and favour witty expressions, but may hold back from going to extremes.

Lastly, a third assumption suggests that there was a particular word limit to which the articles had to adhere, thereby having to remove those segments of the ST that may had seemed extravagant, redundant or too challenging to translate, and adapting others to bridge the semantic gap between the translated parts of the text.

5.8

Addition of Metaphorical Expressions in the Target Text.

Following Toury’s (1995:83) proposal of considering metaphor as a translation solution (Section 2.4, Chapter 2), the study looks at the translation strategy which involves the addition of metaphorical expressions in the TT, either by rendering a ST non-figurative expression into a metaphorical expression in the TT, or by including a metaphorical expression in the TT motivated by the use of particular metaphors prominent in the ST. For example: 1.148

In the case of software, there are a couple of other options to help get incompatible programs to run. The Program Compatibility Wizard can be used to trick programs into thinking that […] [CA, Surviving Vista] Στην περίπτωση του ασύµβατου software, υπάρχουν ορισµένα ακόµα τρυκ που µπορείτε να χρησιµοποιήσετε. [CA, Windows Vista στα µέτρα σας!] (In the case of incompatible software, there are still some tricks that you can use)

Example 1.148 indicates the case where the English non-figurative expression options is rendered as a metaphorical expression in the TT, τρυκ (tricks), relating to the

SUPERNATURAL

metaphor. As the following sentence in the ST shows, the

translation seems to have been motivated by the metaphorical expression used to trick programs, which has been omitted in the TT. In this manner, by rendering a ST non-figurative expression into a metaphorical expression in the TT, the expression’s emotive effect is accentuated and the particular program options are elevated to the status of wondrous feats that can be employed for achieving the desired result.

The following example demonstrates the inclusion of a metaphorical expression in the TT: 1.149

Okay, you’ve networked your Windows PCs. But now a new Mac is in the family. How will it fit in? Will it work with your printer? Will you be able to share files with it the way you can with your PCs? [PCW, Make your network better]

272

Ας πούµε ότι έχετε δικτυώσει τα Windows PCs σας. Για τη συνέχεια υποθέστε ότι µπαίνει στην ‘οικογένεια’ ένας Mac. Πώς θα ταιριάξει στο όλο δικτυακό περιβάλλον; Θα συνεργάζεται µε τον εκτυπωτή σας; Θα σας επιτρέπει να διαµοιράζεστε αρχεία όπως σας το επιτρέπουν τα PCs; [PCW, Κάντε το δίκτυό σας καλύτερο!] (Let’s say that you have networked your Windows PCs. Then assume that a Mac comes in the ‘family’. How will he fit in the overall network environment? Will he work with your printer? Will he allow you to share files like the PCs allow you?)

As the back translation shows, a new metaphorical expression has been inserted into the TT that relates particularly to the

PHYSICAL SPACE

metaphor (περιβάλλον,

environment). In this manner, the translator takes the initiative to supplement the ST phrase how will it fit in by a metaphorical expression that seems to have been motivated by the topic (PC networks) and the dominant metaphor in the article, the PHYSICAL SPACE

metaphor, which relates the virtual space of the networks as

physical spaces.

It has been observed that the latter solution takes place in most cases, as in example 1.149. However, it should be noted that this strategy is not systematically researched here, given that the scope of the study was to investigate how metaphor is transferred from English popular technology discourse into Greek translations. This is an equally interesting aspect of translating metaphor and merits further investigation.

5.9

Discussion

The analysis of the Greek data addressed the second set of research questions of the present study: what are the similarities and differences in the ways technology is conceptualised in technology magazines between English and Greek, and are these similarities and differences motivated by a common experiential basis or influence from the source language, and by cultural specificity? The present section discusses the presence of conceptual metaphor in the Greek translations and the similarities and differences identified between the two languages, and reflects on the translation strategies and the translation effects.

5.9.1

Similarities and Differences

According to the translation approach described by the editor in chief of the Greek PC World magazine, Petros Papathanasiou (Section 3.1, Chapter 3), much weight is

273

placed on the target language and culture with a skopos of satisfying the target readership by producing texts that do not read as translations. This view of domesticating the source texts pointed to the initial assumption that the analysis of the Greek data would reveal greater diversity between the two languages and cultures. Yet despite initial expectations, the analysis shows similarities in the categories of metaphors used and a strong tendency to reproduce the metaphorical expressions in the Greek texts, either at the micro- or macro-level.

Similarities in the categories of metaphors can be explained by the fact that the same source domains exist in both languages/cultures. A second point to be made is that the source domains are similar because to some extent they reflect fundamental cultural dimensions that societies view collectively as very important (Gannon 2001:11-12). In particular, the dimensions reflected in the source domains are: early socialisation and family structure (KINSHIP), small group behaviour and public behaviour (PERSONALITY,

OBJECT OF DESIRE, TOY),

total lifestyle (LIFESTYLE),

roles/status of different members of a society (ROLES/OCCUPATIONS), sports as a reflection

of cultural

values

(COMPETITION),

food

and

eating

(FOOD/COOKING), technological and cultural change (MACHINE, PROGRESS),

behaviour

REVOLUTION,

and history of a society reflecting cultural mindsets (SUPERNATURAL,

EXPERIENCE).

Hence, it can be argued that metaphor categories reflect socio-cultural

experiences that exist in and are shared by both languages/cultures. This is an important factor, which points to convergence in the ways technology is conceptualised in popular technology discourse between the two languages (Section 2.1.1, Chapter 2).

A further aspect of similarities in metaphors is related to their frequency, preference and use in the source and target languages. A comparative view of the metaphors in the source and target languages shows that the categories of PHYSICAL SPACE, PERSON and

MACHINE

ORGANISM,

rank higher in frequency, whereas the categories of SECURITY, LIVING

COMPETITION,

FOOD/COOKING,

EXPERIENCE,

LIFESTYLE,

SUPERNATURAL, TOY, OBJECT OF DESIRE and REVOLUTION rank

PROGRESS,

lower in frequency for

both languages (Table 29). The two linguistic communities show similar preferences and uses of the former set of categories as public representations of technology, which may be explained by the fact that they are more conventional and constitutive 274

in conceptualising technology. On the other hand, the latter set of categories involves conventional and novel conceptualisations of technology that reflect less prevalent public representations of technology. The former seven metaphor categories display a consistent order of frequency in both languages, given that 58% of all the translated data are reproduced the Greek texts, either at the micro- or macro-level. The latter seven categories diverge on the order of frequency, which may be explained by the metaphor shifts due to preferential conceptualisation or cultural specificity.

METAPHOR

MET. (%) METAPHOR MET. EXPRESSIONS EXPRESSIONS Physical space (c) 2373 36 % Physical space (c) 1470 Person (c) 2100 31 % Person (c) 1057 Machine (c) 678 10 % Machine (c) 255 Security (c) 364 5% Security (c) 226 Living organism (c) 336 5% Living organism (c) 165 Competition (c) 247 3% Competition (c) 105 Food/cooking (c) 183 3% Food/cooking (c) 105 Experience (n) 138 2% Progress (c) 76 Lifestyle (n) 138 2% Experience (n) 59 Progress (c) 83 1% Lifestyle (n) 58 Supernatural (c) 62 1% Object of desire (n) 23 Toy (c) 30 0.4 % Supernatural (c) 21 Object of desire (n) 22 0.3 % Revolution (c) 20 Revolution (c) 19 0.3 % Toy (c) 17 TOTAL 6773 100% Total 3657 Table 29 Comparison of metaphors between English and Greek texts

(%) 40% 29% 7% 6% 4.5% 3% 3% 2% 2% 2% 1% 1% 1% 0.5% 100%

In relation to metaphorical expressions, the Greek translations follow in the footsteps of the English expressions, providing conceptually and often linguistically corresponding expressions. This tendency is most evident in three translation strategies: metaphors common to the ST and TT, elaborate metaphors, and shift of submetaphors, where the main conceptualisation remains unaffected. Similarities in the metaphorical expressions can be said to derive from two factors: a common experiential basis shared between the two languages/cultures, and translated experience (Sections 2.1, 2.1.1, Chapter 2).

Similarities based on common experiences stem either from experiential cooccurrence or experiential similarity. It can be said that in the context of technology magazines, experiential similarity assumes a more active part in conceptualising technology than experiential co-occurrence. For instance, the second most dominant metaphor category, the PERSON metaphor, is based on perceived similarities between

275

the computer and ourselves as a way of developing a closer relationship with the computer (Peele 1983:92). In Peele’s words, […] we ascribe anthropomorphic terms to computers purposefully – perhaps as a bridge between us and these things which are other-than-us but still like us in some ways. Still today Peele’s words are valid in that we are continually recasting technology in terms of human attributes, as the submetaphors of PERSON have demonstrated. It can be argued that giving technology human-like characteristics contributes to the emergence of further conceptualisations that are grounded in the perception of similarities between a personified image of technology and aspects of reality with which we interact and are important to us, such as the COMPETITION or the LIFESTYLE metaphor.

Experiential co-occurrence, as a basis for common experiences between the two languages, is quite evident in the

PROGRESS

metaphor. As analysed in Section 5.1.8,

both languages share the conceptualisation of progress as forward motion, which is grounded in the co-occurrence of the experience that the more steps we take, the closer we get to our destination, and of progress as upward motion, which is grounded in the co-occurrence of the experience of increasing in height and the experience of increasing in quantity (MORE IS UP).

Similarities based on common experiences are observed both between generic-level metaphors and specific-level metaphors. The first and second translation strategies metaphors common to the ST and TT and elaborate metaphors - serve as an indication of similarities between specific-level metaphors, while the third translation strategy, shift of submetaphors, is a proper indication of metaphors similar at a general level but differentiated at a more specific level. On the generic level, this type of translation strategy is part of the similarities between the two languages, while on the specific level it is part of the differences.

Similarities in the metaphorical expressions also derive from translated experience, which reveals the influence of the English texts at the conceptual level. Translated experience is evident in the similarity-creating metaphors identified in the English analysis. The similarity-creating metaphors of PHYSICAL APPEARANCE, LIFESTYLE and 276

EXPERIENCE

act as ‘lenses which refract current beliefs and values’ (Denny and

Sunderland 2005:1462). Given that the respective source domains exist in the Greek language/culture, it is easy to reproduce these metaphors and their metaphorical expressions, but most importantly, it is because these metaphors also refract the current beliefs and values of Greek reality that they can be successfully translated in the TT. Following this, it can be argued that the translation of similarity-creating metaphors can also lead to the assimilation of particular elements of the source culture experience that are inherent in the metaphors as ways of thinking about technology. These elements may be absent in the target culture, although it may share with the source culture a common experiential basis. Consider the example of Hoover (Section 4.6.1, Chapter 4 and section 5.1.61, Chapter 5); the common element between the English-speaking and Greek cultures is that they both use brand names in place of the respective product. The new element carried over to the TT would be the new status that the brand name Hoover could acquire now in the Greek culture as an ideal or an iconic symbol, rather than a mere brand name as it has previously been. On the other hand, the influence of the English texts on the linguistic level is not as evident as initially expected, with the exception of a few translated expressions, which reveal misunderstanding and which cling to the ST expression.

A further aspect of the similarities in metaphors and their expressions is conventionality and novelty. Since the metaphor categories are preserved in the translations, their conventionality and novelty are also preserved, which is supported by their frequency of use in the target language (Table 29). The translations reproduce the common and original expressions in line with the overall tendency to provide conceptually and linguistically corresponding expressions. This is mostly evident in the translation strategies of metaphors common to the ST and TT, and elaborate metaphors. However, in the translation strategies of metaphor and submetaphor shifts, conventionality and novelty in translation do not always follow the ST. Original metaphorical expressions that are downplayed in the translation usually convert to common expressions, and common expressions that are accentuated in the translation usually convert to original expressions. The degree of conventionality or novelty is retained in translations producing the effect of adaptation. 277

Moreover, conceptual metaphor serves the same functions in both the source and target texts; that is, as a means of understanding, thinking about and communicating, image-making, humanising, feeling about, evaluating and constructing social representations of technology. It can be argued that part of the process of reproducing the metaphors and their expressions was carrying over to the TT the functions and role they fulfilled in the ST. In this manner, the translation of metaphors in the TT can be seen as a deliberate use of metaphor to guide the readers’ perspectives in the domain of technology (Steen 2008:222). This also supports the assumption that metaphorical expressions that are employed mostly for rhetorical purposes, or that do not play a constitutive role in the ST, are not translated or are omitted from the TT.

Although the similarities are far greater than the differences between the two languages, the analysis shows some difference in terms of translated expressions. As mentioned previously, the third translation strategy, shift of submetaphors, is an indication of similarities between generic-level metaphors, but of differences between specific-level metaphors. Differences between generic and specific-level metaphors or even between two specific-level metaphors relate to the possibilities for cross-cultural variation (Yu 1998, Kövecses 2005, Goatly 2007). In addition, crosscultural variation is also manifested in the fourth translation strategy, shift of metaphors, which presents a shift from source domain A into source domain B from the categories already identified.

The analysis of metaphor and submetaphor shifts demonstrate that shifts are motivated by differing conceptualisations of terminology, cultural specificity and the authors’ personal preferences. The analysis also shows that such shifts contribute to achieving cognitive equivalence and resolving translatability by identifying and rendering the conceptualisation behind particular expressions, rather than focusing on the expressions per se. This appears to have been largely achieved by taking into consideration the main meaning focus of the source domain in order to produce conceptually corresponding expressions.

278

Another quite noticeable difference in the ST and TT is the issue of signalling. Signalling mainly by the use of quotation marks was observed to be far more common in the TT than in the ST. It was particularly encountered in cases where the author perhaps felt that there was need to provide a distance between the literal and the metaphorical referent, so as to avoid confusion, alleviate the expressions’ shock effect, guide the readers’ interpretations, or use colloquial language. It can be argued that this need to clarify metaphoricity suggests some kind of uneasiness about using such metaphors in the TT. It may also be suggestive of the influence of the English language and way of thinking; it is not so much that the Greek readers cannot understand metaphorical language, but that such conceptualisations do not feel as ‘Greek’ in terms of how they are expressed. For instance, one might consider that the PERSON

metaphor involves extreme anthropomorphism in the context of technology,

and might alternatively employ more frequently the

MACHINE

metaphor, which

relates one type of machine to another. However, it can be anticipated that signalling will gradually appear less in popular technology discourse, assuming that conceptual metaphor will continue to be actively involved in the conceptualisation of technology, and that the habitual presence of a number of metaphors will render their use conventional and widely accepted. Unless signalling is an inherent part of translating metaphors, regardless of their conventionality or novelty.

5.9.2

Translation Strategies

The comparative study of metaphors and metaphorical expressions resulted in the following typology: 1. Metaphors common to the ST and TT. 2. Metaphors elaborated in the TT. 3. Shift of submetaphor category in the TT. 4. Shift of metaphor category in the TT. 5. Literal rendition of metaphors in the TT. 6. Omission of metaphors in the TT. 7. No translation provided in the TT. 8. Addition of metaphorical expressions in the TT.

279

These translation strategies help to answer the question about similarities and differences in the ways technology is conceptualised in technology magazines between English and Greek. From another perspective, these strategies may constitute a potential cognitive approach to translating metaphor, by providing a range of possibilities for achieving cognitive equivalence. As mentioned in the introduction to this chapter, these strategies share many features with the initial typology compiled. They constitute broader categories, which may account for a number of secondary cases. The first category of metaphors common to ST and TT may account for the reproduction of the super-ordinate metaphor category and of linguistic expressions, which can be distinguished into equivalents at the micro-level or the macro-level. The second category of elaborate metaphors accounts for the expansion of the metaphors for explanatory purposes by making entailments explicit, through more detailed expressions, or by expanding the metaphor with another domain. The third category of shifting submetaphors makes use of a different aspect of the metaphor common to ST and TT, by shifting from generic to specific, specific to specific, or specific to generic-level metaphors. The fourth category of shifting metaphors provides a different conceptual metaphor, either because a similar conceptualisation does not exist between source and target languages (cultural specificity), or because the translator opted for a different conceptualisation (preferential conceptualisation). The fifth category of literal rendition can involve a paraphrase of the metaphorical expression that explains or clarifies the metaphor, or a replacement of the metaphorical referent with the actual referent.

In addition, useful guides in a potential cognitive approach to translating metaphor may be the metaphors’ functions and effects in ST and TT. The functions are mostly in line with the particular ideologies and social representations that conceptual metaphor is trying to advance in discourse. This gives rise to the question whether the TT shares these ideologies and wishes to retain the metaphors, or whether it wishes to alter them in order to present a different perspective. Moreover, the effects of metaphors in translation (downplaying, accentuating, explicating, adapting) may contribute to the assessment of the translation product as criteria for assessing the translation choices made. It is argued that an additional feature can usefully be brought into play: the main meaning focus of the metaphor. The main meaning focus may act as a compass to help the translator to decide which way to go by providing 280

insight into the core meaning of the metaphor and its use in the text. This may help avoid confusion arising, for example, from expressions with similar literal meanings but different metaphorical meanings.

5.9.3

Translation Effects

The third and fourth strategies - shift of metaphor and submetaphor - give rise to four types of translation effect: downplaying the ST metaphor, accentuating the ST metaphor, explicating the ST metaphor, and adapting the ST metaphor. The translation effects relate to the metaphors in the target texts. By looking at the effects of the shifts, it is possible to infer patterns of effects produced by particular shifts of conventional or novel metaphors.

Firstly, each effect applies to a different number of metaphor/submetaphor categories. Particularly, the effect of downplaying can be seen in two metaphor and five submetaphor categories (seven in total), accentuating can be observed in five metaphor and five submetaphor categories (ten in total), explanation is evident in four metaphors and seven submetaphors (eleven total), and adaptation is evident in ten metaphors and thirteen submetaphors (23 in total). This means that the effects of downplaying or accentuating are produced by fewer metaphors/submetaphors than explanation, or adaptation produced in even more categories.

Secondly, each effect is characteristic of a number of metaphor/submetaphor categories that stand out from the others because these categories produce the particular effect more frequently. Specifically, the effect of downplaying is mostly produced by the metaphors of submetaphor of PERSON

MACHINE

PHYSICAL PROCESS.

and

PHYSICAL SPACE

followed by the

In the effect of accentuating, the metaphors of

and SUPERNATURAL produce the effect twice as often as the other categories.

Explanation is produced mostly by the metaphors/submetaphors of the following five categories (listed from highest to lowest frequency): PROCESS, MACHINE

and

PHYSICAL SPACE.

ACTIVITY, PROGRESS, PHYSICAL

Although adaptation is produced by more

categories than the other effects, the metaphors and submetaphors with a higher frequency of appearance are

EXPERIENCE, PROGRESS, ACTIVITY, OBJECT OF DESIRE,

IDEAL, FASHION, CLOTHING and PHYSICAL SPACE.

281

From this it follows that the effect of downplaying is mostly related to conventional metaphors (MACHINE, PHYSICAL SPACE). The conceptualisation of technology is more restricted to its mechanical aspect and its virtual features are related to the real physical

world,

probably in

terms

of

making

technology explicit

and

comprehensible. On the other hand, the effect of adaptation is related to more novel metaphors of technology (EXPERIENCE,

OBJECT OF DESIRE, LIFESTYLE),

thereby

enhancing a more socio-cultural aspect of technology by relating it to particular experiences, emotions that may entail cultural dimensions, socio-cultural symbols and trends. Close to adaptation, there is the effect of accentuating, which also relates to novel metaphor categories, thus adding to a more cultural perspective of technology. Between the two extremes, the effect of explanation is related to both conventional and novel metaphors, thereby reconciling the technical and sociocultural conceptualisations of technology. Lastly, it can be suggested that the effects of explanation and adaptation may have also acted as motivations for the shifts during the translation process, but such a statement cannot be proven without knowledge of the authors’ intentions.

5.9.4

Conclusion

The translation of conceptual metaphor reveals both similarities and differences in the context of popular technology magazines. Drawing from the work of Kövecses (2005) and Goatly (2007) on cross-cultural variation in metaphors (Section 2.1.1, Chapter 2), there is greater convergence than divergence in translating conceptual metaphor in the domain of technology. In particular, it is observed that: 1. Both languages/cultures share the same target concept of technology. 2. Both languages/cultures share the same source domains. 3. Source and target domains are similar at generic-level but different at specificlevel.

Given that the two languages/cultures seem to share the same source and target domains, it is possible to deduce that these common grounds facilitate the translation of technology metaphors. From this it follows that the translation of metaphors, and in particular the adoption of novel metaphors (e.g. the

LIFESTYLE

metaphor), also 282

imports new ways of thinking about technology into the target language/culture. Thus, translating metaphors of technology can be viewed as a way of ‘keeping up with the Joneses’, not only in terms of being up to date with current technologies, but also being up to date with current ideologies about them, an essential part of modern technology culture.

283

Chapter 6 Conclusion The starting point of this research project was to consider social and cultural facets of technology in English popular discourse and Greek translation by investigating the relationship between conceptual metaphor and technology. The objectives were to explore the use of metaphor in the context of popular technology magazines, to ascertain its role in the representation of technology, and to examine the translation of metaphor in the Greek versions of the technology magazines, in search of similarities and differences and possible reasons that may have motivated them. For this purpose a number of research questions were introduced, which aimed at revealing the ways technology is metaphorically conceptualised and the presence of metaphor in the Greek translations. The research questions were: 1. What does conceptual metaphor reveal about the domain of technology in popular technology magazines? a. In what ways is technology metaphorically conceptualised in the English texts? b. What does conceptual metaphor reveal about thinking and talking about technology in the English texts? 2. Is conceptual metaphor shared in the Greek translations of technology magazines? a. What are the similarities and differences in the ways technology is conceptualised in technology magazines between English and Greek? b. What reasons may account for these similarities and differences? i. Do the similarities reflect a common experiential basis or do they reveal influences from the English language and way of thinking? ii. Can cultural specificity account for the differences? In order to approach the English part of the study, the methodology utilised relied on conceptual metaphor theory for understanding metaphors, establishing the metalanguage for analysis, and distinguishing those features that would be used in the study. The methodology was founded on a discourse approach to metaphor analysis by bringing together the two main types of metaphor research in naturally 284

occurring language. The discourse approach involved the Metaphor Identification Procedure (Pragglejaz Group 2007) and critical metaphor analysis (Charteris-Black 2004) as methods for identifying, categorising and describing the metaphors. In order to approach the Greek translations, the methodology relied on cognitive approaches to translating metaphor, which produced a provisional typology of translation procedures for approaching the translated texts and identifying patterns of translation.

The first set of research questions, related to how technology is metaphorically conceptualised in the English texts, was addressed by the analysis of the English data. The analysis showed that technology is conceptualised by a plethora of main metaphor categories and submetaphors:

PERSON, LIVING ORGANISM, MACHINE,

COMPETITION, SECURITY, LIFESTYLE, REVOLUTION, PROGRESS, OBJECT OF DESIRE, TOY, FOOD/COOKING, EXPERIENCE, SUPERNATURAL and PHYSICAL SPACE. These

pointed not

only to a diversity of categories, but also to a variety of social assumptions and ideologies in relation to technology’s multi-faceted nature. The second part of the research question, regarding what these conceptualisations reveal about thinking and talking about technology in the English texts, was addressed by the particular uses of each individual metaphor within the analysis and by a discussion on the functions that these metaphors serve in the English popular technology magazines. Metaphor adopts an exegetical/pedagogical role as a means of understanding, thinking about and communicating technology, but is also indicative of technology’s socialisation as a means of image-making, humanising, feeling about, evaluating technology, and constructing public representations of technology in the English-speaking cultures.

The second set of research questions was addressed by the analysis of the Greek data. These focused on the similarities and differences in the ways technology is conceptualised in technology magazines between English and Greek, and on whether a common experiential basis or influence from the source language and cultural specificity can account for these similarities and differences respectively. The analysis showed more similarities than differences. It showed similarities in the categories of metaphors, frequency of and preference for metaphor use in the source and target languages, and in the majority of metaphorical expressions. Similarities were found to be based on common experiences stemming from experiential co285

occurrence or experiential similarity, and on translated experience (influence of the English texts at the conceptual level). The data indicated a strong tendency to preserve the metaphors’ degree of conventionality and their functions in the TT as part of the translation process. There were far fewer differences, and these were restricted to the level of metaphorical expressions, motivated by alternative conceptualisations

of

terminology,

cultural

specificity

and

preferential

conceptualisations. Another quite noticeable difference was the use of quotation marks for signalling metaphoricity within the TT, as an attempt to resolve confusion and reduce the metaphors’ effect.

Furthermore, the analysis of the Greek data produced a set of translation strategies and a number of possible translation effects resulting from the translated metaphors. These strategies and effects add to the possibilities of variations and the range of choices for achieving equivalence in translation. In the study, both translation strategies and translation effects were used to draw conclusions regarding similarities and differences between the English and Greek texts. However, it is recognised that their study was limited, and that there is scope for possible future research. Further research into the translation strategies may contribute to the development of a more firmly based cognitive approach to translating metaphor. They could be put forward as a tentative scheme of translation procedures and investigated by means of conducting translation experiments between language pairs that could provide evidence for their validity. In addition, the translation effects could be explored as complementary tools to translation procedures. They may be investigated as markers for assessing the quality of translation, and as tools for making translation decisions in conjunction with particular text types, stylistics, textual functions, sociocultural frameworks, and so forth. Within a cognitive approach to translating metaphor, the notion of cognitive equivalence could also be further explored to provide a new understanding of equivalence that could assist the process of translation and resolve the issue of (un)translatability. As research into the translation of conceptual metaphor has begun only fairly recently, there remains ample room and scope for investigation.

The present study tackles a rather under-researched theme, which brings together metaphor, technology and translation. The relation between conceptual metaphor as 286

social representation and technology is under-researched, and even less has been published on the relation between metaphor, technology and translation in the context of popular technology discourse. The present study attempted to combine the domains of metaphor, technology and translation in the wider context of the English and Greek languages and cultures. As the study revealed, the translation of conceptual metaphor is a new and exciting domain that touches upon translation studies, social and cultural studies, and metaphor studies. The translation of technology metaphors into Greek contributes to empirical research on metaphor translation in modern translation studies. At the same time, it also raises awareness of the fact that technology metaphors involve socio-cultural aspects dominant in the source language. These aspects can be imported via translation into new linguistic and cultural environments, or may be ignored and replaced by dominant sociocultural aspects of the target language. The sharing of common socio-cultural elements renders a translation more feasible.

Socio-cultural aspects may be of importance to metaphor studies as much as translation studies. In relation to metaphor studies, the study presents a rather alternative approach to looking at cross-cultural variation. The majority of research usually compares fixed uses and constructions of metaphors between languages and cultures. The present study attempted to provide insight into how metaphors are used and constructed by two languages and cultures when interposing the process of translation, and what types of variation emerge from such an interaction. In addition, with regard to metaphor research in English and Greek popular technology discourse, it attempted to reveal current public representations of technology and identify the functions that metaphor serves within this context.

Technology’s progress, in conjunction with its socialisation, seems to fuel the creation of metaphors. And in turn, the metaphors contribute to the shaping of the culture of technology. Just as users personalise technology in terms of how they use it, they also personalise their perceptions of it. How technology is used and what technology means to the user are notions interrelated in the production of metaphors. Technology is viewed both as a universal object, in terms of what it is and what it can do, and as a culturally specific object, in terms of the representations that people as individuals and as social groups assign to technology. Metaphors help to build the 287

views that people take of technology, and at the same time, they help us to understand the types of social relation that technology embodies, and the social values it legitimises.

Metaphors can shape technology on the level of language but most importantly, they can frame it on the level of ‘perception, conception and affection’ (van der Weele 2008:2). The metaphors assume a variety of roles in the context of technology in terms of what they do. Like mirrors, they reflect ways of thinking, values and beliefs about technology that are thought to be commonly shared in a given language and culture. Like bridges, metaphors provide the links for understanding new technology in terms of old technology, and also in terms of ourselves and our own cognitive processes. As image-makers, metaphors create attractive views of technology and lure us into a consumerist pandemonium. As manipulators, they can promote ideologies, influence our value judgements and our perceptions of technology, and by arousing our emotions, they can make us develop relationships of love and hate with it. Thus, metaphor becomes a powerful tool in the hands of the producers of popular technology discourse. As experts and users of technology, they can diffuse widely accepted views of technology, thereby circulating existing relationships between technology and the outside world, or even produce new notions, which would provoke the emergence of new relationships between technology and the outside world.

As implied in the quote by Douglas Adams in the Introduction, the views that we take of technology can depend on the symbols that we associate it with: numbers with a calculator, letters with a typewriter, graphics with television, and a virtual world with an advertising brochure. In this manner, one of the most influential symbols that construct technology and shape our views of technology is metaphor.

288

Chapter 7 Bibliography

7.1.1

Dataset

Computer Active Internet 1. Beattie, Rob (2007) ‘Go to Work on the Web’, 14-27 June, 52-55. ‘Στήστε το Γραφείο σας στο Internet’ (2007) August, 31: 68-72. 2. Jackson, Peter (2007) ‘Broadband First Aid’, 14-27 June, 14-17. ‘Πρώτες Βοήθειες για το Broadband’ (2007) October, 33: 18-24. 3. Thomson, Lain (2007) ‘Everyone Loves Cookies’, 12-25 July, 54-57. ‘Τα Μπισκότα δεν είναι Πάντα Νόστιµα’ (2007) November 34: 34-37. 4. Wilson, Mark (2007) ‘Create a Better Website’, 5-18 April, 16-20. ‘Βγείτε στον Αέρα…του Web’ (2007) May, 28: 32-37. Personal computing 5. Beattie, Rob (2007) ’30 Fresh Downloads’, 19 April-2 May, 18-24. ‘Τα Καλύτερα “Φρέσκα” Προγράµµατα’ (2007) July, 30: 36-46. 6. Schröder, Mark (2006/2007) ‘Ease the Windows Pain’, 21 December-10 January, 16-19. ‘Παυσίπονα για τα Windows’ (2007) March, 26: 40-46. 7. Wardley, Paul (2006) ‘Tailor-Made PCs’, November, 16-21. ‘PC στα Μέτρα Σου’ (2007) January, 24: 14-20. 8. Wilson, Mark (2007) ‘Surviving Vista’, 12-25 July, 14-17. ‘Windows Vista στα Μέτρα Σας!’ (2007) October, 33: 30-36. Popular technology devices 9. Henderson, Eddie (2006/2007) ‘Get a Handle on Games’, 23 November-6 December, 32-34. ‘Πάρτε το Παιχνίδι στα Χέρια Σας’ (2007) February, 25: 44-46. 10. Parkyn, Jonathan (2007) ‘Play Time’, 8-21 March, 72-73. ‘Ώρα για Παιχνίδι’ (2007) April, 27: 78-79. 11. Parkyn, Jonathan (2007) ‘VHS RIP’, 11-24 January, 16-21. ‘Πετάξτε τις Κασέτες VHS µια για Πάντα’ (2007) May, 28: 72-76. 12. Whitfield, Nigel (2007) ‘Heavenly Handsets’, 5-8 April, 66-67. ‘Όχι Μόνο Φθηνά, Αλλά και Απλά’ (2007) May, 28: 84-86.

PCMagazine Internet 13. Gottesman, B.J, Jay Munro, Neil J. Rubenking, Larry Seltzer, and Michael J. Steinhart (2005) ‘Maximum Security’, November, 91-112. Gottesman, B.J, Jay Munro, Neil J. Rubenking, Larry Seltzer, and Michael J. Steinhart (2005) ‘Maximum Security’, translated (2006) by A. Mpampili as ‘Ύψιστη ασφάλεια’, February, 72-92. 14. Janowski, Davis D. (2007) ‘Web E-Mail Clients’, February, 46-48.

289

Janowski, Davis D. (2007) ‘Web E-Mail Clients’, translated (2007) by G. Zikos as ‘Οι Ταχυδρόµοι του Web’, March, 72-73. 15. Metz, Cade (2007) ‘Web 3.0’, April, 74-79. Metz, Cade (2007) ‘Web 3.0’, translated (2007) by C. Konstantinidis as ‘Έρχεται το Web 3.0’, April, 118-121. 16. Rubenking, Neil J. (2007) ‘Security Super Guide’, April, 65-73. Rubenking, Neil J. (2007) ‘Security Super Guide’, translated (2007) by C. Konstantinidis as ‘Ασφαλείς στο Internet’, May, 90-104. Personal computing 17. Clyman, John, (2007) ‘Insider’s Guide to Vista’, January, 74-96. Clyman, John, (2007) ‘Insider’s Guide to Vista’, translated (2007) by G. Zikos as ‘Vista: Ο πληρέστερος οδηγός για ψαγµένους χρήστες’, February, 94-117. 18. Mendelson, Edward (2005) ‘Office Problems, Solved!’, December, 109-116. Mendelson, Edward (2005) ‘Office Problems, Solved!’, translated (2006) by M. Kokidou as ‘Προβλήµατα µε το Office; Τα Λύσαµε!’, February, 106-113. 19. Metz, Cade (2006) ‘Why Microchips Matter (Again)’, September, 72-80. Metz, Cade (2006) ‘Why Microchips Matter (Again)’ translated (2006) by G. Iosifidis as ‘AMD vs INTEL’, October, 108-121. 20. Miller, Michael J, Sebastian Rupley, Cade Metz, Sascha Segan, John Knowles, Erik Rhey, Sean Carroll, Carol A. Mangis and Carol L. Gonsher (2005) ‘The 10 Biggest Problems in Computing and How We’ll Solve Them’, August, 82-100. Miller, Michael J, Sebastian Rupley, Cade Metz, Sascha Segan, John Knowles, Erik Rhey, Sean Carroll, Carol A. Mangis and Carol L. Gonsher (2005) ‘The 10 Biggest Problems in Computing and How We’ll Solve Them’, translated (2006) by A. Mpampili as ‘Λύση στα 10 Μεγαλύτερα Προβλήµατα των Υπολογιστών’, March 127-139. Popular technology devices 21. Bsales, Jamie and Cade Metz (2007) ‘Today’s Ideas, Tomorrow’s Tech’, July, 76-72. Bsales, Jamie and Cade Metz (2007) ‘Today’s Ideas, Tomorrow’s Tech’, translated (2007) by G. Iosifidis as ‘∆ιαβάζουµε το Μέλλον!’, August, 112-116. 22. Gonsher, Carol L. and Erik Rhey (2006) ‘Keeping up with the Jetsons’, May, 8088. Gonsher, Carol L. and Erik Rhey (2006) ‘Keeping up with the Jetsons’, translated (2006) as ‘Έµπνευση και Τεχνολογία’, July, 128-132. 23. Labriola, Don (2006) ‘Battle of the New DVDs’, October, 77-84. Labriola, Don (2006) ‘Battle of the New DVDs’, translated (2006) by G. Iosifidis as ‘BLU-RAY vs HD-DVD’, November, 128-133. 24. Ozer, Jan (2005) ‘From Video to DVD: Convert your old videotapes before they deteriorate’, December, 70-72. Ozer, Jan (2005) ‘From Video to DVD: Convert your old videotapes before they deteriorate’, translated (2006) by M. Kokidou as ‘Σώστε τις Βιντεοκασέτες’, February, 158-159.

290

PCWorld Internet 25. Gralla, Preston (2007) ‘101 Fantastic Freebies’, May, 76-88. Gralla, Preston (2007) ‘101 Fantastic Freebies’, translated (2007) by I. Douzas as ‘Ο “Κήπος” µε τα ∆ώρα’, June, 29: 126-134. 26. Null, Christopher (2007) ‘35 Things Every PC Owner Should Know’, March, 6778. Null, Christopher (2007) ‘35 Things Every PC Owner Should Know’, translated (2007) by I. Papaioannou as ’35 Tips που Κάθε Χρήστης PC Πρέπει να Γνωρίζει’, March, 26: 136-144. 27. Null, Christopher (2007) ‘How to Survive the Worst PC Disasters’, July, 78-88. Null, Christopher (2007) ‘How to Survive the Worst PC Disasters’, translated (2007) by I. Papaioannou as ‘Οδηγός Επιβίωσης στις… Θεοµηνίες του PC’, July, 30: 121-128. 28. Tynan, Dan (2007) ‘Technology: Truth or fiction’, August, 115-119. Papathanasiou, Petros, Nikos Athinaiou and Dimitris Karetsos (2007) ‘Μύθος ή Πραγµατικότητα;’ August, 31: 40-50. Personal computing 29. ‘Laptops User Guide’ (2007) February, 110-120. ‘Άθραυστος! Χρήσιµες Συµβουλές για Laptop Πάντα σε Φόρµα’ (2007) February, 25: 141-145. 30. Rathbone, Andy, Michael Lasky, Paul Jasper, Kirk Steers, Becky Waring, Dave Johnson, Grace Aquino and Cathy Lu (2006) ‘Hardware Tips’, December, 98118. Rathbone, Andy, Michael Lasky, Paul Jasper, Kirk Steers, Becky Waring, Dave Johnson, Grace Aquino and Cathy Lu (2006) ‘Hardware Tips’, translated as ‘Τα Καλύτερα 40 Hardware Κόλπα’ (2007) February, 25: 132-140. 31. Waring, Becky (2007) ‘Make Your Network Better’, May, 103-108. Waring, Becky (2007) ‘Make Your Network Better’, translated (2007) by I. Douzas as ‘Κάντε το ∆ίκτυό Σας Καλύτερο!’, May, 28: 128-133. 32. Strohmeyer, Robert (2007) ‘Your PC in 2008 and Beyond’, November, 99-108. Strohmeyer, Robert (2007) ‘Your PC in 2008 and Beyond’, translated (2007) by C. Tappa and P. Papathanasiou as ‘Τεχνολογίες του 2008…και αργότερα’, December, 35: 129-136. Popular technology devices 33. Bertolucci, Jeff (2007) ‘Search Engine Shoot-Out’, June, 86-96. Bertolucci, Jeff (2007) ‘Search Engine Shoot-Out’, translated (2007) by I. Douzas and P. Papathanasiou as ‘Μηχανές Αναζήτησης σε…Πόλεµο!’, July, 30: 130-137. 34. Larkin, Erik (2007) ‘Build the Perfect Browser’, March, 87-92. Larkin, Erik (2007) ‘Build the Perfect Browser’, translated (2007) by I. Douzas as ‘“Κτίστε” τον Τέλειο Browser’, March, 26: 128-134. 35. Naraine, Ryan (2007) ‘Die, Spyware, Die!’, October, 100-108. Naraine, Ryan (2007) ‘Die, Spyware, Die!’, translated (2007) as ‘Επόµενος Στόχος: Spyware’, October, 33: 130-136. 36. Singel, Ryan (2007) ‘The Threats You Can’t See’, April, 119-124.

291

Singel, Ryan (2007) ‘The Threats You Can’t See’, translated (2007) as ‘Αόρατες Απειλές’, April, 27: 128-132. T3 Internet 37. Bouckley, Hannah (2007) ‘Blackberry Pearl 8100’, February, 94-95. ‘Blackberry Pearl 8100’, May, 18: 84-85. 38. Bouckley, Hannah (2007) ‘The Cloud vs T-Mobile Hotspots’, July, 108-109. Oikonomou, Nikos (2007) ‘Telematix Satnav 400 vs Teonav II’, July, 20: 112113. 39. ‘Route 66-0’ (2007) February, 56. 40. ‘Στρίψε ∆εξιά στη Ριζαρείου’ (2007) March, 16: 88. Svetlik, Joe (2006) ‘Email Intuition’, November, 77-83. Oikonomou, Nikos (2007) ‘E-mail της Παραλίας’, August, 21: 88-95. Personal computing 41. Browne, Michael (2006) ‘Lard-Free Laptops’, April, 66-73. Konstantinidis, Charalampos (2007) ‘Ένα Τελευταίο για το ∆ρόµο;’, July, 20: 102-106. 42. ‘Honey, They Shrunk the PC!’ (2006) September, 20-21. ‘Αγάπη µου, Συρρίκνωσαν το PC’ (2006) September, 10: 22-23. 43. Jenkins, Jason (2006) ‘iMac Attack!’, November, 12-14. ‘Nano attack’ (2007) March, 16: 16-18. 44. Kieldsen, Sam (2007) ‘PC of the Future’, January, 12-14. ‘Το PC του Μέλλοντος’ (2007) February, 15: 14-16. Popular technology devices 45. Bell, Duncan (2006) ‘The Sony Walkman’, July, 98-102. Oikonomou, Nikos (2006) ‘The Sony Walkman’, July, 8: 120-125. 46. Cooper, Mike (2006) ‘The PSP’, February, 98-103. Raptopoulos, Makis (2007) ‘PSP: Tο µέλλον είναι φορητό’, February, 3: 44-50. 47. Cooper, Mike (2006) ‘The Nintendo Game Boy’, August, 98-102. Kokidou, Maria (2006) ‘Nintendo Game Boy’, August, 9: 120-125. 48. Todd, Rob (2006) ‘The iPods’, January, 136-141. Voutsas, Ilias (2006) ‘Τα iPods’, February, 3: 118-123.

292

7.1.2

References

Adams, Douglas (2002) The Salmon of Doubt: Hitchhiking the galaxy one last time, London: William Heinemann Ltd, pp. 91-92. Adida Ben, Mike Bond, Jolyon Clulow, Amerson Lin, Steven Murdoch, Ross Anderson and Ron Rivest (2009) ‘Phish and Chips: Traditional and new recipes for attacking EMV’, in Bruce Christianson, Bruno Crispo, James A. Malcolm and Michael Roe (eds) Security Protocols, Berlin and Heidelberg: Springer, pp.40-48. Alexieva, Bistra (1997) ‘There Must Be Some System in this Madness: Metaphor, polysemy and wordplay in a cognitive linguistics framework’, in Dirk Delabastita (ed.) Traductio: Essays on punning and translation, New York: St Jerome, pp.13754. Al-Zoubi, Mohammad Q., Mohammed N. Al-Ali and Ali R. Al-Hasnawi (2006) ‘Cogno-Cultural Issues in Translating Metaphors’, Perspectives 14(3): 230-239. American Film Institute (2003-2009) ‘AFI's 100 years...100 movie quotes’ http://www.afi.com/tvevents/100years/quotes.aspx [last accessed March 24 2008]. Aronowitz, Stanley, Barbara Martinsons and Michael Menser (eds) (1996) Technoscience and Cyberculture, New York; London: Routledge. Bakardjieva, Maria (2005) Internet Society: The Internet in everyday life, London: Sage. Baker, Clifford (1961) A Guide to Technical Writing, New York: Pitman Publishing Corporation. Baker, Mona (1992) In Other Words: A coursebook on translation, London and New York: Routledge. Barns, Ian (1993) ‘Interpreting Media Images of Science and Technology’, Media Information Australia 54: 22–29. Bassnett, Susan (2004) Translation Studies, London and New Jersey: Routledge. Bassnett, Susan and André Lefevere (eds) (1990) Translation, History and Culture, London and New York: Pinter. Bauchspies, Wenda K., Jennifer Croissant and Sal Restivo (2006) Science, Technology and Society: A sociological approach, Malden, MA: Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. Beaton, Morven (2007) Intertextuality and Ideology in Interpreter-mediated Communication: The case of the European Parliament, unpublished PhD thesis, Edinburgh: Heriot-Watt University.

293

Bell, David (2001) Introduction to Cybercultures, New York and London: Routledge. Bensaude-Vincent, Bernadette (2001) ‘A Genealogy of the Increasing Gap between Science and the Public’, Public Understanding of Science 10(1): 99-113. Bigdoli, Hossein (ed) (2006) Handbook of Information Security: Key concepts, infrastructure, standards, and protocols, Volume 1, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons Inc. Bishop Matt and Deborah A. Frincke (2004) ‘Guarding the Castle Keep: Teaching with the fortress metaphor’, IEEE Security & Privacy Magazine 2(3): 69–72. Bonfante, Anne and Jean-Yves Marion (2006) ‘Computers under Attacks!’, in Proceedings of PhiSE ‘06, http://sunsite.informatik.rwth-aachen.de/Publications /CEUR-WS/Vol-240/paper8.pdf [last accessed November 27 2008]. Boyd, Richard (1993) ‘Metaphor and Theory Change: What is ‘metaphor’ a metaphor for?’, in Andrew Ortony (ed.) Metaphor and Thought, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 481-532. Burnett, Rebecca E. (1997) Technical Communication, Belmont, CA and London: Wadsworth Publishing Company. Cambridge Idioms Dictionary (2006) Second Edition, Cambridge: University Press. Cameron, Lynne (2003) Metaphor in Educational Discourse, London: Continuum. Catford, John C. (1965) A Linguistic Theory of Translation, London: Oxford University Press. Charteris-Black, Jonathan (2003) ‘Speaking with Forked Tongue: A comparative study of metaphor and metonymy in English and Malay phraseology’, Metaphor and Symbol 18(4): 289-310. —— (2004) Corpus Approaches to Critical Metaphor Analysis¸ New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Charteris-Black, Jonathan and Andreas Musolff (2003) ‘‘Battered Hero’ or ‘Innocent Victim’? A comparative study of metaphors for euro trading in British and German financial reporting’, English for Specific Purposes 22(2): 153-176. Christidou, Vasilia, Kostas Dimopoulos and Vasilis Koulaidis (2004) ‘Constructing Social Representations of Science and Technology: The role of metaphors in the press and the popular scientific magazines’, Public Understanding of Science 13(4): 347-362. Colburn, Timothy R. and Gary M. Shute (2008) ‘Metaphor in Computer Science’, Journal of Applied Logic 6(4): 526-533.

294

Collins English Dictionary and Thesaurus (2003) 21st Century Edition, Glasgow: HarperCollins. Columbia Encyclopedia (2010) In Encyclopædia Britannica from Encyclopædia Britannica Online, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/126960/ColumbiaEncyclopedia [last accessed 3 July 2010]. Corbett, John (2006) ‘Popularizations’, in Keith Brown (ed.) Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, 2nd edition, Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 755–759. Csábi, Szilvia (2001) ‘The Concept of America in the Puritan Mind’, Language and Literature 10(3): 195-209. Dagut, Menachem (1976) ‘Can Metaphor Be Translated?’, Babel XXII(1): 21-33. Davies, Mark. (2008-) The Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA): 385 million words, http://www.americancorpus.org [last accessed May 14 2009]. Deignan, Alice (2005) Metaphor and Corpus Linguistics, Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Deignan, Alice, Danuta Gabrýs and Agnieszka Solska (1997) ‘Teaching English Metaphors Using Cross-linguistic Awareness-raising Activities’, ELT Journal 51(4): 352-360. Delabastita, Dirk (ed.) (1996) Wordplay and Translation, Manchester: St. Jerome Publishing. Denny, Rita M. and Patricia L. Sunderland (2005) ‘Researching Cultural Metaphors in Action: Metaphors of computing technology in contemporary US life’, Journal of Business Research 58(10): 1456-1463. Dirven, René, Roslyn M. Frank and Martin Pütz (eds) (2003) Cognitive Models in Language and Thought, Hawthorne, New York: Mouton de Gruyter. Dobrzynska, Teresa (1995) ‘Translating Metaphor: Problems of meaning’, Journal of Pragmatics 24(6): 595-604. Dodd-Drakopoulou, Sarah (2002) ‘Metaphors and Meaning: A grounded cultural model of US entrepreneurship’, Journal of Business Venturing 17(5): 519-535. Du Gay, Paul, Stuart Hall, Linda Janes, Hugh Mackay and Keith Negus (1997) Doing Cultural Studies: The story of the Sony Walkman, London: Sage. Edwards, Paul N. (1995) ‘From “Impact” to Social Process: Computers in society and culture’, in Sheila Jasanoff, Gerald E. Markle, James C. Petersen, and Trevor Pinch (eds) Handbook of Science and Technology Studies, Thousand Oaks, London and New Delhi: Sage Publications, pp. 257-285.

295

Ellis, Albert (1962) Reason and Emotion in Psychotherapy, New York: Lyle Stewart. Elmer-Dewitt, Philip (2001) ‘How Mac Changed the World’, Time Magazine http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,163720,00.html [last accessed 12 May 2009]. Engberg, Jan (2006) ‘Languages for Specific Purposes’, in Keith Brown (ed.) Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, 2nd edition, Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 679-684. Evans Vyvyan and Melanie Green (2006) Cognitive Linguistics: An introduction, Mahwah, NJ and Edinburgh: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates/Edinburgh University Press. Farr, Robert M. (1993) ‘Common Sense, Science and Social Representations’, Public Understanding of Science 2: 189–204. Fauconnier, Gilles (1999) ‘Methods and Generalizations’, in Theo Janssen and Gisela Redeker (eds) Cognitive Linguistics: Foundations, scope and methods, Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 95-127. Fowler, Roger (1985) ‘Power’, in Teun A. van Dijk (ed.) (1985) Handbook of Discourse Analysis, London: Academic Press, pp. 61-82. Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro A. and Isabel Pizarro-Sánchez (2002) ‘Translation and “Similarity-Creating Metaphors” in Specialised Languages’, Target 14(1): 43-73. Gannon, Martin J. (2001) Understanding Global Cultures: Metaphorical journeys through 23 nations, 3rd Edition, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Gaskell, George (1999) ‘Towards a Paradigm for Research on Social Representations’, Journal of the Theory of Social Behaviour 29(2): 163–86. Gentner, Dedre (1982) ‘Are Scientific Analogies Metaphor?’, in David Miall (ed.) Metaphor: Problems and perspectives, Brighton: The Harvester Press, pp.106-132. Giannoni, Davide Simone (2008) ‘Popularizing Features in English Journal Editorials’, English for Specific Purposes 27(2):212-232. Gibbs, Raymond W. Jr. (1994) The Poetics of Mind: Figurative thought, language, and understanding, New York: Cambridge University Press. —— (1999) ‘Taking Metaphor out of Our Heads and Putting it into the Cultural World’, in Raymond W. Gibbs, Jr. and Gerard J. Steen (eds) Metaphor in Cognitive Linguistics, Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins, pp. 145-166. Gibbs, Raymond W. Jr. and Jennifer E. O‘Brien (1990) ‘Idioms and Mental Imagery: The metaphorical motivation for idiomatic meaning’, Cognition 36(1): 35-68.

296

Glabus, Edmund M. (1998) ‘Metaphors and Modern Threats: Biological , computer, and cognitive viruses’, in Lloyd J. Matthews (ed.) Challenging the United States Symmetrically and Asymmetrically: Can America be defeated?, Carlisle Barracks, PA: United States Army War College, pp. 195-214. Goatly, Andrew (2007) Washing the Brain: Metaphor and hidden ideology, Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Goggin, Gerard (2006) Cell Phone Culture: Mobile technology in everyday life, London and New York: Routledge. Goldsmith, Maurice (1986) The Science Critic: A critical analysis of the popular presentation of science, London and New York: Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd. Green, Lelia (2001) Communication, Technology and Society, London: Sage. Grevy, Carlo (1999) ‘The Information Highway and Other Metaphors in the Specialised Language of Computers’, Hermes 23:173-201. Halliday, Michael. A. K. (1978) Language as Social Semiotic: The social interpretation of language and meaning, London: Edward Arnold. Haser, Verena (2005) Metaphor, Metonymy, and Experientialist Philosophy: Challenging cognitive semantics, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Hilgartner, Stephen (1990) ‘The Dominant View of Popularization: Conceptual problems, political uses’, Social Studies of Science 20(3): 519-539. Howe, Dennis (1993) Free Online Dictionary of Computing, http://foldoc.org/ [last accessed May 20 2008]. Hyland, Ken (2005) Metadiscourse, London and New York: Continuum. Ince, Darrel (2001) ‘Virus Signature’, A Dictionary of the Internet, Encyclopedia.com, http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O12-virussignature.html [last accessed 11 March 2010]. ILSP (1999-2009) Hellenic National Corpus, http://hnc.ilsp.gr/en/default.asp [last accessed 26 April 2010]. Indurkhya, Bipin (1992) Metaphor and Cognition: An interactionist approach, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Jauhiainen, Jussi S. (2007) ‘Men, Money and Mobile Phones: Tracing the technology discourse in Finnish newspapers’, Technology in Society 29: 79-91. Johansson Falck, Marlene (2005) Technology, Language and Thought – Extensions of Meaning in the English Lexicon, Doctoral dissertation no. 2005:31, Department of Languages and Culture, Luleå University of Technology.

297

Johnson, Mark (1987) The Body in the Mind: The bodily basis of meaning, imagination and reason, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Kahn, Richard and Douglas Kellner (2005) ‘Reconstructing Technoliteracy: A multiple literacies approach’, E–Learning and Digital Media 2(3): 238-251. Katan, David (2004) Translating Cultures: An introduction for translators, interpreters and mediators, Manchester: St. Jerome Publishing. Khin, Martin (2005) ‘Don't Drink the Grape-Flavored Sugar Water...’ Fast Company, http://www.fastcompany.com/magazine/92/debunk.html. [last accessed 15 March 2010]. Kittay, Eva Feder (1987) Metaphor: Its cognitive force and linguistic structure, Oxford: Clarendon Press. Knowles, Murray and Rosamund Moon (2006) Introducing Metaphor, London: Routledge. Knudsen, Susanne (2005) ‘Communicating Novel and Conventional Scientific Metaphors: A study of the development of the metaphor of genetic code’, Public Understanding of Science 14: 373-392. Kövecses, Zoltán (2002) Metaphor: A practical introduction, New York: Oxford University Press. —— (2003a) ‘Language, Figurative Thought, and Cross-Cultural Comparison’, Metaphor and Symbol 18(4): 311–320. —— (2003b) Metaphor and Emotion: Language, culture, and body in human feeling, Paris and Cambridge: Maison des Sciences de l’Homme and Cambridge University Press —— (2005) Metaphor in Culture: Universality and variation, New York: Cambridge University Press. Kövecses, Zoltán and Bálint Koller (2006) Language, Mind and Culture: A practical introduction, New York: Oxford University Press. Kövecses, Zoltán and Günter Radden (1998) ‘Metonymy: Developing a cognitive linguistic view’, Cognitive Linguistics 9(1): 37-77. Kurzweil, Ray (2001) ‘The Law of Accelerating Returns’, KurzweilAI.net http://www.kurzweilai.net/ [last accessed 28 April 2010]. ‘Κυκλοφορίες Περιοδικών’ [Magazine Circulations] (2006) Adbusiness, July, 502: 25. Lakoff, George (1987) Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things: What categories reveal about the mind, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

298

—— (1993) ‘The Contemporary Theory of Metaphor’, in Andrew Ortony (ed.) Metaphor and Thought, 2nd Edition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 202-251. —— (2001) ‘As Advertised: A review of the MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences’, Artificial Intelligence 130(2): 195-209. —— (2002) Moral Politics: How liberals and conservatives think, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Lakoff, George and Mark and Turner (1989) More Than Cool Reason: A field guide to poetic metaphor, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Lakoff, George and Mark Johnson (1980/2003) Metaphors We Live By, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Langacker, Ronald W. (1999) ‘Assessing the Cognitive Linguistic Enterprise’, in Theo Janssen and Gisela Redeker (eds) Cognitive Linguistics: Foundations, scope and methods, Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 13-59. Lawler, John M. (1999) ‘Metaphors We Compute By’, in Dona J. Hickey (ed.), Figures of Thought: For college writers, Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing, pp.411-422. Levy, Steven (1994) Insanely Great: The life and times of Macintosh, the computer that changed everything, New York: Viking. Lewenstein, Bruce V. (1992) ‘The Meaning of “Public Understanding of Science” in the United States after World War II’, Public Understanding of Science 1(1): 45-68. Liakopoulos, Miltos (2002) ‘Pandora's Box or Panacea? Using metaphors to create the public representations of biotechnology’, Public Understanding of Science 11: 532. Liao, Min-Hsiu (2010) ‘Translating Science into Chinese: An interactive perspective’, The Journal of Specialised Translation 13: 44-60. Maglio, Paul and Teenie Matlock (1998) ‘Metaphors We Surf the Web By’, http://www.almaden.ibm.com/cs/people/pmaglio/pubs/meta4surf.pdf [last accessed 26 August 2007]. Mancuso, Joseph C. (1990) Mastering Technical Writing, Reading, MA: AddisonWesley Publishing Company. Mandelblit, Nili (1995) ‘The Cognitive View of Metaphor and its Implication for Translation Theory’, in Marcel Thelen and Barbara Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk (eds) Translation and Meaning, Part 3, Maastricht: Maastricht University Press, pp. 482495.

299

Miall, David S. (ed.) (1982) Metaphor: Problems and perspectives, Brighton: The Harvester Press. Microsoft (2010) Microsoft Security, http://www.microsoft.com/protect/computer/ basics/spyware.mspx [last accessed 1 December 2008]. Microsoft Corporation (2010) ‘Microsoft PowerToys for Windows XP’, http://www.microsoft.com/windowsxp/downloads/powertoys/xppowertoys.mspx, [last accessed 3 July 2010]. Microsoft Press (1997) Microsoft Press Computer Dictionary, 3rd Edition, Redmond Washington: Microsoft Press. Moore, Francis C. T. (1982) ‘On Taking Metaphor Literally’, in David Miall (ed.) Metaphor: Problems and perspectives, Brighton: The Harvester Press, pp. 1-13. Moscovici, Serge (1984) ‘The Phenomenon of Social Representations’ in Robert M. Farr and Serge Moscovici (eds) Social Representations, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 3–69. Mpampiniotis, Georgios (ed.) (2002) Λεξικό της Νέας Ελληνικής Γλώσσας [Dictionary of the New Greek Language], 2nd Edition, Athens: Kentro Lexikologias Ltd. Munday, Jeremy (2001) Introducing Translation Studies: Theories and applications, London: Routledge. Myers, Greg (2003) ‘Discourse Studies of Scientific Popularization: Questioning the boundaries’, Discourse Studies 5(2): 265-279. Nacey, Susan (2010) ‘Love and Hate in the World of the iPhone’, Researching and Applying Metaphor Newsletter 6, http://www.raam.org.uk/Newsletter.html [last accessed 4 April 2010]. Newmark, Peter (1981) Approaches to Translation, Oxford and New York: Pergamon Press. Pacey, Arnold (1983) The Culture of Technology, Cambridge and Massachusetts: MIT Press. Pant, Gautam, Padmini Srinivasan and Filippo Menczer (2004) ‘Crawling the Web’, in Mark Levene and Alexandra Poulovassilis (eds) Web Dynamics: Adapting to change in content, size, topology and use, http://dollar.biz.uiowa.edu/~pant/Papers/crawling.pdf [last accessed 30 November 2008]. Paul, Danette (2004) ‘Spreading Chaos: The role of popularizations in the diffusion of scientific ideas’, Written Communication 21(1): 32-68.

300

Peele, Howard (1983) ‘Computer Metaphors: Approaches to computer literacy for educators, Computers and Education 7(2): 91-99. Penley, Constance and Andrew Ross (eds) (1991) Technoculture, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Pragglejaz Group (2007) ‘MIP: A method for identifying metaphorically used words in discourse’, Metaphor and Symbol 22(1): 1-39. Quinn, Naomi (1991) ‘The cultural basis of metaphor’, in James W. Fernandez (ed.) Beyond Metaphor: The theory of tropes in anthropology, Stanford, CA: University Press, pp. 56-93. Quinn, Naomi and Dorothy Holland (eds) (1987) Cultural Models in Language and Thought, London: Cambridge University Press. Reiss, Katharina (2000) Translation Criticism: The potentials and limitations, Manchester: St. Jerome Publishing. Rheingold, Harriet L. (1985) ‘Development as the Acquisition of Familiarity’, Annual Review of Psychology 36: 1-17. Rogers, Bonnie Lida and Barbara Chaparro (2003) ‘Breadcrumb Navigation: Further investigation of usage’ in Usability News 5.2, ttp://psychology.wichita.edu/surl/usabi litynews/52/breadcrumb.htm [last accessed 23 April 2009]. Rohrer, Tim (1995) ‘Metaphors We Compute By: Bringing magic into interface design’ http://philosophy.uoregon.edu/metaphor/gui4web.htm [last accessed 30 August 2007]. —— (1997) ‘Conceptual Blending on the Information Highway: How do metaphorical inferences work?’ in Wolf-Andreas Liebert, Gisela Redeker and Linda Waugh (eds) Discourse and Perspective in Cognitive Linguistics, Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp. 185-205. —— (2001) ‘Even the Interface is for Sale: Metaphors, visual blends and the hidden ideology of the Internet’, in René Dirven, Cornelia Ilie, and Roslyn M. Frank (eds) Language and Ideology: Cognitive Descriptive Approaches, Volume II, Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp. 189-214. Rosenberger, Rob, Steven White, Alex Haddox and Jacob Motola (1997) ‘When and How Did the Metaphor of the Computer “Virus” Arise?’, Scientific American, http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=when-and-how-did-the-meta [last accessed 30 November 2008]. Schäffner, Christina (1997) ‘Translation Studies’, in Jef Verschueren, Jan-Ola Östman, Jan Blommaert and Chris Bulcaen (eds) Handbook of Pragmatics, Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp. 1–17.

301

—— (2004) ‘Metaphor and Translation: Some implications of a cognitive approach’, Journal of Pragmatics 36(7): 1253-1269. Semino, Elena (2008) Metaphor in Discourse, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Silverstone, Roger, Eric Hirsch, and David Morley (1992) ‘Information and Communication Technologies in the Moral Economy of the Household’, in Roger Silverstone and Eric Hirsch (eds) Consuming Technologies: Media and information in domestic spaces, London: Routledge, pp. 15-31. Slingerland, Edward, Eric M. Blanchard, and Lyn Boyd-Judson (2007) ‘Collision with China: Conceptual metaphor analysis, somatic marking, and the EP-3 incident’, International Studies Quarterly 51(1): 53–77. Soe, Younei (2009) ‘Metaphorical Inferences in Categorizing Cyberspace Words’, Annual Meeting of the International Communication Association, Sheraton New York, NY, http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p13895_index.html [last accessed 21 February 2008]. Sprent, Peter (1995) Getting into Print: A guide for scientists and technologists, London: E & FN Spon. Steen, Gerard (2008) ‘The Paradox of Metaphor: Why we need a three-dimensional model of metaphor’, Metaphor and Symbol 23(4):213-241. Tabakowska, Elzbieta (1993) Cognitive Linguistics and Poetics of Translation, Tübingen: Gunter Narr. Tagliacozzo, Renata (1976) ‘Levels of Technicality in Scientific Communication’, Information Processing & Management 12(2): 95-110. TechTarget (2003-2009) SecuritySearch.com, http://searchsecurity.techtarget.com/s Definition/0,,sid14_gci550882,00.html [last accessed 12 May 2009] The British National Corpus, version 3 (BNC XML Edition) (2007) distributed by Oxford University Computing Services on behalf of the BNC Consortium. http://www.natcorp.ox.ac.uk/ [last accessed 12 May 2009]. The Columbia Encyclopedia (2008) 6th Edition, New York: Columbia University Press. The Linux Information Project LINFO (2005-2006) http://www.linfo.org/ [last accessed 12 March 2010]. Toury, Gideon (1995) Descriptive Translation Studies and Beyond, Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Trend, David (ed.) (2001) Reading Digital Culture, Massachusetts and Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

302

Turner, Mark (1987) Death Is the Mother of Beauty: Mind, metaphor, criticism, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Ungerer, Friedrich and Hans-Jörg Schmid (1996) An Introduction to Cognitive Linguistics, London and New York: Longman. Van Den Broeck, Raymond (1981) ‘The Limits of Translatability Exemplified by Metaphor Translation’, Poetics Today 2(4): 73-78. Van Dijk, Teun A. (1998) Ideology: A multidisciplinary approach, London: Sage. Wiley, John and Sons (2006) ‘Crackberry is the 2006 Word of the Year’, http://www.prnewswire.com/cgi-in/stories.pl?ACCT=104&STORY=/www/story/1101-2006/0004464602&EDATE= [last accessed 22 February 2009]. Wozny, Lucy A. (1989) ‘The Application of Metaphor, Analogy, and Conceptual Models in Computer Systems’, Interacting with Computers 1(3): 273-283. Yu, Ning (1998) The Contemporary Theory of Metaphor: A perspective from Chinese, Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

303

Appendices

304

APPENDIX 1 Tables from Chapter 4 The PERSON submetaphor TECHNOLOGY ACTIVITY IS HUMAN ACTIVITY

Ask Use / reuse Detect

29 29 26

Not all printouts are created equal Teach Your Monitor Who’s BIOS it’s not going to spell retirement for your nano

1 1 1

Do (the work / very well / everything / but take pills / the trick / its magic / this for you / the rest / poorly) Let Store (Can do the/a / gets on with / give the / Up to the) job Gone / Go away / go above and beyond / go through / go live / go south / gone out of its way / gone astray / go to work / going and going / goes about its business / go up and down more often than a bank of elevators / go back / It goes through menus like a dose of salts Run Load / preload Arrive(al) (on the scene / in time / without a hitch) Find (its way / out) Make (fixes / a breeze / work) Tell (the difference) Work (with / together/ on its own / solo / well) Allow Offer Display Block Send Add Handle (the dirty work / without any bother.) Remove(al) Pop up Clean (out / up / up the mess) Capture Hit (the market / the streets) Read Recognise Try Die / dead / dead on arrival Install Know / aka Perform (the same job) Be able to…/ ability Catch (up with/ to) Create

24

20 19 18

Advertise Affair Alert

1 1 1

16

Answer

1

16 15 14

Announce Append Asleep

1 1 1

14 14 14 14

Assign Attempt Backslide Badger

1 1 1 1

13 13 13 12 12 11 11 11 10 10 9 9 9 9 9 8 8 8 8 7 7 7

Bail out Bar Be back Be busy Be here Be in the presence of Be responsible Be there Be with you Be up to Beat Bombard Book Bother Breach Break Bring up Bristling Bumps into Burrow Burst the zits Bury themselves

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

305

Give (the chance) Put (itself / a drag on) Help Identify Say Promise Carry Check Play / play nicely together Receive Sit Communicate(ion) Deliver Open Conflict Hide keeps (an eye on / from / out) Track / keep track of Prevent Decide / make the decision Provide Save Set (up) Steal Suffer (from) Warn Watch / keep watch Produce Reach (out) Rely (on) Request Search / in search of Spoof Support Understand Write Adjust (behaviour) Be born / birth Call (on / upon) Capable of / capability Collect Configure / preconfigure / reconfigure See Crash Delete Destroy Disinfect Exist Fit (together) Flag Float Force Grab Hold Interpret / misinterpret Kill (stone dead / off) Lock (down / up) Log

7 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

Bust Carry out Cater Cause Chew up Coax Compare Complain Conceal Conflate Convince Copy Correlate Cough up Croak ??? Crunch Cut down Cut it Deal with Debut Decohere Delay Dim Direct Distinguish Divide Dovetail Drag and drop Dump Encounter Encourage Encrypt Eradicate Erase Explain Explode onto the scene Evade failed to make a dent on Feed Fight Filter Fire Focus Foe Forget full-fledged Generate Gather Get through Give kudos Give the heave-ho give you a helping hand Gobble up Govern Grass-roots Guilty had the most fat trimmed off Hampered by

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

306

Look (for) Make sure Massage Process Protect(ion) Record Reside Respond(se) Show Spot Take (an unexpected vacation) Think turns up Uncover Verify Access Action Analyse At will / willing Be around Bundle with Boot Bypass Claim Coexist Come and go / come and go with a mind of its own Contain Control Cope with Cram Declare Determine Diagnose Doesn’t like it / likes Download Drag kicking and screaming / be dragged into Eat (for breakfast) Execute Fill in Free / set free Improve Invite Join Limit Link Live Manage Mimic Monitor Move Needs Obey Operate Pack / unpack Pass Plop Poke ?

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Harm Have Have a relationship with Have the ability to… head for the big scrapheap in the sky Hold up well Host Hum along Ignore Infer Inform Ingest Insert Integrate with Interact Interrupt Juggle Leave Learn Let go of let it down living off its reputation loosen their iron grip Lost in translation Lurk Maneuver

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Manipulate making the journey from Mark Marrying Member Miss out Modify Mold Nuke On its way out Organise Parse Passersby Paste Pave the way for Permit Pick up Pick up the slack Pioneer Pitch Phone place place a cap Possess Predict Present Probe Proclaim Profile Prompt Push

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

307

Pretend (to be) Pull (down / into) Remember Report Resist Retrieve(al) Scan Slow (down / to a crawl) spam-spewing ?? Speak Spy Stop Struggle(ing) Tackle Translate Travel Turn on / off Turn sth into Unveil Wait Survive Summon swaggering through Tag Tailor Taint Take action Take care of Take photo Take responsibility take some of the wind out of sails took the wraps off Talk Tamper with Theft Throw Tie Tile Touch Train Transfer Transform Trick Troll Tuck into turn up like fashionably late guests at a party Uproot Usher Wake up Walk (you through) Wants a look whipped off Wipe wreak havoc Yammer Yap Nag Stretch the limits

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Rate React Realise Reassemble Redirect Reduce Reformat Refuse Remind Repeat Replace Replicate Reply Reputation Research Rest Return Revolve Reward right around the corner Roll out Round out Route Rummage Schedule Scour scorch Scrape scratching the surface Scream See it go seized up Sense Share Shadow Shore up Show up Shut down Show off Sip sinking their hooks into Slip past Slam doors on Slap Slink into Smack down Snag sounds the alarm Solve Spare spices things up Spit out Split Sport Squeeze Stagger Stamp out Stand still

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

308

Subvert Suggest Supply TOTAL

1 State 1 Stutter 1 1186 Table 4.1. 1 Metaphorical expressions of the ACTIVITY submetaphor

1 1

TECHNOLOGY LIFECYCLE IS HUMAN LIFECYCLE

Old(er) / few years old / five years old / two 36 years old / a year or two old Grow up / grown-up 2 Age / old age / ageing 4 Early days 1 Long in the tooth 1 Mature 1 Spring chicken 1 Acne 1 Growing pains 1 TOTAL 48 Table 4.1. 2 Metaphorical expressions of the LIFECYCLE submetaphor

TECHNOLOGY IS A PERSON WITH EMOTIONS

Desire 1 Happily 1 TOTAL 2 Table 4.1. 3 Metaphorical expressions of the EMOTIONS submetaphor

TECHNOLOGY IS A PERSON WITH GENDER

Guys 4 Boys / ‘Boys 3 Fella / lil’ fella 2 She / her 2 Chap 1 Kid 1 Man 1 Woman 1 TOTAL 15 Table 4.1. 4 Metaphorical expressions of the GENDER submetaphor

309

PARTS OF TECHNOLOGY ARE HUMAN BODY PARTS

Head(s) 9 big-boned Skin(s) / skinnable 5 Body Face / wide-faced 5 bare-bones Backbone 4 Fingers Brain(s) 3 Flanks eEye / Safe Eyes 3 Heart Guts 3 Lungs Innards 3 Neck Feet 2 Nipple Insides 2 Retina Leg(s) 2 Shoulder Achilles heel 1 Thumb arm-in-arm 1 Toes TOTAL 56 Table 4.1. 5 Metaphorical expressions of the HUMAN BODY submetaphor

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

TECHNOLOGY RELATIONS ARE KINSHIP RELATIONS

Generation / next / first-generation / second38 Baby generation / Fourth-generation / 2.5G / 3G / 4G / fourth-gen / fifth-generation Native(ly) 5 Brainchild Family (signatures) 4 Clone Father / daddy 2 Cousins Parent 2 “daddy” Predecessor(s) 2 Granddaddy Sister 2 Sibling Successor 2 twin giants TOTAL 65 Table 4.1. 6 Metaphorical expressions of the KINSHIP submetaphor

1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

TECHNOLOGY IS A PERSON WITH PERSONALITY

Behave / misbehaving / behaviour Malicious Smart(er) / smartphone Sophisticated / sophistication Vulnerable (ility) Friend(ly) (ier) / unfriendly / unfriendliness / chubby-finger-friendly Annoyances / annoying Bad Intuitive Clever / Cleverly compatible / incompatible Suspect / suspicious Nasty / nastiest / nasties Rogue Trusted / trusty Awkward Boast Culprit Good / goodness

33 29 15 11 11 9

Delicate Dicey Disturbed Dodgy Dogged Downed

1 1 1 1 1 1

8 7 7 6 6 5 4 4 4 3 3 3 3

Dull Dutifully Embarrassed Erratically Evil Feeble Fiddly Flimsy Foe Futile Geekedout Grunt Guilty

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

310

Irritate(ing) / irritations Popular Nag Offending / offenders Sluggish Strengths and /weaknesses Act like bug and badger / badger Courtesy (extend the same) Cumbersome Demanding Distracting Exciting Foxy / FoxyTunes Insidious polite “up yours!” / “up yours!” (Silly) habit Logic Nifty Odd Slick Twitchy Unreliable Unwanted Welcome / Unwelcome Zippy / zippier than road runner pursued by wile e coyote equipped with acme’s finest ‘after you’ fashion acting up Adaptive Aplomb AWOL (go) bad boy behaviour bad name Balk Bananas (go) Benign Bizarre ?? Bold Bonkers Boring Bother (without any) Brilliant Brutish Busy Charmless Childish Circumspect Clumsy Clunky Craftily Cunning Dandy Dangerous Decides TOTAL

3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Impressive(ly) ? Inexorable Ingenious Insists on Instinctive Intelligent Intrusive Inviting Jitter Klutzy lame duck let-down likes to yap Loaner low profile Mighty Mimic Modest Natty naughty or nice Neat Nefarious Nimble Notorious Nuisance Outwitted

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Overzealous Pain Pathetic Peppy Perk-up Pesky Quirks Rampant React Reliable Runaway security-conscious Sensitive Serious Shamefully Sinister Slapdash Snappy Spotty Temperamental Tired Tough Trumpet Ungainly Unstable way-cool well-meaning widely-feared Worthy

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

281 Table 4.1. 7 Metaphorical expressions of the PERSONALITY submetaphor

311

TECHNOLOGY IS A PERSON WITH PHYSICAL APPEARANCE

Look / new look(s) / different / deceptively expensive looks / look more 80s / it’s got legs to match its looks / sexier look / looker excellent-looking / better looking / very good looking / good-looking / twitchy-looking / best-looking / jagged-looking / clean-looking / corporate-looking / sleek-looking / flamboyant-looking / gawky-looking / stunning-looking / businesslike-looking / nicest looking slim down / slim / slim-line looks / superslim / ultra-slim / slimmed-down look Stylish / styling look like / look like a beige-painted horse’s arse / look like they’ve been on the pies for the last six months has the looks / killer looks / good looks / got the looks / rake-like looks Sexy / sexier Attractive Beauties (deserve a wider audience) / beauty / beautiful Makeover(s) Sleek Thinner / thinnest Appearance / luxury appearance cosmetic appearance / cosmetic Elegant eye-catching parts / eye-catcher Handsome looks the part

Muscular Pretty / prettiest small-but-perfectly-formed Aesthetic Alluring Appeal appealingly slick attention-grabber bevelled edges buttoned-down

17

dead slick

1

17

Dowdy

1

13

drop-dead gorgeous

1

7 6

Fancy fat trimmed off it

1 1

5

Flashy

1

4 3 3

Gorgeous Guise irresistible thinness

1 1 1

3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2

lard-free Light Lumpy luxury trim Odd Oomph Outlook-like Pale perilously skinny (surprised heat magazine hasn’t put it on its cover under a “worried” headline) Petite Ragged retro look

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Smashing Stubble Stunner Sturdy spruced-up triggers everyone’s necks to crane on the train Ugly ultra-desirable uncanny resemblance

1 1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1

Chunkier 1 1 Classiest 1 1 Curvaceous 1 1 TOTAL 142 Table 4.1. 8 Metaphorical expressions of the PHYSICAL APPEARANCE submetaphor

312

TECHNOLOGY IS A PERSON WITH ROLES / OCCUPATIONS

Internet Explorer / Windows Explorer / Sysinternals Process Explorer e-mail client / clients Reader / news reader / RSS reader(s) / Active Web Reader Spyware Doctor Windows Defender Browser Host(s) / Localhost Driver(s) / Improve Your Driver Skills Manager (file / start-up / Windows Task / device / password) Webroot Spy Sweeper Wizard (Web) Server(s) Scanners / Internet Scanner Burner (DVD / CD) PatchGuard multimedia player / Windows Media Player/ media player / audio player Editor Vista Upgrade Advisor Agent(s) (building) Carriers (wireless) CutepdfWriter Diskeeper Dr. TCP Event Viewer Guide / portable tour guide. Hotspot Finder Hotspot Helper Identity Guard Identifier Image Resizer LinkScanner memory controller Memory card reader Noise Ninja P.I. Protector Mobility Suite 3.0 SmartDefense Advisor Spy Catcher Web page creator Yahoo Mail Notifier / Gmail Notifier Adobe Reader AllPeers App-Detective Backup and Task Scheduler Jargon buster Candidates CD cover maker ClearType Tuner ComputerCops Cookie Spy Cybersitter database builder Doc Scrubber

46

File Scavenger

1

14 13

Fingerprint readers Flash Media Reader/Writer

1 1

13 13 12 12 11 11

Ghostscript converter Gunk Busters image-crunchers Launcher (program) media card reader tactile pearl controller

1 1 1 1 1 1

8 8 7 7

1 1 1 1

6 5 5

memory tester Midwife MindManager Microsoft Baseline Security Analyzer music-matchmaker Net Nanny NetStumbler

4 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

time base corrector packet sniffers password keeper picture viewer Pioneer police force PowerDirector Processor Punkbuster Reputation-Defender.com Resident Teatimer Rewriter (DVD) Role Screamers search helpers SiteAdvisor Spamihilator Spelling checker SpywareWarrior Spyware removers Startup Cop Pro Stuck Pixel Fixer TextDigger Travel Surge Protector Tweak Tester TweakNow RegCleaner virtual referee virtual Virgil Websitebuilder wide web walker wi-fi provider Windows Scheduler XP-Antispy Yahoo messenger Years of service Zoho Writer

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1

313

email summoner 1 TOTAL 305 Table 4.1. 9 Metaphorical expressions of the ROLE/OCCUPATION submetaphor

The LIVING ORGANISM metaphor TECHNOLOGY IS AN ANIMAL

Mouse, mouse movements 31 Cross Firefox 14 Stinger Breed, thoroughbred, best-of-breed 10 Panda Worm 8 Leopard Bug, debugging 9 Mosquitoes Release 7 eDonkey Horse 5 Obey Thunderbird 4 Taming Unleashed 3 Rein over Tiger 3 Nested Pedigree 2 Extermination Dog 2 Eliminate Spidered, spidering 2 Fly in the ointment Puma 2 Dodo Sunbird 1 TOTAL 117 Table 4.2. 1 Metaphorical expressions of the ANIMAL submetaphor

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

TECHNOLOGY IS A PLANT

Grow, growth Tree Eradicate Roots, root out Homegrown TOTAL

10 Ploughed 4 Branch 3 Bear fruit 2 Full-blown 2 Harvested 26 Table 4.2. 2 Metaphorical expressions of the PLANT submetaphor

1 1 1 1 1

THE CONDITION OF TECHNOLOGY IS HEALTH OF LIVING ORGANISM

Virus, virus-hunters 43 Plagued Infect, infection, reinfection, disinfection, 38 Cure virus-infected Antivirus 29 Ill-intentioned Diagnose, diagnostic 8 Checkup Spread 4 Pick up Health 3 Cripple Symptom 2 Poisoned Remedy 2 Infested Recovery 2 Rash Revive 2 TOTAL 144 Table 4.2. 3 Metaphorical expressions of the HEALTH/ILLNESS submetaphor

2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

314

THE CONDITION OF TECHNOLOGY IS LIFE OF LIVING ORGANISM

Dead, die Life Kill Hatched Spawned TOTAL

12 Croak 8 Exist 6 Go south 1 Come to life 1 32 Table 4.2. 4 Metaphorical expressions of the LIFE/DEATH submetaphor

1 1 1 1

THE FUNCTION OF TECHNOLOGY IS THE FUNCTION OF LIVING ORGANISM

Sleep, asleep 7 Feed Hibernate, hibernation 4 Hiccups Wake up, awake 3 Reproduce TOTAL 17 Table 4.2. 5 Metaphorical expressions of the FUNTION submetaphor

1 1 1

The MACHINE metaphor A TECHNOLOGY IS A MACHINE WITH MODES OF OPERATION

Machine Turn off Turn on Switch on Shut down On Switch off Disable-d Deactivated Restart Activate Off Shut off TOTAL

47 24 18 7 6 4 4 2 2 1 1 1 1 128

STATUS OF A TECHNOLOGY IS THE CONDITION OF A MACHINE

Fix Up and running Patch Glitch Repair Kinks Kick in Fail Operation Overhauled Break down Blown TOTAL

TOTAL Table 4.3. 1 Metaphorical expressions of the MACHINE metaphor

15 7 5 5 4 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 46 174

DEVELOPING TECHNOLOGY IS AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERING

Engineered 2 Aerodynamic-ally 2 Sleek 2 Metal / black finish 2 Design blueprint 1 Geared up 1 TOTAL 10 Table 4.3. 2 Metaphorical expressions of the AUTOMOBILE submetaphor

315

PARTS OF A TECHNOLOGY ARE PARTS OF AN AUTOMOBILE

Engine 39 Wheel 1 Fuel 9 Windscreen 1 Mechanism 4 Pack a spare 1 Under the hood 3 Turbocharge 1 Chassis 2 Kingpin 1 Juice / juicebox 2 Dashboard 1 TOTAL 65 Table 4.3. 3 Metaphorical expressions of the AUTOMOBILE submetaphor

THE FUNCTIONING OF A TECHNOLOGY IS THE OPERATION OF AN AUTOMOBILE

Run 143 Throttle 2 Tweak / Tweaker 31 Tinker 2 Boost / booster 20 Calibrate / Calibration 2 Crash 14 Well-maintained 1 Start (up) 13 Rev up 1 Tune / Fine-tune / Tune up 10 Soup up 1 TOTAL 240 Table 4.3. 4 Metaphorical expressions of the AUTOMOBILE submetaphor

THE STATUS OF A TECHNOLOGY IS THE PERFORMANCE OF AN AUTOMOBILE

Speed / Speedy / Speed up / High-speed / 79 Bog down 2 Full-speed Fast-er 48 Chug along 1 Slow (down) 17 Lug 1 Test drive, drive, driver 11 Smoother ride 1 Power / Power up / Full-powered 10 Screech to a standstill 1 Acceleration 2 Mileage 1 Crank out 2 TOTAL 176 Table 4.3. 5 Metaphorical expressions of the AUTOMOBILE submetaphor

TECHNOLOGY IS A BUS

Bus

6

TECHNOLOGY IS A SHIP

Flagship Fleet Propel On board Rock the boat Push the boat out Full speed ahead

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7

TOTAL 6 Table 4.3. 6 Metaphorical expressions of the submetaphors of TECHNOLOGY IS A BUS and TECHNOLOGY IS A SHIP

316

The COMPETITION metaphor TECHNOLOGY IS COMPETITION

Compete, competition, competitor, 29 World-beating competitive, competing Win, winner 12 Success Rival, rivalry, unrivalled 11 Undercut Edge 7 Of highest calibre Perform, performance, performer 5 Outlast Trail 4 Draw Excel 4 Trump Good, better, best 4 Garner Verdict 4 Ace Lead, leading, leader 4 Do poorly to match 3 Deserve praise Outclass 2 Was so-so Loser 2 Fare well Stand out 2 Specialists Scored 2 Topped Second 2 Top-notch Game 2 surpass Field 2 arena beat 1 Up against Dominance 1 Contender Faster 1 Pick up momentum At the head of class 1 Play fairly Entrant 1 Tiebreaker One-up 1 Novice trophy 1 TOTAL 132 Table 4.4. 1 Metaphorical expressions of the COMPETITION metaphor

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

TECHNOLOGY IS A RACE

Fast, faster, fastest, super-fast 14 Finished some distance behind Speed, highspeed, speedy 12 Performance Run, runner, front-runner 6 Outstrip Slow, slower 5 Take the prize Champion, champ 3 Take a backseat to Win, winner 2 Keep pace with Race 2 Outpace Ace 1 Competition Unrivalled 1 Kriss Akabusi TOTAL 55 Table 4.4. 2 Metaphorical expressions of the RACE submetaphor

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

TECHNOLOGY IS A BATTLE

War, phony-war Win, winner Camp Battle Killer Conflict Conquer King Victor

6 5 5 4 2 2 2 1 1

Dust up Shoot out Face off Bested Fight Make inroads against Threat Strike back Attack

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

317

Balance of power to tip toward 1 Front Balance is tilted toward 1 panoply Battle-flag 1 TOTAL 42 Table 4.4. 3 Metaphorical expressions of the BATTLE submetaphor

1 1

TECHNOLOGY IS A BOXING MATCH

Challenge, challenger 4 Crown Round 3 King Competition, competitor, 2 Rule Champ 2 Pit against Corner 2 Take it on TOTAL 18 Table 4.4. 4 Metaphorical expressions of the BOXING MATCH submetaphor

1 1 1 1 1

The FORTRESS metaphor TECHNOLOGY IS A FORTRESS

Security / secure / insecure 11 Threat 5 Safe 3 Fortress 1 Risk 1 TOTAL 21 Table 4.5. 1 Metaphorical expressions of the FORTRESS metaphor

TECHNOLOGY IS COMBAT

Fight / fight back 11 Stomp 1 Combat 2 Battle 1 Stop / stopper 2 Hunter 1 Arsenal 2 Trenches 1 Kill 2 Bombarding 1 Destroy 1 TOTAL 25 Table 4.5. 2 Metaphorical expressions of the COMBAT submetaphor

TECHNOLOGY IS DEFENCE

Protect (against/by) / protection Firewall Block / blockers / blocklist Security / secure Defense / defenses Attacks Threats Prevent Stop Defender Shield Safe Keep out

51 42 35 20 6 6 6 4 4 4 3 2 2

Resisted Control Warrior SmartDefense PatchGuard Safeguard Spybot Spy Catcher Impregnability Move below radar Save from Warn against Barricade

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

318

Blacklist Watch out for Guarded by Security zones TOTAL

2 Arsenal 1 Foil the phishers 1 Beat 1 Evade 207 Table 4.5. 3 Metaphorical expressions of the DEFENCE submetaphor

1 1 1 1

TECHNOLOGY IS A FORTRESS UNDER ATTACK

Attack / cyberattack / Denial of Service 28 Go after (DDoS) attack Hijack / hijacker 12 Barrage Target 7 Subvert Trojan horse 4 Prevent Threat 3 Dangers Lurk (on) 3 Intercept Strike 2 Security Wreak havoc 2 Spam blocklist Hacked 2 Booby-trapped Turn into a zombie / spambot 2 Commandeer Fall victim to 2 Assaults Onslaught 1 Online thugs Crack 1 TOTAL 81 Table 4.5. 4 Metaphorical expressions of the ATTACK submetaphor

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

TECHNOLOGY IS ESPIONAGE

Spyware 6 Spyware Doctor 1 Sneak through / by 2 Spy Sweeper 1 Recording 2 Steal 1 Spy / spies 2 Slip past 1 Reporting back 1 Stealthy 1 TOTAL 18 Table 4.5. 5 Metaphorical expressions of the ESPIONAGE submetaphor

TECHNOLOGY IS INVASION

Invade / invasion 3 Intruders / Intrusion 3 Break into 2 Sleaze one’s way in 1 Breach 1 Taint 1 Armed with 1 TOTAL 12 Table 4.5. 6 Metaphorical expressions of the INVASION submetaphor

319

The LIFESTYLE metaphor TECHNOLOGY IS LIFESTYLE

Way of life TOTAL

1 1 TECHNOLOGY IS SYMBOL

Icon, iconic Nirvana Guru New age ‘Hoover’ status Batmobile Italian Messiah Walkman Currency Gold dust TOTAL

7 Rock-star status 2 ‘Patch Butcher’ 2 Milestone 2 Star Trek 1 Evangelist 1 Holy grail 1 Rolls Royce 1 Yugo 1 Lamborghini Gallardo 1 Pragmatism 1 30 Table 4.6. 1 Metaphorical expressions of the SYMBOL submetaphor

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

TECHNOLOGY IS FASHION

Hotspot 16 Jump on the bandwagon Style, stylish, styling 8 Limelight Cool, cooler, coolest, uncool 6 Cult Popular, popularity 4 Hit status Luxury 3 Attention-grabber A must, must-have 3 So 20th century Spotlight 3 Plush Debut 3 Latest Fashionistas, techno-fashionistas, 3 Classic fashionable On the scene 2 Glory Mainstream 2 Hot news Design 2 Snazziest 80’s style, 1980s 2 Come and go Minimalism, minimalist 2 Mojo Comeback, is back 2 Hit the market Hit the street(s) 2 Cosmetic De riguer 2 Hype Vintage 2 Retro Passé 1 Trend Fanciest 1 Old-fashioned TOTAL 89 Table 4.6. 2 Metaphorical expressions of the FASHION submetaphor

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

TECHNOLOGY IS CLOTHING

Suit 2 Shrunk-to-fit Mix & match, matching 2 Tailor-made Dressing up 1 Wash and brush up Bespoke 1 Wearing legwarmers Froufrou 1 WASH ’N’ WEAR Ironed out 1 Wear and tear One size fits all 1 White hats Panoply 1 Wardrobe TOTAL 18 Table 4.6. 3 Metaphorical expressions of the CLOTHING submetaphor

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

320

The REVOLUTION metaphor TECHNOLOGY IS REVOLUTION

(to kick-start a) revolution, revolutionary, 10 Ground-breaking revolutionise Bring about, usher in a new era 2 Break the mould Ride the white rocket to stratospheric 1 Opened the gates to a new world of heights Catapult 1 Reinvent Bend the laws of physics 1 TOTAL 19 Table 4.7. 1 Metaphorical expressions of the REVOLUTION metaphor

1 1 1 1

The PROGRESS metaphor TECHNOLOGY IS PROGRESS

Traditional 10 State-of-the-art Evolve, evolution, evolutionary, ever9 Novel evolving Quantum / giant / massive leap forward 8 Progressive Reinvent 6 Take the first steps forward Breakthrough 4 Prospects on the way 4 Prehistoric Around the corner 3 Change Latest 2 Push the envelope Modern 2 Milestone work in progress 2 Propel into tomorrow Cutting-edge, bleeding-edge 2 Light-years ahead Big strides forward 2 Groundbreaking Keep pace, pace of innovation 2 Primitive Innovative 2 Future Move towards, big move forward 2 Pioneer long way off, long way to go 2 Rocket toward even higher levels under way 2 Pave the way Go (even, one step) further 1 Old-fashioned TOTAL 83 Table 4.8. 1 Metaphorical expressions of the PROGRESS metaphor

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

The OBJECT OF DESIRE metaphor TECHNOLOGY IS AN OBJECT OF DESIRE

object of desire / ultra-desirable / desired 4 love-it-or-hate-it dream machine / dream PC / dream 3 beloved come true worthy of true infatuation, infatuations 2 lovers struck in the thumbs with Cupid’s arrow 1 cannot bear to part with carry a torch for 1 precious love at first sight 1 treasured be knocked out by 1 compel be tempted by 1 crave TOTAL 22 Table 4.9. 1 Metaphorical expressions of the OBJECT OF DESIRE metaphor

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

321

The TOY metaphor TECHNOLOGY IS A TOY

Entertainment, entertaining 4 Fun 3 Toy, PowerToys, SyncToy 6 Play with, play, handheld play 5 Games, gaming, videogame, gaming 11 pleasure, parlor game playground craze 1 TOTAL 30 Table 4.10. 1 Metaphorical expressions of the TOY metaphor

The FOOD/COOKING metaphor TECHNOLOGY IS FOOD/COOKING Cookie(s), Cookie Monster, Cookie Spy 60 Hot-off-the-production-line menu 41 Meatier Feed(s) 21 Candybar Juice, juicier, juicebox, juice up 10 Secret sauce Kernel 7 Pageflakes Breadcrumbs 4 Go bad Fresh 4 Fry Plate, platter 3 Squeeze every drop Sandwich 3 Audio Lunchbox Batch 3 Heat up Consume in small doses 3 Home-made Go through like a dose of salts 2 Flavour Taste, tastier 2 Nuts Mix 2 Goodies del.icio.us 1 Home-brew Grain 1 Roast TOTAL 183 Table 4.11. 1 Metaphorical expressions of the FOOD/COOKING metaphor

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

The SUPERNATURAL metaphor TECHNOLOGY IS SUPERNATURAL

Demystify 12 Exorcise Wizard 12 Ghost Magic, magical 8 Haunted Trick(s) 7 Disappearing Wonder(s), wonderphone 4 The Force Dark side 2 Sleight-of-hand Illusion 2 Dark arts Miracle 2 Phenomenon David Blaine 1 Bewitching Cursed 1 Mojo time travel, 1 dollar-a-gallon gasoline, and a humble Donald Trump TOTAL 62 Table 4.12. 1 Metaphorical expressions of the SUPERNATURAL metaphor

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

322

The EXPERIENCE metaphor TECHNOLOGY IS EXPERIENCE

Experience (singular, pleasant, out-ofOffice, enhanced, pleasurable, unique, frustrating) Feel (mapping-meets-astronomy, different, fascinating) / feeling Pain / Painless / Painful / painfully addicted to / addictive / crack-addictive / crackberry Pleasures of / pleasure Convenient / Inconveniences Cinch Daunting Endanger / danger Excitement / hit with thunderbolt of excitement open up a world of / open the gates to a new world of Salvage Suffer Survive (PC disaster) Wreak havoc (on business / sanity) Wow Armed with a pocketful of adventures Awkward Battery life stinks Be put off Beta blankie feels all soft and safe, but it’s time to roll it up and join the rest of the class for milk and cookies Bite the bullet Breeze to use Desire to hurl your PC out the window Breathtaking Chore Dicey Devastating debacles Drooling in amazement Drowning in cables Drudgery (take the- out of) Growled in frustration Hassle Hate Hazards Headache Heaven

22

Irritating

1

14

Joy

1

5 4

Keeping up with the Jetsons Living (game)

1 1

3 2 2 2 2 2

Losing out big-time Lovely Magic bullet Makes life easier Natural Nothing adds insult to injury

1 1 1 1 1 1

2

Online future

1

2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1

Palatable Partake of the Redmond Kool-Aid Part of the culture Part of all of our pasts Phenomenon Physical freedom Plagued Praying Problematic Punish your ear drums with the crummy set of earbuds

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Recover from catastrophes Rescue Re-invigorated Revitalise Risky Rush-hour traffic (slow as-) Second nature Sense Smell the coffee / the burnt toast Start your life with Stroke of genius Stumble Suck (a person) in Time-waster Tiresomely “me too” Triggers everyone’s necks to crane on the train Trouble-free Ubiquitous as oxygen Wireless mess World does not revolve around Windows Years bb (before blackberry)

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Horror show 1 Hoot 1 Induce emotional upheaval 1 Inject new life into 1 Invite the uninitiated into a world they 1 never thought they’d be seen dead in TOTAL 138 Table 4.13. 1 Metaphorical expressions of the EXPERIENCE metaphor

1 1 1 1 1

323

The PHYSICAL SPACE metaphor VIRTUAL SPACE IS PHYSICAL SPACE

Storage (space/ area) / store / storage locker / Office Live storage Address (book) Access (n) There (be) / where / wherever / everywhere / somewhere nearby / elsewhere Space / Windows Meeting Space / Web space / Live Spaces / 3D Port(s) Area / large occupied area From (the Internet, website, screen, anywhere, page, thumb drive, browser) Place / My Places / take place / scary place; like Dante’s underworld Location At (website, address, hotspots) Open (adj) Hole(s) Home (page) / Google Personalized Home world (of conventional software, of third-party scripts, of web building) / world they never thought they’d be seen dead in / online world / offline world Across / across the length and breadth of the Net behind the scenes / Behind (menu—button) Local(ly) Community (internet, gaming) Environment (internal) Library/ies Push email Room (run out of) Crowded Over (the web, the internet) Universe / Yahoo universe Backdoor(s) (programs) Destination docking station Foreground / background hot spots scattered around / all over Store(s) under wraps / tool the wraps off / wrapped up Auction (site) Background (sits in the) Bridge Chat rooms En route from tape to disc/ en route to their destination front door / opened the door Hidden Milestones (of the future) MovieFactory Path (type in a--) / bit path

76

booby-trapped

1

46 27 25

broken chain broken open bucket loads of spam

1 1 1

18

corner (of the internet)

1

16 14 14

Distance evicted from Find the route to your contacts

1 1 1

14

1

13 12 9 8 8 8

finding your way around (a built-to-order website) Fronts Gallery gone even further on the multimedia front graphics-heavy documents grass roots high-tech wireless table

1 1 1 1 1 1

7

Hurdle

1

7 7 6 6 5 5 5 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2

In place jam-packed with just around the corner keep to the better lit parts of the internet like a postcard of the future like a wet bar of soap in the shower like an electronic Swiss Army knife look at Overload (email) PictBridge printer Quarantine realm (of web development) Recycle Bin Repository rigged sites road map road sign icon road to a secure home network rough edges (apps) Route 66-0 route to take Sandbox screen real estate for reading

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2

Second Life–style virtual world Shell (Windows) spam magnet Stay cool at hot spots steps that need to be taken (vista)

1 1 1 1 1

324

Platform 2 stretches the boundaries of Portal (Semantic Web--) 2 StumbleUpon Search Engine Land / computer-land 2 Suite Spot Stacks of (filters) / multicell-2 swamped by To (connect, link) 2 take up much (RAM) trove of Firefox add-ons / treasure-trove 2 tightly integrated with Zone (security-, -settings) 2 Times Square of Search all the parts of the Live ecosystem 1 Towers Arena 1 Trace as secure as its weakest link (network) 1 transition [from XP to Vista] Between (sits somewhere in) 1 web-bound TOTAL 481 Table 4.14. 1 Metaphorical expressions of the PHYSICAL SPACE metaphor

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

VIRTUAL PROCESS IS PHYSICAL PROCESS

Download / redownload Install / uninstall / reinstall Open (v) up / reopen Add Search (on) / in search of / for / manually / through Access(ible) (v) Edit Create Send Remove Save Find Share Upload Close(d) Copy Delete Move (them) (around) / up or down Capture (a threat, data) Paste cleaning up / clean out Load(ed) with Pick / choose / select Retrieve(al) Burn cracked by / crack Identify Locate(d) transfer (the footage across) Patch(es) (noun/verb) Block crams into/ onto Locked (toolbars) / locked down / unlock (code) Browse Receive Write / overwrite Archive Detect(ion)

61 56 52 38 32

Collect (data) Clean your tracks Catch Dig (for features) DIY websites

1 1 1 1 1

31 29 24 23 21 19 16 14 14 13 13 13 13 12 12 11 11 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 6

Dismantle (software) ditch your DVD player Don’t get jacked Embed (data into) Encounter Endanger (data) Exchanging Extract Faffing around Fill with Firing up Office Fix Flex (photographic skills) Flip Gather Generate (pages) Get (program) Go through Guarded by (pc) having a look around (the internet) Highlight Index Jolt loosen up the signature Lug Mask (stuck pixels) Massage Mess with

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

5 5 5 4 4

Mine Modify Mold (Windows) Mooch Onslaught

1 1 1 1 1

325

Insert into Pack (a spare) into / onto Undo / redo Break / Broken / Break through (firewalls) Change Compress(ion) Fit together Put up (walls) Scroll through Sort (out) Track (down) Blaze a trail Bring up (window) / files together Bypass Clip Clutter up / clutter (n) Crop Detach Direct / redirect Dumped / Dump Linux Empty (the trash) Expand Get lost (in menu) getting rid of malware

4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

grab digital keys / onto Handle Hunt (for info) / hunt through Look through / for Pass (over)

2 2 2 2 2

Put (on web) Repair Replace trim (out) Unveil Juggle Actions (to track) adjust the overall font size Apply (noise reduction) Assemble

2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1

Overload Picking up the pieces piece together (a site) Pin (onto pad) Placement (search-engine) polished away Plop down Point (to) Purge (files) Rearrange Recycle roll out root around the internet Rotate Rummage (through files) Scour (code) Scramble scribble (digital_ pad) Scrubbed (system clean) Sidestep Shrink smearing things around Spin around (windows) split a single disk into two partitions Spread (across) stamp out Steal Stock up stuck to the desktop using the little pin Supplement Suspend tapping into Take the wraps off tampered with (message) Tear off threw at Tie into knots Truncate turn (pages you--) with the brush of a finger wading through whack it! Wind Up Your Graphics Clock Wipe out (hard drive) Wring out (power) Uncover (vulnerability) Unstick Your Pixels Unzip

Attach 1 Bag (v) 1 Barricade from 1 Be tied to (network) 1 bounced back the message 1 burrowing through 1 Call out (parts of a page) 1 churning through 1 TOTAL 807 Table 4.14. 2 Metaphorical expressions of the PHYSICAL PROCESS submetaphor

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

326

VIRTUAL MOVEMENT IS PHYSICAL MOVEMENT

Visit / pay a visit to / often-visited / visitor

46

go (to) / go back to / go back Navigate (around / to) / navigation(al) Surfing / surf (over) / safe-surfing Drag Drop / dropdown (menu) Reach Trail (electronic) Walkthroughs / walk through / around Enter / reenter Head (straight) to / over to move from Windows XP to Vista / make the move (vista) / skip a level

43 40 26 21 15 6 6 6 5 5 5

Move to (browser)

4

jump straight to any folder Move / move back be brought back to / brought to a page come / come back to (visit) Exit route to take / routes to go down stumbling onto (sites) / Stumblers / stumble wrestling—or dancing—with the suite (storage probs) Arriving (on a server) Backtrack Be stuck dip into (windows) drag-and-droppiness drop by

3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2

4

1 1 1 1 1 1

flip over to a WLAN network Follow (wizard) get past (games) Go around go beyond going up and down Get to (menus) hit the web Leave move off the PC platform move between apps move files back and forth move beyond word processors passed back and forth between your PC and the computer (information) path to the open window Poke prowling the Web Push Step through Stroll through Takes you to Travels trawling through (websites) trek across the cube farm trip (to the website) Troll upgrade path to take wander even a short way off the beaten track

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

TOTAL 284 Table 4.14. 3 Metaphorical expressions of the PHYSICAL MOVEMENT submetaphor

VIRTUAL SPACE IS A SURFACE

On 265 on top of (Vista) 2 Onto 19 Above 1 Log on 12 Below 1 Over 7 Beneath 1 Under (folder, menu, Windows) 6 Log off 1 Off / off-load 6 make a dent on 1 fit (on a DVD) 3 pinned to (the desktop) 1 Get off 2 stuck to (the desktop) 1 TOTAL 320 Table 4.14. 4 Metaphorical expressions of the SURFACE submetaphor

327

VIRTUAL SPACE IS A CONTAINER

In 184 Out of (default installation, window ) Into 60 Pack into Inside 19 ‘pass through’ (feature) Log in / into 19 Put in / into Box(es) (dialog, search) / in a little white box 14 Sign in Enter a … in / into ... 13 abuzz with Contain (files--) / contents 12 Bulging with Through(out) (the Start menu, port, modem, 10 Come in cyberspace, Vista) Inbox 7 containment vessel Incoming (mail, code, data) 7 Cramped Within / layers deep within menus 7 Clog (inbox) fit (inside / into) 6 click your way through all those menus Fill (drives) / filled with / filling half the 5 Depth (of features) screen Inbound (traffic) 5 grab bag of thumbnails Outbound 5 get through Outgoing (mail) 5 Include (website--) Outside (threats, address, attacks, world) 5 in-house Hold 4 Ins and outs Import / export 4 into the depths (of the Registry) Cluttered (hard drive) / clutter-free display / 3 Layer(s) uncluttered Full o(f) 3 Let in stuff (with) / stuffed into 3 locked into Skype Comprise 2 Log out Crammed in / crammed with 2 remain in the web browser’s memory Empty 2 Shoehorn into External (messages, attacks) 2 teeming with Internal (environment) 2 trickling into (real-world sites) keep out (threats) 2 software with half as many bugs Mine 2 TOTAL 447 Table 4.14. 5 Metaphorical expressions of the CONTAINER submetaphor

2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

VIRTUAL SPACE IS A HIGHWAY

Shortcut 18 Traffic 11 Congestion 2 Avenues 1 Fast Lane 1 two-way (firewall) 1 TOTAL 34 Table 4.14. 6 Metaphorical expressions of the HIGHWAY submetaphor

328

Tables from Chapter 5 Metaphor Person Activity Age Emotions Gender Human body Kinship Personality Physical appearance Role / occupation TOTAL

Common metaphors

Elaborate Metaphor

Shift of submetaphor

Shift of metaphor

No translation

Literal rendition

Omission

672 5 0 3 32

26 0 0 0 0

3 0 0 0 2

33 14 0 0 11

167 13 1 2 6

25 5 0 4 3

24 6 1 2 8

36 147 28

0 3 0

2 3 3

0 21 8

8 55 19

5 25 12

11 24 3

87

0

5

0

56

14

21

1010

29

18

89

327

95

94

0

0

9

0

0

Living organism Animal Plant Health / illness Life / death Function TOTAL

0

56 4 75

0 0 1

1 0 1

8 7 7

31 6 15

12 7 4

7 2 8

5 12 152

1 0 2

0 0 11

8 0 30

9 3 64

5 2 30

2 2 21

Machine Vehicle Automobile Bus Ship TOTAL

132 103 0 1 236

5 5 0 0 10

0 9 0 0 9

34 20 3 0 57

40 72 1 1 114

34

14 26 1 1 42

Competition Race Battle Boxing match TOTAL

61 0 18 12

3 0 0 0

3 1 6 1

7 3 1 0

24 4 3 0

7 2 0

5 0 0 1

91

3

11

11

31

9

5

Fortress Combat Defence Attack Espionage Invasion TOTAL

12 11 107 59 14 8 211

1 1 6 1 0 0 9

0 2 2 1 0 0 5

0 2 5 3 1 0 11

3 7 42 8 2 0 62

1 1 6 5 0 1 14

1 1 5 2 1 0 10

Progress

73

3

0

3

22

9

7

Revolution

17

3

0

0

6

0

1

Lifestyle Symbol Fashion

1 17 31

0 0 5

0 0 0

0 3 7

0 5 18

1 10

0 1 2

35 0 0 69

329

Clothing TOTAL

4 53

0 5

0 0

1 11

5 28

2 13

2 5

Object of desire

23

0

0

0

8

3

0

Toy

17

0

0

1

5

1

2

Food / cooking

105

0

0

10

31

12

16

Experience

47

12

0

6

41

12

10

Supernatural

20

1

0

5

10

4

2

Physical space Physical process Physical movement Surface Container Highway TOTAL

224

4

4

14

49

19

23

629

22

2

12

131

13

34

119

3

13

2

154

5

4

118 271 15 1376

4 6 0 39

31 7 0 57

0 2 0 30

103 84 19 540

10 15 0 62

22 21 1 105

1289 22%

333 6%

320 5%

TOTAL

3427 118 111 264 58% 2% 2% 5% Table 5. 1 Quantitative assessment of the translated metaphors

330

Appendix 2

1 METAPHOR Person

Person

The PERSON metaphor

Metaphors common to ST and TT SUBMETAPHOR Activity

Activity

LINGUISTIC EXPRESSIONS

SOURCE

Cheat websites such as […] offer walkthroughs, codes and modifications, or mods, that can give you a helping hand with virtually every game for any system.

CA, Get a handle on games

Τα sites, όπως είναι το […] προσφέρουν οδηγίες και mods και µπορούν να σας προσφέρουν χείρα βοηθείας για σχεδόν όλα τα παιχνίδια και για όλα τα συστήµατα.

CA, Πάρτε το Παιχνίδι στα Χέρια Σας

Such websites expand on the sections that have featured in computer magazines for years, offering tips and cheats for games, and are now huge libraries of helpful quick-fixes. Αυτού του είδους τα sites, ουσιαστικά επεκτείνουν σε µέγιστο βαθµό εκείνα τα σηµεία που παλιότερα καταλάµβαναν κάποια σελίδα στα περιοδικά του χώρου, προσφέροντας tips και cheats για παιχνίδια, έχοντας πλέον την έκταση τεράστιων βιβλιοθηκών.

CA, Get a handle on games CA, Πάρτε το Παιχνίδι στα Χέρια Σας

Person

Activity

There are ones designed to work with the Skype […] service, among others. Η συγκεκριµένη κατηγορία τηλεφώνων, συνεργάζεται αποκλειστικά µε το πρόγραµµα [Skype] και δεν µπορείτε να το χρησιµοποιήσετε µε κάποια άλλη υπηρεσία VoIP τηλεφωνίας.

CA, Heavenly handsets CA, Όχι Μόνο Φθηνά, Αλλά και Απλά

Person

Activity

It all started when the Playstation 2 (launched in 2000) offered DVD playback as well as gaming. Όλα ξεκίνησαν όταν το Playstation 2 (κυκλοφόρησε το 2000) ενσωµάτωσε δυνατότητα αναπαραγωγής DVD παράλληλα µε τη λειτουργία παιχνιδοµηχανής.

CA, Play time CA, Ώρα για Παιχνίδι

Person

Activity

The long-awaited Playstation 3 […] can play audio CDs, DVDs, mp3s and display photos from a digital camera. Το πολύ-αναµενόµενο Playstation 3 κυκλοφόρησε εδώ και λίγες µέρες και µπορεί να αναπαράγει CD ήχου, DVD, MP3, καθώς και φωτογραφίες από ψηφιακή κάµερα.

CA, Play time CA, Ώρα για Παιχνίδι

331

Person

Activity

The PS3 also plays movie files downloaded from the Internet […] Το PS3 µπορεί επίσης να αναπαράγει αρχεία video που έχετε κατεβάσει από το Internet […].

CA, Play time CA, Ώρα για Παιχνίδι

Person

Activity

Out of the box, the Xbox 360 can play DVDs and it will also play music, movie and photo files from either internal storage or external USB devices.

CA, Play time

Επιπρόσθετα, το Xbox 360 µπορεί να αναγνωρίσει CDs και DVDs, καθώς και να αναπαράγει µουσική, ταινίες και φωτογραφικά αρχεία είτε απευθείας από τον σκληρό δίσκο είτε από εξωτερικές USB συσκευές.

CA, Ώρα για Παιχνίδι

Person

Activity

Instead the Wii focuses squarely on gaming. […] αλλά εκεί που διαπρέπει είναι στον τοµέα των παιχνιδιών.

CA, Play time CA, Ώρα για Παιχνίδι

Person

Activity

Blu-ray: a format that delivers high definition and storage up to 50GB on DVD-sized discs. Blu-ray: το πρότυπο αυτό χρησιµοποιεί τεχνολογία µπλε λέιζερ και µπορεί να αποθηκεύσει µέχρι 27GB δεδοµένων σε έναν δίσκο DVD.

CA, Play time CA, Ώρα για Παιχνίδι

Person

Activity

And, unless you own a newer camcorder that uses USB to transfer video, a Firewire port on your PC will be required. Αν η motherboard του υπολογιστή σας είναι σχετικά σύγχρονη, τότε υπάρχει µεγάλη πιθανότητα αν ενσωµατώνει τέτοια θύρα, αλλιώς θα χρειαστεί να την προσθέσετε ξεχωριστά µε τη µορφή κάρτας PCI.

CA, VHS RIP CA, Πετάξτε τις Κασέτες VHS µια για Πάντα

Person

Activity

Should the upgrade tool determine that your computer is not powerful enough to run Vista […] Στην απευκταία περίπτωση που ο οδηγός σάς συµβουλεύσει ότι ο υπολογιστής σας δεν µπορεί να τρέξει τα Vista […].

CA, Surviving Vista CA, Windows Vista στα Μέτρα Σας!

Person

Activity

The new Aero interface, which provides the rather fancy 3D effects, is quite demanding and older graphic cards or computers with graphics capabilities integrated into the motherboard may not be able to cope. Η νέα λειτουργία Aero, η οποία παρουσιάζει τα περιεχόµενα παραθύρων τρισδιάστατα, απαιτεί µια σύγχρονη κάρτα γραφικών για να µπορέσει να λειτουργήσει. Κατά συνέπεια, παλαιότεροι υπολογιστές που διαθέτουν ενσωµατωµένη στο mainboard κάρτα γραφικών (onboard) είναι πολύ πιθανό να µην µπορέσουν να υποστηρίξουν το Aero.

CA, Surviving Vista

Person

Activity

It rummages through the PC’s innards and ascertains whether or not it will run Vista happily and which flavour of Microsoft’s new operating system is most suitable.

CA, Windows Vista στα Μέτρα Σας!

CA, 30 fresh downloads

332

Person

Person

Person

Activity

Activity

Activity

Το εν λόγω πρόγραµµα της Microsoft ερευνά στα ενδότερα του υπολογιστή ώστε να διασφαλίσει κατά πόσον είναι δυνατή η εγκατάσταση των Vista και σας υποδεικνύει ποια έκδοση είναι η πλέον κατάλληλη για σας.

CA, Τα Καλύτερα “Φρέσκα” Προγράµµατα’

This tool transforms Word documents, Excel spreadsheets, web pages […] into pdf files that anyone with Adobe Reader can open, search and navigate […]. Το Cutepdf Writer µετατρέπει τα έγγραφα του Word, τα φύλλα του Excel και τις ιστοσελίδες σε αρχεία PDF τα οποία µπορεί να ανοίξει και να διαβάσει όποιος διαθέτει Adobe Reader.

CA, 30 fresh downloads

Of all the programs that try to mimic the Apple Mac Dock, Rocketdock is the one that’s had the most fat trimmed off it. Από όλα τα προγράµµατα που προσπαθούν να µιµηθούν το χαρακτηριστικό Apple Mac Dock (η γραµµή εργαλείων στην οθόνη του Mac), το Rocketdock είναι αυτό που τα καταφέρνει καλύτερα. Syncback works with Windows Scheduler, so it can be set up to run once a week – or once a day for the paranoid. Το Syncback συνεργάζεται µε τις προγραµµατισµένες εργασίες, ώστε να ορίζετε την εκτέλεσή του µια φορά την εβδοµάδα ή µια φορά την ηµέρα για τους πιο…αδέξιους.

CA, Τα Καλύτερα “Φρέσκα” Προγράµµατα’ CA, 30 fresh downloads CA, Τα Καλύτερα “Φρέσκα” Προγράµµατα’ CA, 30 fresh downloads CA, Τα Καλύτερα “Φρέσκα” Προγράµµατα’

Person

Activity

Finally, Windows has been dragged into the 21st century. Επιτέλους τα Windows εισήλθαν στον 21ο αιώνα […]

CA, 30 fresh downloads CA, Τα Καλύτερα “Φρέσκα” Προγράµµατα’

Person

Activity

It now offers built-in support for gadgets – small programs that sit on the Desktop and do a single, simple job. […] και για να το …γιορτάσουν προσφέρουν ενσωµατωµένη υποστήριξη για gadgets – µικρά προγράµµατα τα οποία επικάθονται στην Επιφάνεια εργασίας και κάνουν κάποιες εργασίες.

CA, 30 fresh downloads CA, Τα Καλύτερα “Φρέσκα” Προγράµµατα’

Person

Activity

Acid takes care of the tempo and makes sure that no one can hear the joins. Το Acid αναλαµβάνει το ρυθµό και διασφαλίζει πως κανένας δεν θα µπορεί να ακούσει τα σηµεία ένωσης.

CA, 30 fresh downloads CA, Τα Καλύτερα “Φρέσκα” Προγράµµατα’

Person

Activity

For those who persist, Rainlendar supports events and to-dos, displays single or multiple calendar months and – thanks to some smashing skins – looks like a Rolls Royce. Το Rainlendar υποστηρίζει ειδοποιήσεις για εκδηλώσεις και γεγονότα, εµφανίζει µεµονωµένους ή

CA, 30 fresh downloads CA,

Τα

Καλύτερα

333

Person

Person

Person

Person

Person

Person

Activity

Activity

Activity

Activity

Activity

Activity

πολλαπλούς ηµερολογιακούς µήνες και χάρη στα πάµπολλα skins που διαθέτει, µπορεί να µοιάζει µε…Rolls Royce.

“Φρέσκα” Προγράµµατα’

This natty utility takes photos and turns them into an animated photo album that can be included in a web page. Το εύχρηστο αυτό πρόγραµµα παίρνει τις φωτογραφίες σας και τις µετατρέπει σε ένα animated φωτογραφικό άλµπουµ.

CA, 30 fresh downloads

It just needs to know which folders to ‘watch’ (usually My Documents is sufficient to pick up most of the things that most of us do) and where to store the backup – and that’s it. Το µόνο που απαιτείται είναι να καθορίσετε ποιους φακέλους θα πρέπει να «επιτηρεί», καθώς και που να αποθηκεύσει το backup, και…αυτό ήταν. This is a small multimedia player that runs virtually all audio and video formats without forcing you to root around the internet in search of the necessary converters. Το VLC είναι ένας «µικρός» multimedia player, ο οποίος µπορεί να αναπαράγει σχεδόν όλα τα πρότυπα ήχου και video, χωρίς να σας αναγκάζει να ψάχνετε ώρες για τους κατάλληλους codecs. Beta software sits somewhere in between, and while it’s probably not a good idea to try and run a company on beta product, it is usually fine to try it out alongside existing applications. Το beta software τοποθετείται κάπου ανάµεσα και παρόλο που εάν έχετε µια επιχείρηση καλό θα ήταν να µην βασιστείτε σε αυτό, µπορείτε κάλλιστα να το χρησιµοποιήσετε παράλληλα µε ήδη υπάρχουσες εφαρµογές. The theory goes like this: Windows is so literal that it tries to load everything in the startup file at the same time, with the inevitable result – everything bumps into everything else in comical electronic fashion and the whole process slows to a crawl. Αν έχετε πολλά προγράµµατα που εκκινούν µαζί µε τα Windows, το κάθε ένα από αυτά θα «δεσµεύει» την CPU µέχρι ότου φορτώσει. Startup Delayer is able to stagger these programs so they launch in more of an ‘after you’ fashion, which instead of taking longer, actually speeds up the entire process. Το Startup Delayer σας επιτρέπει να καθορίσετε για πόσα δευτερόλεπτα θα φορτώνει το κάθε πρόγραµµα αφότου εκκινούν τα Windows.

CA, Τα Καλύτερα “Φρέσκα” Προγράµµατα’ CA, 30 fresh downloads CA, Τα Καλύτερα “Φρέσκα” Προγράµµατα’ CA, 30 fresh downloads CA, Τα Καλύτερα “Φρέσκα” Προγράµµατα’ CA, 30 fresh downloads CA, Τα Καλύτερα “Φρέσκα” Προγράµµατα’

CA, 30 fresh downloads

CA, Τα Καλύτερα “Φρέσκα” Προγράµµατα’ CA, 30 fresh downloads CA, Τα Καλύτερα “Φρέσκα” Προγράµµατα’

334

Person

Person

Activity

Activity

It includes a sophisticated search feature and to-do lists and allows notes to be dragged and dropped between categories, emailed or printed out and synchronised between a desktop PC and a USB memory key. Το πρόγραµµα περιλαµβάνει ένα «έξυπνο» εργαλείο αναζήτησης, επιτρέπει στις σηµειώσεις να µετακινούνται ανάµεσα σε διαφορετικές κατηγορίες, να σταλούν µε email ή να εκτυπωθούν. Basically, Vista displays the path to the open window in the menu bar and adds clickable arrows so it’s possible to jump straight to any folder in the hierarchy with a couple of mouse clicks instead of laboriously going up and down one folder at a time. Βασικά, αυτό που κάνουν τα Vista είναι να εµφανίζουν τη διαδροµή (path) για το ενεργό παράθυρο στη γραµµή του µενού, προσθέτοντας βελάκια στα οποία µπορείτε να κάνετε κλικ. Έτσι είναι δυνατόν να µετακινηθείτε κατευθείαν σε οποιονδήποτε φάκελο στην «ιεραρχία» µε λίγα µόνο κλικ. Το αποτέλεσµα είναι πως αποφεύγετε την άσκοπη µετακίνηση πάνω-κάτω ανάµεσα στους φακέλους.

CA, 30 fresh downloads CA, Τα Καλύτερα “Φρέσκα” Προγράµµατα’ CA, 30 fresh downloads

CA, Τα Καλύτερα “Φρέσκα” Προγράµµατα’

Person

Activity

Explorer Breadcrumbs offers the same functionality to XP users and should downloaded immediately. Το εργαλείο Explorer Breadcrumbs προσφέρει την ίδια λειτουργία στους χρήστες των XP και αποτελεί ένα από τα απαραίτητα downloads.

CA, 30 fresh downloads CA, Τα Καλύτερα “Φρέσκα” Προγράµµατα’

Person

Activity

[The Startup Control Panel] It finds hidden Registry keys, which some programs use to check that they have been loaded during start up. Το πρόγραµµα ανακαλύπτει άµεσα τα κρυφά κλειδιά της Registry, τα οποία µερικά προγράµµατα χρησιµοποιούν για να ελέγξουν πως έχουν φορτωθεί κατά τη διαδικασία της εκκίνησης.

CA, Ease the Windows pain

Person

Activity

CA, Παυσίπονα Windows

So that tools such as Startup Control Panel do not bury themselves in the start up routine, use Start up Monitor […]. Με τον τρόπο αυτόν αποτρέπει τις ενοχλητικές εισαγωγές προγραµµάτων από το να εγκαθίστανται…πίσω από την πλάτη σας.

CA, Παυσίπονα Windows

για

τα

CA, Ease the Windows pain για

τα

Person

Activity

This software sounds the alarm if entries are altered. Πρόκειται για µια δωρεάν εφαρµογή που εκτελείται…στα µετόπισθεν και σας προειδοποιεί όταν οποιοδήποτε πρόγραµµα επιχειρήσει να καταγραφεί στην εκκίνηση του συστήµατός σας.

CA, Ease the Windows pain CA, Παυσίπονα για τα Windows

Person

Activity

In spite of this, Messenger turns up after every log in with an icon in the Notification Area, along with the message that the user is not logged in. Όποια όµως κι αν είναι η προτίµησή σας, ο Messenger έχει την κακή συνήθεια να εµφανίζεται µετά από κάθε εκκίνηση των Windows µε τη µορφή εικονιδίου στο System Tray, εµφανίζοντας ένα µήνυµα πως ο

CA, Ease the Windows pain CA, Παυσίπονα Windows

για

τα

335

χρήστης δεν είναι συνδεδεµένος. Person

Person

Activity

Activity

Then Messenger will request at every start up that you log in with your Windows Live or Microsoft Passport details. Αυτό σηµαίνει πως το Messenger θα απαιτεί σε κάθε εκκίνηση να εισάγετε τις λεπτοµέρειες του λογαριασµού εγγραφής του Microsoft Passport ή του Windows Live.

CA, Ease the Windows pain CA, Παυσίπονα Windows

It will ensure that Windows does not bother you again by asking what it should do with a CD or removable storage media. Με τον τρόπο αυτό θα βεβαιωθείτε πως τα Windows δεν πρόκειται να σας ξαναρωτήσουν για το τι να κάνουν (άνοιγµα φακέλου, αναπαραγωγή µέσου κλπ.) µε το CD ή τα υπόλοιπα αποθηκευτικά µέσα.

CA, Παυσίπονα Windows

για

τα

CA, Ease the Windows pain για

τα

Person

Activity

For example, the first time it’s run, Media Player grabs all the current media without asking. Για παράδειγµα, κατά την εκκίνησή του για πρώτη φορά, ο player συσχετίζει όλους τους παρόντες στο PC σας τύπους αρχείων χωρίς καν να ζητήσει την έγκρισή σας.

CA, Ease the Windows pain CA, Παυσίπονα για τα Windows

Person

Activity

If you still want to use the Windows Media Player, you can tweak the way it checks for updates and looks for codecs […]. Εφόσον θέλετε ακόµα να χρησιµοποιήσετε τον W.M.P. µπορείτε να ρυθµίσετε τον τρόπο που ελέγχει για ενηµερώσεις και αναζητά νέους κωδικοποιητές (codecs) […]

CA, Ease the Windows pain CA, Παυσίπονα Windows

για

τα

Person

Activity

Filters often can’t deal with this sort of spam. Τα φίλτρα λοιπόν δεν µπορούν να αντεπεξέλθουν σε αυτού του είδους το spam.

CA, Ease the Windows pain CA, Παυσίπονα για τα Windows

Person

Activity

The word processor carries out what were previously tedious formatting exercises […]. Για παράδειγµα, ο επεξεργαστής κειµένου αναλαµβάνει αυτόµατα της εισαγωγή αρίθµησης, κουκίδων ή την αλλαγή των απλών σε τυπογραφικά εισαγωγικά.

CA, Ease the Windows pain CA, Παυσίπονα για τα Windows

Person

Activity

[…] Hovtext adds nine further levels of temporary storage to the clipboard […]. Την ίδια στιγµή το HovText προσθέτει εννέα επιπλέον επίπεδα προσωρινής αποθήκευσης στο Πρόχειρο, ώστε να µπορείτε να χρησιµοποιήσετε όχι µόνο το τελευταίο περιεχόµενο του clipboard αλλά και όλα τα οχτώ προηγούµενα.

CA, Ease the Windows pain CA, Παυσίπονα για τα Windows

Person

Activity

After installation, Hovtext puts itself in the Windows Autostart folder, and displays an icon in the

CA, Ease the Windows pain

336

Notification Area. Μετά την εγκατάστασή του, το HovText τοποθετείται στον φάκελο Εκκίνηση (Startup) και εµφανίζει ένα εικονίδιο στο System tray. Person

Activity

Drivers that load slowly, or aren’t meant to be there in the first place, are as much of a brake as a fragmented hard disk and lots of programs in the Autostart folder. […] οι drivers που φορτώνουν αργά ή που δεν θα έπρεπε να βρίσκονται εξαρχής εκεί, αποτελούν τροχοπέδη, όπως επίσης και ένας σκληρός δίσκος που χρειάζεται επειγόντως ανασυγκρότηση και, τέλος, τα πολλά προγράµµατα στον φάκελο Εκκίνηση (Startup).

CA, Παυσίπονα Windows

για

τα

CA, Ease the Windows pain CA, Παυσίπονα Windows

για

τα

Person

Activity

After clicking on the Apply Settings button, XP-Antispy removes Windows Messenger automatically. Αφού κάνετε κλικ στο κουµπί Apply Settings, το XP-Antispy αποµακρύνει αυτόµατα τον Windows Messenger.

CA, Ease the Windows pain CA, Παυσίπονα για τα Windows

Person

Activity

Spamihilator uses an intelligent filter, an editable list of key words and a blacklist to check incoming emails for spam, that is sent to a bin from where it can be restored, just in case a legitimate email is snared. Το Spamihilator χρησιµοποιεί ένα ευφυέστατο φίλτρο, µια επεξεργάσιµη λίστα από λέξεις κλειδιά και µια «µαύρη λίστα» ώστε να ελέγχει τα εισερχόµενα µηνύµατα για spam. Τα µηνύµατα αυτά ακολούθως καταλήγουν σε έναν «κάδο» από τον οποίο µπορούν να ανακτηθούν σε περίπτωση λάθους.

CA, Ease the Windows pain CA, Παυσίπονα Windows

για

τα

Person

Activity

You can also give XP-Antispy the job of turning off the Autoplay function for CDs […]. Μπορείτε επίσης να αναθέσετε στο XP-Antispy την απενεργοποίηση της λειτουργίας της αυτόµατης αναπαραγωγής (Autoplay) για CDs.

CA, Ease the Windows pain CA, Παυσίπονα για τα Windows

Person

Activity

Google can remember what you searched for in the past with the help of cookies.

CA, Everyone loves cookies CA, Τα Μπισκότα δεν είναι Πάντα Νόστιµα

Το Google «θυµάται» τι αναζητήσατε στο παρελθόν µε τη βοήθεια των cookies.

Person

Activity

At first glance, it might appear that cookies are spying on our every move and being used by big business to track us wherever we go. Σε ένα πρώτο επίπεδο, µπορεί κάποιος να πιστέψει πως τα cookies κατασκοπεύουν την κάθε µας κίνηση αποτελώντας όργανο κάποιων µεγάλων εταιρειών, οι οποίες παρακολουθούν την κάθε µας κίνηση.

CA, Everyone loves cookies CA, Τα Μπισκότα δεν είναι Πάντα Νόστιµα

Person

Activity

One of the pieces of information sent by the web server is a small text file called a cookie.

CA,

Everyone

loves

337

Ανάµεσα στις πληροφορίες τις οποίες αποστέλλει ο server, είναι και ένα αρχείο κειµένου που αποκαλείται cookie.

cookies CA, Τα Μπισκότα δεν είναι Πάντα Νόστιµα

Person

Activity

If a site needs a password and user name to enter, a cookie can store this on your computer, so it is automatically sent to the web server every time you visit the site. Εάν απαιτείται username και password για να συνδεθείτε σε ένα site, ένα cookie µπορεί να χρησιµοποιηθεί ώστε να τα αποθηκεύσει στο PC σας, οπότε αποστέλλεται αυτόµατα στον server κάθε φορά που το επισκέπτεστε.

CA, Everyone loves cookies CA, Τα Μπισκότα δεν είναι Πάντα Νόστιµα

Person

Activity

This is why some sites seem to ‘remember’ who you are when you come back to visit them. Να γιατί κάποια sites φαίνεται να «θυµούνται» την ταυτότητά σας κάθε φορά που επιχειρείτε να τα επισκεφτείτε εκ νέου.

CA, Everyone loves cookies CA, Τα Μπισκότα δεν είναι Πάντα Νόστιµα

Person

Activity

These cookies can make sure that internet users don’t see the same ad too many times, and that they can see adverts that are relevant to them. Τα cookies αυτά διασφαλίζουν πως ο χρήστης δεν θα δει τις ίδιες διαφηµίσεις πολλές φορές, και όσες δει θα τον ενδιαφέρουν περισσότερο.

CA, Everyone loves cookies CA, Τα Μπισκότα δεν είναι Πάντα Νόστιµα

Person

Activity

If you visit a site that installs a Doubleclick cookie and then another site that also uses the company’s technology, then information about the other sites visited that use Doubleclick will be sent back to the company. Εφόσον επισκεφτείτε ένα site το οποίο εγκαθιστά ένα cookie της Doubleclick και ακόλουθα ένα site το οποίο επίσης χρησιµοποιεί την τεχνολογία της εταιρείας, τότε οι πληροφορίες σχετικά µε τα άλλα sites που επισκεφτήκατε και χρησιµοποιούν την Doubleclick θα επιστραφούν στην εταιρεία.

CA, Everyone cookies

Person

Activity

It would kill internet shopping stone dead. Το αποτέλεσµα θα ήταν… χαριστική βολή στην υπόθεση internet shopping.

Person

Activity

Websites now routinely use cookies to store details of things people want to purchase online. Τα sites χρησιµοποιούν πλέον τα cookies ώστε να αποθηκεύουν τις λεπτοµέρειες για τα προϊόντα που οι

loves

CA, Τα Μπισκότα δεν είναι Πάντα Νόστιµα

CA, Everyone loves cookies CA, Τα Μπισκότα δεν είναι Πάντα Νόστιµα CA, Everyone loves cookies CA, Τα Μπισκότα δεν είναι

338

Person

Activity

χρήστες επιθυµούν να αγοράσουν online.

Πάντα Νόστιµα

Firefox can block specific sites from saving a cookie on your PC.

CA, Everyone loves cookies CA, Τα Μπισκότα δεν είναι Πάντα Νόστιµα

Ο Firefox προσφέρει µεγάλη ευελιξία στις ρυθµίσεις και επιτρέπει στον χρήστη να καθορίσει σε ποια cookies θα επιτραπεί ή όχι την πρόσβαση. Person

Activity

The menu behind this button allows you to name specific sites that you want to block cookies from, and will block both the site’s own cookies and those of any affiliated websites (usually companies that advertise on the main site), known as third-party cookies. Το µενού που ανοίγει, σας επιτρέπει να καθορίσετε συγκεκριµένα sites από τα οποία θέλετε να µπλοκάρετε τα cookies, ενώ επίσης θα µπλοκάρει τόσο τα cookies από το ίδιο το site όσο και αυτά των συσχετιζοµένων µε αυτό (συνήθως εταιρείες που διαφηµίζονται εκεί).

CA, Everyone cookies

loves

CA, Τα Μπισκότα δεν είναι Πάντα Νόστιµα

Person

Activity

It will also allow you to choose which sites to accept cookies from for example shopping sites or those you visit regularly which have a registration page. Σας επιτρέπει επιπλέον να επιλέξετε από ποια sites θα αποδεχτείτε cookies, π.χ. sites αγορών ή όσα επισκέπτεστε συχνά και τα οποία διαθέτουν µια σελίδα εγγραφής.

CA, Everyone loves cookies CA, Τα Μπισκότα δεν είναι Πάντα Νόστιµα

Person

Activity

You can allow or block first- and third-party cookies or ask the browser to ask you each time it encounters one. Μπορείτε να επιτρέψετε την αποδοχή ή το µπλοκάρισµα cookies από το ίδιο το site ή από τρίτους ή ακόµα και να ορίσετε στον browser να σας ρωτάει κάθε φορά που «συναντάει» κάποιο.

CA, Everyone loves cookies CA, Τα Μπισκότα δεν είναι Πάντα Νόστιµα

Person

Activity

Click on the Delete button and then choose to delete all the cookies that the browser has stored; […]. Πατήστε το κουµπί ∆ιαγραφή (Delete) και ακόλουθα επιλέξτε να διαγράψετε όλα τα cookies που έχει αποθηκεύσει ο browser σας.

CA, Everyone loves cookies CA, Τα Μπισκότα δεν είναι Πάντα Νόστιµα

Person

Activity

These tools allow the user to view individual cookies within the browser and delete or allow them as applicable. Υπάρχουν εργαλεία τα οποία επιτρέπουν στον χρήστη να δει τα µεµονωµένα cookies που περιέχονται στον browser και να τα διαγράψει ή όχι.

CA, Everyone loves cookies CA, Τα Μπισκότα δεν είναι Πάντα Νόστιµα

Person

Activity

However, the word processor and spreadsheet can read and write Word and Excel files, and the Calendar is

CA, Go to work on the web

339

excellent and integrates with Desktop programs such as Windows Vista’s Calendar so appointments can be viewed on the Desktop as well as on the web. Ο επεξεργαστής κειµένων, αλλά και η εφαρµογή υπολογιστικών φύλλων, µπορεί να «διαβάσει» και να «γράψει» αρχεία Excel, ενώ το ηµερολόγιο είναι εξαιρετικό και συνεργάζεται µε άλλες εφαρµογές γραφείου όπως είναι το ηµερολόγιο των Windows Vista για να βλέπετε τα ραντεβού σας offline όσο και online. Person

Person

Person

Person

Person

Activity

Activity

Activity

Activity

Activity

It includes a nifty presentation program for creating slideshows that reads and runs Powerpoint shows, although these presentations are restricted to a maximum of 10MB and it doesn’t support fancy effects. Από τη συλλογή εφαρµογών του Zoho ξεχωρίσαµε επίσης το πρόγραµµα δηµιουργίας παρουσιάσεων το οποίο διαβάζει και δηµιουργεί αρχεία συµβατά µε αυτά του Powerpoint. The other big runner is Thinkfree Office [website], which takes a comparative age to load the first time but rewards its users with an interface as slick as any computer-bound equivalent. Το άλλο µεγάλο όνοµα του χώρου είναι το Thinkfree Office (website), το οποίο µπορεί να αργεί να φορτώσει την πρώτη φορά, αλλά θα σας ανταµείψει τελικά µε ένα περιβάλλον εργασίας αντάξιο µε αυτό των offline σουιτών γραφείου. Google Docs & Spreadsheets fits nicely with Office and can save files so they can be opened using Word or Excel. Τα αρχεία Docs, αλλά και τα λογιστικά φύλλα που µπορείτε να δηµιουργήσετε µε την υπηρεσία docs.google.com, «συνεργάζονται» άψογα µε το Office, κάτι που σηµαίνει ότι µπορείτε να τα ανοίξετε µέσα από το πρόγραµµα της Microsoft The modem translates what is sent over your phone line or cable into something that can be interpreted by a computer. Η λειτουργία του modem είναι να µεταφράζει οτιδήποτε περάσει από την τηλεφωνική γραµµή σας σε δεδοµένα που µπορούν να διαβαστούν από τον υπολογιστή. [Ethernet] It is more reliable, does not slow down the PC, doesn’t need to be shared with other USB devices, such as printers, works automatically on any computer, and allows you to plug in extra networking and security devices, such as a router and firewall, as you need them. Είναι γενικά πιο αξιόπιστο, δεν επιβαρύνει τον υπολογιστή και δεν απαιτεί το διαµοιρασµό του εύρους ζώνης του καναλιού USB µε άλλες συσκευές.

CA, Στήστε το Γραφείο σας στο Internet

CA, Go to work on the web CA, Στήστε το Γραφείο σας στο Internet CA, Go to work on the web CA, Στήστε το Γραφείο σας στο Internet

CA, Go to work on the web CA, Στήστε το Γραφείο σας στο Internet

CA, Broadband first aid CA, Πρώτες Βοήθειες για το Broadband CA, Broadband first aid

CA, Πρώτες Βοήθειες για το Broadband

340

Person

Person

Person

Activity

Activity

Activity

The ISP gives an IP address to the connection using something called DHCP once it has started talking to the modem, and this address is then applied to the user’s PC to make it visible on the internet. Όταν το router σας ξεκινήσει να επικοινωνεί µε τον ISP ο οποίος σας παρέχει το Internet, ο τελευταίος θα αναθέσει στον υπολογιστή σας µια διεύθυνση IP, χρησιµοποιώντας µια λειτουργία του router που ονοµάζεται DHCP. Η συγκεκριµένη διεύθυνση IP είναι µοναδική και χαρακτηρίζει τον υπολογιστή σας στο ∆ιαδίκτυο. Standard internet services like email and web browsing only work because the router knows about them and has set up port forwarding to let traffic through the Network Address Translation (Nat) system unhindered Κάθε πρόγραµµα ή υπηρεσία που συνδέεται στο ∆ιαδίκτυο, χρησιµοποιεί µια εικονική «πόρτα» για αυτό το σκοπό. Put simply, a router will route data to a number of different devices – so, for example, if you have more than one PC connected to broadband, it will collect traffic and pass it back and forth between the internet and your computers. Η λειτουργία του router είναι να κατευθύνει τα πακέτα δεδοµένων που καταφθάνουν στον υπολογιστή σας από το εξωτερικό δίκτυο (Internet) σε έναν αριθµό διαφορετικών συσκευών στο εσωτερικό δίκτυο (LAN). Αν, για παράδειγµα έχετε περισσότερα από ένα PCs συνδεδεµένα στο router σας, η συσκευή θα κατευθύνει τα πακέτα των δεδοµένων σας στο PC που έχετε εσείς επιλέξει.

CA, Broadband first aid CA, Πρώτες Βοήθειες για το Broadband

CA, Broadband first aid CA, Πρώτες Βοήθειες για το Broadband CA, Broadband first aid

CA, Πρώτες Βοήθειες για το Broadband

Person

Activity

If the PC can’t pick up an IP address from DHCP at the ISP or at the router, […]. Αυτή η εντολή θα προσπαθήσει να «αντλήσει» µια καινούργια εσωτερική IP για το PC από τον DHCP server του router ή κατευθείαν από τον παροχέα σας.

CA, Broadband first aid CA, Πρώτες Βοήθειες για το Broadband

Person

Activity

That is why it is essential to run security software on a PC connected in this way, as the modem offers no security – your PC is sitting on the internet in full view. Αυτός είναι και ο λόγος που θα πρέπει να έχετε εγκατεστηµένο και να χρησιµοποιείτε λογισµικό ασφαλείας στο PC σας (antivirus και firewall), αλλιώς ο υπολογιστής σας είναι εκτεθειµένος στον «έξω» κόσµο του Internet.

CA, Broadband first aid

Person

Activity

You really want a two-way firewall, such as ZoneAlarm Pro or Norton Personal Firewall, to stop unwanted outbound traffic—for example, attempts by spyware to send personal data to its creators. Αυτό που πραγµατικά χρειάζεστε είναι ένα firewall διπλής κατεύθυνσης [inbound/outboundtraffic], όπως το ZoneAlarm Pro [website], ώστε να σταµατάτε την εξερχόµενη κίνηση – για παράδειγµα, τις προσπάθειες εφαρµογών spyware να στείλουν τα προσωπικά σας δεδοµένα στους δηµιουργούς τους.

CA, Πρώτες Βοήθειες για το Broadband

PCM, Maximum security PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια

341

Person

Person

Person

Activity

Activity

Activity

The easiest way to protect yourself and ensure the apps doing the job don’t conflict with one another is to get a package, such as ZoneAlarm Security Suite, that includes antivirus, antispyware, antispam, and firewall. Ο πιο εύκολος τρόπος να προστατευτείτε και να είστε βέβαιοι ότι οι σχετικές εφαρµογές δε συγκρούονται µεταξύ τους, είναι να αποκτήσετε µια σουίτα, όπως το ZoneAlarm Security Suite, που περιλαµβάνει προγράµµατα κατά των ιών, του spyware και του spam και ένα firewall. An admin account lets you do anything on the system, which leaves you at risk for any malicious program installing code at will. Ένας λογαριασµός administrator σας επιτρέπει να κάνετε τα πάντα στο σύστηµα, γεγονός που σας εκθέτει στον κίνδυνο, οποιοδήποτε κακόβουλο πρόγραµµα να εγκαταστήσει κώδικα. By default, XP asks for a user name on installation, assigns it administrator privileges, and boots directly into that user from then on. Εξ ορισµού, τα XP ζητούν κατά την εγκατάσταση ένα user name, του αποδίδουν δικαιώµατα administrator και από κει και πέρα εκκινούν µε αυτόν το λογαριασµό χρήστη.

PCM, Maximum security

PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια

PCM, Maximum security PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια

PCM, Maximum security PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια

Person

Activity

Note that Windows won’t let a Limited user change a shortcut that’s shared by all users. Έχετε υπ’ όψη σας ότι τα Windows δεν θα επιτρέψουν σε χρήστη µε περιορισµένο λογαριασµό να αλλάξει ένα shortcut που µοιράζονται όλοι οι χρήστες.

PCM, Maximum security PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια

Person

Activity

The tool sets restore points on a regular basis and creates additional points before apps and drivers are installed. Το εργαλείο θέτει σηµεία επαναφοράς [restore points] σε τακτική βάση και δηµιουργεί πρόσθετα τέτοια σηµεία πριν εγκατασταθούν εφαρµογές ή drivers.

PCM, Maximum security

Person

Person

Activity

Activity

When your security tools can’t clean an infection, try restoring your system to an earlier time before the malicious app arrived. Εάν τα εργαλεία ασφαλείας σας δεν µπορούν να αντιµετωπίσουν µια µόλυνση, δοκιµάστε να επαναφέρετε το σύστηµα σε προηγούµενη χρονική στιγµή, πριν από την άφιξη της κακόβουλης εφαρµογής. Unfortunately, antivirus and antispyware tools cannot clean infections from restore points, so even if you’ve cleaned out some malware, a rollback may bring reinfection. ∆υστυχώς, τα εργαλεία κατά των ιών και των spyware δεν µπορούν να καθαρίσουν µολυσµένα σηµεία

PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια

PCM, Maximum security PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια

PCM, Maximum security PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια

342

επαναφοράς [restore points], γι’ αυτό, ακόµη και εάν έχετε εξαλείψει κάποιο malware, αυτό µπορεί να επανέλθει, εάν επαναφέρετε το σύστηµα σε προηγούµενη κατάστασή του. Person

Person

Activity

Activity

Windows usually blocks you from deleting any files that are currently running (including malicious software), and malware often makes sure it loads at start-up. Τα Windows συνήθως σας εµποδίζουν να διαγράψετε αρχεία, τα οποία εκτελούνται τη συγκεκριµένη στιγµή [συµπεριλαµβανοµένου και του κακόβουλου software] και το malware φροντίζει να φορτώνεται συνήθως κατά την εκκίνηση του υπολογιστή. Safe Mode bypasses many drivers and startup programs; by going into this mode you may be able to remove the offending apps. Το Safe Mode παρακάµπτει πολλούς drivers και προγράµµατα που εκτελούνται κατά την εκκίνηση. Χρησιµοποιώντας αυτό το mode ίσως µπορέσετε να αποµακρύνετε τις ενοχλητικές εφαρµογές.

PCM, Maximum security PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια

PCM, Maximum security PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια

Person

Activity

To enter Safe Mode, you need to coax Windows into displaying the Startup menu. Για να µπείτε σε Safe Mode, θα πρέπει να αναγκάσετε τα Windows να εµφανίσουν το µενού εκκίνησης.

PCM, Maximum security PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια

Person

Activity

When the system asks you to restart, click Restart and Windows will boot into Safe Mode. Όταν το σύστηµα σας ζητήσει να κάνετε επανεκκίνηση, κάντε κλικ στο Restart [Επανεκκίνηση] και τα Windows θα ξεκινήσουν σε Safe Mode.

PCM, Maximum security PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια

Person

Activity

Malware files often use double extensions. Πολύ συχνά τα αρχεία malware χρησιµοποιούν διπλά extensions [επεκτάσεις ονόµατος αρχείου].

PCM, Maximum security PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια

Person

Activity

By default, Windows hides file extensions; this feature may help a malware file trick you into thinking it’s safe to open. Εξ ορισµού, τα Windows κρύβουν τα extensions. Αυτό το χαρακτηριστικό µπορεί να διευκολύνει ένα malware να σας ξεγελάσει ώστε να πιστέψετε ότι είναι ακίνδυνο και να το ανοίξετε.

PCM, Maximum security

Person

Person

Activity

Activity

Vulnerability scanners probe computers on the network for potential security holes, and some even give you instructions on fixing them. Οι scanners τρωτών σηµείων ελέγχουν υπολογιστές σε ένα δίκτυο για πιθανά κενά ασφαλείας και µερικοί από αυτούς σας δίνουν ακόµη και οδηγίες για να διορθώσετε αυτά τα προβλήµατα. Scans run inside the network probe for vulnerabilities from the perspective of a user already logged on.

PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια

PCM, Maximum security PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια

PCM, Maximum security

343

Person

Activity

Οι έλεγχοι που γίνονται µέσα από το δίκτυο, αναζητούν τρωτά σηµεία από την πλευρά ενός χρήστη που έχει ήδη µπει στο δίκτυο.

PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια

Vulnerability scanners can generate a flood of warning messages, many of them doing nothing more than telling you that you did something (like open port 80 on your Web server) that you plainly intended to do. Οι scanners κενών ασφαλείας µπορούν να προκαλέσουν έναν κατακλυσµό προειδοποιητικών µηνυµάτων, πολλά από τα οποία δε λένε τίποτε περισσότερο από το ότι κάνατε κάτι [π.χ. ανοίξατε το port 80 στο Web server] που ήταν µέσα στις προθέσεις σας.

PCM, Maximum security PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια

Person

Activity

So don’t assume the scanner knows more than you, especially when it gives the warning a low priority. Μη θεωρήσετε ότι ο scanner ξέρει περισσότερα από σας, ειδικά όταν εµφανίζει ένα µήνυµα χαµηλής προτεραιότητας.

PCM, Maximum security PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια

Person

Activity

You will be brought back to the Services window, and the Messenger Properties window will now say Disabled under Startup type. Θα επανέλθετε στο παράθυρο Services και το παράθυρο Messenger Properties θα εµφανίζει τώρα ως Startup type “Disabled”.

PCM, Maximum security

Person

Activity

It is available from Counterexploitation, a Web site dedicated to identifying and removing spyware, adware, and other malicious programs, at [website]. ∆ιατίθεται από το Counterexploitation [website], ένα Web site αφιερωµένο στον εντοπισµό και την αποµάκρυνση spyware, adware και άλλων κακόβουλων προγραµµάτων.

PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια

PCM, Maximum security PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια

Person

Activity

What about ZIP, PIF, and other file formats that could hide malware? Τι γίνεται µε τα ZIP, PIF και άλλες µορφές αρχείων που µπορεί να κρύβουν malware;

PCM, Maximum security PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια

Person

Activity

Many viruses use “undeliverable” or similar messages in the subject line so users will be duped into opening the message and infecting their machines. Πολλοί ιοί χρησιµοποιούν ως θέµα [subject] “undeliverable” [δεν µπορεί να παραδοθεί] ή κάτι παρόµοιο, για να παρασύρουν το χρήστη να ανοίξει το µήνυµα, ώστε να µολυνθεί το σύστηµά του.

PCM, Maximum security

Person

Activity

Also, e-mail viruses deliberately spoof the return address when sending themselves to a harvested list. Επίσης, οι ιοί που έρχονται µέσω e-mail χρησιµοποιούν εσκεµµένα πλαστή διεύθυνση επιστροφής, όταν στέλνονται σε έναν κατάλογο διευθύνσεων.

PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια

PCM, Maximum security PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια

344

Person

Person

Person

Person

Person

Person

Activity

Activity

Activity

Activity

Activity

Activity

When searching for bargains on the Internet, be very sceptical of sites with which you don’t have a relationship and which you don’t know from reputation. Όταν ψάχνετε για ευκαιρίες στο Internet, να είστε πολύ προσεκτικοί µε sites µε τα οποία δεν είχατε προηγουµένως επαφή ή για τα οποία δεν έχετε ακούσει κανέναν άλλο να µιλά. Links to these shady stores lead to a checkout screen asking for the card name, number, expiration date, and CVV (card verification value). Τα links σε τέτοια “σκοτεινά” µαγαζιά οδηγούν σε µια οθόνη checkout, που ζητά όνοµα κατόχου πιστωτικής κάρτας, αριθµό, ηµεροµηνία λήξης και CVV. After you provide the information, you’re brought to a page that says an error has occurred and you should pay by postal money order. Αφού δώσετε τις πληροφορίες, εµφανίζεται µια σελίδα που λέει ότι προέκυψε κάποιο λάθος και ότι θα πρέπει να πληρώσετε µε ταχυδροµική επιταγή. Usernames are fairly easy to guess and often pre-filled in, so you need to make sure your passwords are strong—not easily guessed or cracked by “dictionary” attacks that throw millions of letter combinations at the dialog. Τα usernames µπορεί εύκολα να τα µαντέψει κανείς και συχνά εισάγονται αυτόµατα, γι’ αυτό πρέπει να είστε βέβαιοι ότι το password σας είναι ισχυρό – δηλαδή ότι δεν µπορεί να το µαντέψει κανείς εύκολα ή να το “σπάσει” µε επιθέσεις “λεξικού”, που “ρίχνουν” εκατοµµύρια συνδυασµούς γραµµάτων στο πλαίσιο διαλόγου. Most of these annoying pages are just pushing a product or service, but some hijackers are accompanied by Trojan horses and backdoors that let vendors download updates and collect keystrokes and other data. Οι περισσότερες από αυτές τις ενοχλητικές σελίδες απλά προωθούν ένα προϊόν ή µια υπηρεσία, αλλά ορισµένοι “καταληψίες” συνοδεύονται από Trojan horses και backdoors που επιτρέπουν στους κατασκευαστές τους να κατεβάζουν στο σύστηµά σας ενηµερωµένες εκδόσεις και να συγκεντρώνουν στοιχεία για τα πλήκτρα που πατάτε και άλλα δεδοµένα. If you get a pop-up asking you to download a special viewer, free software, or, in its simplest form, change your home page, click No or close the window. Εάν εµφανιστεί ένα pop-up που σας συνιστά να κατεβάσετε έναν ειδικό viewer ή δωρεάν software ή να αλλάξετε αρχική σελίδα, κάντε κλικ στο No ή κλείστε το παράθυρο.

PCM, Maximum security PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια

PCM, Maximum security PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια

PCM, Maximum security PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια

PCM, Maximum security

PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια

PCM, Maximum security PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια

PCM, Maximum security PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια

345

Person

Activity

Remember, antivirus products don’t coexist well. ∆εν πρέπει να ξεχνάτε ότι τα προγράµµατα κατά των ιών συνήθως δε συνυπάρχουν αρµονικά.

PCM, Maximum security PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια

Person

Activity

Even if a product is out of date, if it is configured for on-access scanning, it is “watching” your file and Internet access. Ακόµη και εάν ένα προϊόν δεν είναι ενηµερωµένο, εάν είναι ρυθµισµένο να ελέγχει την πρόσβαση, “παρακολουθεί” την πρόσβασή σας σε αρχεία ή στο Internet.

PCM, Maximum security

Person

Person

Activity

If the product asks whether you want to delete the quarantine or backed up files, say yes, as the new AV will probably find them when it installs. Εάν το πρόγραµµα σας ρωτήσει εάν θέλετε να διαγράψετε τα αρχεία που είναι σε καραντίνα και τα αντίγραφα ασφαλείας, απαντήστε ναι, καθώς το νέο πρόγραµµα µάλλον θα τα βρει κατά την εγκατάστασή του.

Person

Person

PCM, Maximum security PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια

Activity Rogue or suspect antispyware programs advertise through the very pop-ups that they claim to remove, and often badger a user with high pressure tactics. Ύποπτα προγράµµατα antispyware διαφηµίζονται µέσω ακριβώς αυτών των παραθύρων pop-up που ισχυρίζονται ότι µπορούν να αποµακρύνουν, και συχνά παρενοχλούν το χρήστη µε τακτικές “υψηλής πίεσης”.

Person

PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια

Activity

Activity

Activity

The most insidious of the lot, dubbed extortionware, uses malicious installations, blocks removal, and sometimes causes connectivity problems, unless you buy the product. Τα πιο ύπουλα του είδους, που έχουν χαρακτηριστεί “extortionware” [extortion = εκβιασµός] χρησιµοποιούν κακόβουλες ρουτίνες εγκατάστασης, εµποδίζουν την αποµάκρυνσή τους και µερικές φορές προκαλούν προβλήµατα στη σύνδεση, εκτός κι αν τα αγοράσετε. A few of these rogue products will actually be spyware themselves, recording data and reporting back to their vendors’ sites. Μερικά από αυτά τα δόλια προϊόντα είναι και τα ίδια spyware, καταγράφουν δεδοµένα και στέλνουν αναφορές πίσω στο site του κατασκευαστή τους. Although some good commercial antispyware products offer free scans, legitimate ones will not state in an ad that they already detect an infection. Παρ’ ότι µερικά καλά εµπορικά προϊόντα antispyware προσφέρουν δωρεάν έλεγχο, κανένα από αυτά δε θα αναφέρει σε µια διαφήµιση ότι εντόπισε ήδη µια µόλυνση.

PCM, Maximum security PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια

PCM, Maximum security PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια

PCM, Maximum security PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια

PCM, Maximum security PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια

346

Person

Person

Person

Activity

Activity

Activity

But every copy of Windows has a mini-DNS called the hosts file, and the browser checks that first before reaching out to a DNS server somewhere on the Net. Ωστόσο, κάθε εγκατάσταση Windows έχει ένα µίνι-DNS, που ονοµάζεται αρχείο hosts, και ο browser ελέγχει πρώτα αυτό το αρχείο, πριν απευθυνθεί σε κάποιον DNS server κάπου στο ∆ίκτυο. This hosts file is a favorite target for viruses, spyware, and browser hijackers, which can, for example, use the hosts file to direct all requests for Yahoo! or Google to their own search page by listing the domains, but pointing them all to a single IP address. Αυτό το αρχείο hosts είναι προσφιλής στόχος ιών, spyware και browser hijackers, οι οποίοι µπορούν, για παράδειγµα, να το χρησιµοποιήσουν για να ανακατευθύνουν όλα τα αιτήµατά σας προς το Yahoo! ή το Google στη δική τους µηχανή αναζήτησης αναγράφοντας στο αρχείο τα domains αλλά παραπέµποντας σε κάθε περίπτωση σε µία και µοναδική διεύθυνση IP – αυτήν της δικής τους µηχανής αναζήτησης. Some viruses and worms use the hosts file to block access to antivirus sites, too, pointing their domains to your own system, represented by the Localhost address of 127.0.0.1. Μερικά worms και ιοί χρησιµοποιούν το αρχείο hosts για να εµποδίσουν την πρόσβαση σε sites εταιρειών κατασκευής προγραµµάτων κατά των ιών, συνδέοντας τα domains των εταιρειών αυτών µε το δικό σας σύστηµα, το οποίο αντιπροσωπεύεται από τη διεύθυνση Localhost 127.0.0.1.

PCM, Maximum security PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια

PCM, Maximum security

PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια

PCM, Maximum security PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια

Person

Activity

Many malicious programs, and even some well-meaning ones, add junk to the start-up folder. Πολλά κακόβουλα προγράµµατα αλλά ακόµη και µερικά που έχουν καλές προθέσεις, προσθέτουν σκουπίδια στο folder Startup.

PCM, Maximum security PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια

Person

Activity

The more things load at start-up, the slower the boot process, and the less room later for other programs. Όσο περισσότερα πράγµατα φορτώνονται κατά την εκκίνηση, τόσο πιο αργή είναι η διαδικασία και τόσο λιγότερος χώρος υπάρχει αργότερα για άλλα προγράµµατα.

PCM, Maximum security PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια

Person

Activity

The System Configuration Utility lets you edit the programs that Windows loads at boot time. Το System Configuration Utility σας επιτρέπει να επεξεργαστείτε τα προγράµµατα που φορτώνουν τα Windows κατά την εκκίνησή τους.

PCM, Maximum security PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια

Person

Activity

Windows will ask you to reboot, and then it’ll display a warning box that tells you it’s using selective startup. Τα Windows θα σας ζητήσουν να κάνετε επανεκκίνηση και µετά από αυτήν θα εµφανίσουν ένα µήνυµα που

PCM, Maximum security PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια

347

θα σας ενηµερώνει ότι το σύστηµα χρησιµοποιεί επιλεκτική εκκίνηση [selective startup]. Person

Activity

Spyware removers don’t always clean out all the fragments of everything they delete. Τα προγράµµατα αφαίρεσης spyware δεν καθαρίζουν πάντα όλα τα στοιχεία του προγράµµατος που αφαιρούν.

PCM, Maximum security PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια

Person

Activity

The second scan may flag fragments as proof that the malware isn’t gone, but that will help you locate and remove them. Μπορεί το δεύτερο αυτό πρόγραµµα να εντοπίσει τα υπολείµµατα και να θεωρήσει ότι υπάρχει malware, αλλά αυτό θα σας βοηθήσει να βρείτε τα κατάλοιπα και να τα αφαιρέσετε.

PCM, Maximum security PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια

Person

Activity

As long as you are careful to run only one resident scanner at a time, you should see no conflicts. Εάν είστε προσεκτικοί και εκτελείτε µόνον έναν scanner κάθε φορά, δεν πρόκειται να αντιµετωπίσετε προβλήµατα σύγκρουσης µεταξύ των σχετικών προγραµµάτων.

PCM, Maximum security PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια

Person

Activity

Run the scanner from outside your network and tell it to scan your outside IP address. Εκτελέστε τον scanner έξω από το δίκτυό σας και κάντε τον να ελέγξει την εξωτερική σας διεύθυνση IP.

PCM, Maximum security PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια

Person

Activity

The latest versions of Outlook and Outlook Express address this by not downloading images unless you tell the program to do so. Οι πιο πρόσφατες εκδόσεις του Outlook και του Outlook Express αντιµετωπίζουν αυτό το πρόβληµα µε το να µην κατεβάζουν τις εικόνες εάν δεν το ζητήσει ο ίδιος ο χρήστης.

PCM, Maximum security PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια

Person

Activity

Set the antivirus program and Windows to retrieve and install security updates automatically. Ρυθµίστε το πρόγραµµα κατά των ιών και τα Windows ώστε να βρίσκουν και να εγκαθιστούν αυτόµατα ενηµερώσεις που αφορούν την ασφάλεια.

PCM, Maximum security PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια

Person

Activity

When a legitimate program (such as Net Nanny or Cybersitter) is uninstalled, it patches up the Winsock. Όταν ένα νόµιµο πρόγραµµα [όπως το Net Nanny ή το Cybersitter] απεγκαθίσταται, επιδιορθώνει το Winsock.

PCM, Maximum security PCM, Ύψιστη ασφάλεια

Person

Activity

The suite does now include an initial Auto-Learn mode that cuts down the initial flood of pop-ups but temporarily reduces security. Η σουίτα προσφέρει τώρα και µια ξεχωριστή κατάσταση Auto-Learn, η οποία από τη µία απαλλάσσει το χρήστη από τα αρχικά παράθυρα ρυθµίσεων για κάθε πρόγραµµα που συναντά πρώτη φορά, από την άλλη

PCM, Security super guide PCM, Internet

Ασφαλείς

στο

348

µειώνει προσωρινά το επίπεδο ασφαλείας του συστήµατός σας. Person

Activity

Prevx1 Easily scans your system for, finds, and destroys malware and suspicious files. Το Prevx1 µπορεί εύκολα να εντοπίσει και να διαγράψει κακόβουλα προγράµµατα από τον υπολογιστή σας.

PCM, Security super guide PCM, Ασφαλείς στο Internet

Person

Activity

Adware programs pop up ads in your face, sometimes even when you don’t have a browser open. [Έτσι, έχουµε τα προγράµµατα adware.] Αυτά σας εµφανίζουν παράθυρα pop-up [σε κάποιες περιπτώσεις, ακόµα και όταν δεν έχετε ανοικτό browser] µε διαφηµίσεις.

PCM, Security super guide PCM, Ασφαλείς στο Internet

Person

Activity

Both offer multiple levels of protection, including blocking access to known spyware sites, preventing spyware from configuring itself to launch at start-up, and stopping spyware from installing in the browser. Σε αυτήν την κατηγορία προγραµµάτων, δύο κατάφεραν να ξεχωρίσουν χάρη στις πολύ καλές επιδόσεις τους, καθώς µπόρεσαν να εντοπίσουν όλα σχεδόν τα εγκατεστηµένα spyware αλλά και να σταµατήσουν το σύνολο σχεδόν όσων προσπαθήσαµε να εγκαταστήσουµε.

PCM, Security super guide PCM, Internet

Ασφαλείς

στο

Person

Activity

Phishing messages pretend to be from eBay, PayPal, your bank, or the like. Τα µηνύµατα αυτά διατείνονται ότι προέρχονται από το eBay, το PayPal, την τράπεζά σας ή άλλον χρηµατοοικονοµικό οργανισµό.

PCM, Security super guide PCM, Ασφαλείς στο Internet

Person

Activity

If you log in to their fake sites, they steal your username and password and you’re sunk. Αν κάνετε login µε τα στοιχεία σας θα σας τα κλέψουν.

PCM, Security super guide PCM, Ασφαλείς στο Internet

Person

Activity

Primary Response SafeConnect [website], our Editors’ Choice in this category, monitors every running process, correlating hundreds of behaviors associated with malicious software. Το πρόγραµµα παρακολουθεί συνεχώς τις διεργασίες που έχουν φορτωθεί στη µνήµη του υπολογιστή και ελέγχει τη συµπεριφορά τους.

PCM, Security super guide PCM, Internet

Ασφαλείς

στο

Person

Activity

Simple adware pops up ads that get in your face. Τα απλά προγράµµατα adware σας εµφανίζουν παράθυρα pop-up µε διαφηµίσεις.

PCM, Security super guide PCM, Ασφαλείς στο Internet

Person

Activity

They hide and use your computer to infect other computers. Οι ιοί κρύβονται στον υπολογιστή σας και τον χρησιµοποιούν για να µολύνουν και άλλους.

PCM, Security super guide PCM, Ασφαλείς στο

349

Internet Person

Activity

Spyware spies on everything you do and steals private information. Τα προγράµµατα spyware κατασκοπεύουν ό,τι κάνετε στον υπολογιστή σας, και κλέβουν προσωπικά δεδοµένα.

PCM, Security super guide PCM, Ασφαλείς στο Internet

Person

Activity

Trojan horse programs pretend to be useful but can turn your computer into a spam-spewing zombie. Τα Trojans λειτουργούν διαφορετικά, καθώς παριστάνουν ότι είναι κάποιο χρήσιµο πρόγραµµα, αλλά στην πραγµατικότητα µετατρέπουν τον υπολογιστή σας σε αναµεταδότη spam e-mails.

PCM, Security super guide PCM, Ασφαλείς στο Internet

Person

Activity

Microsoft’s Windows Defender (built into Vista and OneCare) seems to be backsliding—at least, when I retested it recently it did worse than previously. Ενδιαφέρον παρουσίασε η λύση της Microsoft, Windows Defender, η οποία είναι ενσωµατωµένη στα Windows Vista. Ωστόσο, φαίνεται να κάνει βήµατα προς τα πίσω, καθώς το πλέον πρόσφατο τεστ έδωσε χειρότερα αποτελέσµατα από ό,τι τα προηγούµενα.

PCM, Security super guide

Person

Activity

Person

Activity

Person

Person

Activity

Activity

PCM, Internet

Ασφαλείς

στο

AVG lets you create useful backup disks that will bail you out if a virus disables your system. Το AGV σας επιτρέπει να δηµιουργήσετε δίσκους backup για την περίπτωση καταστροφής.

PCM, Security super guide PCM, Ασφαλείς στο Internet

Content-Protect is unusual in that it analyzes every page, so a brand-new porn site, or an inappropriate page on a normally safe site, could be blocked. Το ContentProtect λειτουργεί ελαφρώς διαφορετικά, καθώς ελέγχει κάθε σελίδα ξεχωριστά. Έτσι, θα απαγορευθεί η πρόσβαση σε ένα ολοκαίνουργιο site πορνογραφικού περιεχοµένου όπως και σε µια ακατάλληλη σελίδα σε ένα κατά τα άλλα κατάλληλο site.

PCM, Security super guide PCM, Internet

Ασφαλείς

στο

Both ContentProtect and Safe Eyes can send you a real-time notification of violations and let you manage their configuration remotely, though ContentProtect’s remote changes don’t take effect immediately. Τόσο το ContentProtect όσο και το SafeEyes µπορούν να σας ειδοποιήσουν στην περίπτωση που κάποιος προσπαθήσει να µπει σε κάποιο απαγορευµένο site. Μάλιστα, και τα δύο προγράµµατα σας επιτρέπουν να τα ρυθµίσετε εξ αποστάσεως µέσω Internet. Στην περίπτωση του ContentProtect όµως, όποιες αλλαγές κάνετε στις ρυθµίσεις, δεν εφαρµόζονται αµέσως.

PCM, Security super guide PCM, Internet

All four products mentioned here will log all violations and also log all Web sites visited. Όλα τα προγράµµατα της κατηγορίας γονικού ελέγχου µπορούν να καταγράψουν σε log τις προσπάθειες

PCM, Security super guide PCM, Ασφαλείς στο

Ασφαλείς

στο

350

παραβίασης των κανόνων. Ακόµα, θα καταγράψουν και όλα τα sites που επισκέφθηκε ο χρήστης.

Internet

Person

Activity

Security software has to maneuver deeply inside the operating system’s innards. Τα προγράµµατα ασφαλείας που τρέχουν στον υπολογιστή σας, πρέπει να συνεργάζονται άψογα µε το λειτουργικό σύστηµα.

PCM, Security super guide PCM, Ασφαλείς στο Internet

Person

Activity

If a program calls on Windows to make a network connection, the firewall has to decide whether or not to allow it. Ακόµα, στην περίπτωση που κάποια εφαρµογή ζητήσει πρόσβαση στο δίκτυο, είναι η σειρά του firewall για να αποφασίσει αν πρέπει να της την επιτρέψει.

PCM, Security super guide

Person

Activity

PCM, Internet

NIS 2007 is one slick piece of work. It takes full responsibility for identifying malicious software and keeping it from harming your computer. Το NIS 2007 διακρίνεται για την απλότητα του περιβάλλοντός του. Αναλαµβάνει πλήρως την ευθύνη να κρατήσει µακριά από τον υπολογιστή σας κακόβουλα προγράµµατα.

PCM, Internet

Ασφαλείς

στο

PCM, Security super guide Ασφαλείς

στο

Person

Activity

The firewall lets known good programs run and smacks down known bad programs, naturally. Το firewall που ενσωµατώνει, αφήνει αυτόµατα τα “καλά” προγράµµατα να προσπελάσουν το δίκτυο και εµποδίζει τα γνωστά κακόβουλα.

PCM, Security super guide PCM, Ασφαλείς στο Internet

Person

Activity

For unknown software it makes the decision itself by analyzing the program’s behavior; it won’t ask you any incomprehensible questions. Εάν συναντήσει κάποια άγνωστη εφαρµογή, αποφασίζει βάσει της συµπεριφοράς της, χωρίς να σας ρωτάει κάθε τόσο.

PCM, Security super guide

Person

Person

Activity

Activity

NIS 2007 also resisted all my attempts to disable its protection the way malicious software might: It’s as tough as ZoneAlarm, which is saying a lot. Το NIS 2007 κατάφερε να αντισταθεί σε όλες τις προσπάθειές µας να το απενεργοποιήσουµε µε τους τρόπους που χρησιµοποιούν τα κακόβουλα προγράµµατα, ισοφαρίζοντας στο συγκεκριµένο τοµέα το Zone Alarm. ZoneAlarm 7 has added new features to cut back on firewall confirmation pop-ups, but it still asks questions nobody can understand. Το ZoneAlarm 7 έχει προσπαθήσει να µειώσει τα pop-up παράθυρα αλλά συνεχίζει να τα χρησιµοποιεί ρωτώντας το χρήστη πράγµατα που αυτός δύσκολα καταλαβαίνει.

PCM, Internet

Ασφαλείς

στο

PCM, Security super guide PCM, Internet

Ασφαλείς

στο

PCM, Security super guide PCM, Internet

Ασφαλείς

στο

351

Person

Activity

Antivirus programs don’t ask whether you want to repair a virus infection – they just do the job. Τα προγράµµατα antivirus δε σας ρωτούν αν θα πρέπει να καθαρίσουν µια εφαρµογή από τον ίο απλά το κάνουν.

PCM, Security super guide PCM, Ασφαλείς στο Internet

Person

Activity

But many antispyware programs ask how to handle a threat even though they rate it “extreme risk.” Άλλες εφαρµογές anti-spyware συνεχίζουν να ρωτούν το χρήστη πώς θα πρέπει να αντιµετωπίσουν ένα αρχείο, ακόµα και στην περίπτωση που το αξιολογούν ως εξαιρετικά επικίνδυνο.

PCM, Security super guide PCM, Ασφαλείς στο Internet

Person

Activity

I also see way too many programs that yammer at you when harmless programs do reasonable things, like add themselves to the start sequence. Έχουµε δει προγράµµατα ασφαλείας που προειδοποιούν τους χρήστες µε πολλαπλά pop-up παράθυρα, ακόµα και όταν κάποια εγκατάσταση εφαρµογής κάνει κάτι αρκετά κοινό, όπως το να προσθέσει ένα πρόγραµµα στο start up των Windows.

PCM, Security super guide

Person

Person

Person

Person

Activity

Activity

Activity

Activity

But it’s the only way to go. Symantec has the right idea—when NIS 2007 finds a program that’s not on its naughty or nice list, it decides for itself and takes action. Η Symantec µε το NIS 2007 βρίσκεται σίγουρα στο σωστό δρόµο καθώς, αν κάποιο άγνωστο πρόγραµµα ζητήσει πρόσβαση στο Internet, τότε την απόφαση την παίρνει η σουίτα ανάλογα µε την προηγούµενη συµπεριφορά της εφαρµογής. That problem is more than solved in Version 7; in testing it blocked and removed spyware better than the best standalone antispyware products (and better than NIS 2007). Το πρόγραµµα κατάφερε να βρει και να αποµακρύνει περισσότερα προγράµµατα spyware από ό,τι οι αντίστοιχες µεµονωµένες εφαρµογές. Στο συγκεκριµένο τοµέα, µάλιστα, απέδωσε καλύτερα ακόµα και από το NIS 2007. As with NAV, Kaspersky’s antivirus is fully certified by the independent labs for virus protection and removal. Όπως και το Norton Antivirus, που ενσωµατώνει το NIS 2007, η πρόταση της Kasperksy είναι πιστοποιηµένη από ανεξάρτητα εργαστήρια για τη δυνατότητα αποµάκρυνσης ιών από έναν υπολογιστή. ZA’s firewall automatically configures permissions for any program in its vast SmartDefense Advisor database, but if an unknown program tries to access the Internet or your network it will still ask you whether

PCM, Internet

Ασφαλείς

στο

PCM, Security super guide PCM, Internet

Ασφαλείς

στο

PCM, Security super guide PCM, Internet

Ασφαλείς

στο

PCM, Security super guide PCM, Internet

Ασφαλείς

στο

PCM, Security super guide

352

or not to allow it. Το firewall του προγράµµατος ρυθµίζει αυτόµατα τα δικαιώµατα κάθε προγράµµατος για πρόσβαση στο Internet χρησιµοποιώντας τη µεγάλη βάση δεδοµένων SmartDefense Advisor. Στην περίπτωση, όµως, που συναντήσει κάποιο άγνωστο πρόγραµµα, ρωτά το χρήστη, αν θέλει να του επιτρέψει την έξοδο προς το δίκτυο ή όχι. Person

Person

Person

Person

Activity

Activity

Activity

Activity

The suite does now include an initial Auto-Learn mode that cuts down the initial flood of pop-ups but temporarily reduces security. Η σουίτα προσφέρει τώρα και µια ξεχωριστή κατάσταση Auto-Learn, η οποία από τη µία απαλλάσσει το χρήστη από τα αρχικά παράθυρα ρυθµίσεων για κάθε πρόγραµµα που συναντά πρώτη φορά, από την άλλη µειώνει προσωρινά το επίπεδο ασφαλείας του συστήµατός σας. Webmail supplies the solution: The interface runs in a browser, messages reside on Internet-accessible servers, and you need no special client software. Σε αυτό το... σύγχρονο πρόβληµα το webmail προσφέρει τη λύση. Το interface των υπηρεσιών Webmail εµφανίζεται µέσα σε ένα Web browser, τα ίδια τα µηνύµατα αποθηκεύονται σε κάποιους servers [µε πρόσβαση στο Internet] και για τη διαχείριση του ταχυδροµείου δεν απαιτείται κανένα εξειδικευµένο πρόγραµµα client. Unfortunately, webmail has always had weaker features and slower response times than systems that use local clients. Στο παρελθόν, οι υπηρεσίες webmail υπολείπονταν σηµαντικά σε σχέση µε τους standalone mail clients [για τη διαχείριση λογαριασµών POP3/IMAP] τόσο σε λειτουργίες όσο και σε απόκριση/συµπεριφορά. With traditional webmail, if even a tiny part of the information on the page needs updating, the browser has to request and display the whole thing again. Στις παραδοσιακές υπηρεσίες webmail [όπου δεν εφαρµόζονται τεχνικές AJAX], ακόµα και εάν χρειάζεται να ανανεωθεί η πιο µικρή πληροφορία µιας σελίδας, ο browser πρέπει να ζητήσει και να εµφανίσει το σύνολο της σελίδας από την αρχή.

PCM, Internet

Ασφαλείς

στο

PCM, Security super guide PCM, Internet

Ασφαλείς

στο

PCM, Web e-mail clients PCM, Οι Ταχυδρόµοι του Web

PCM, Web e-mail clients PCM, Οι Ταχυδρόµοι του Web PCM, Web e-mail clients PCM, Οι Ταχυδρόµοι του Web

Person

Activity

You’ll find yourself forgetting that everything resides on some distant server. Σε αρκετές περιπτώσεις θα ξεχάσετε πως χρησιµοποιείτε µια εφαρµογή που ουσιαστικά “εδρεύει” σε κάποιον απόµακρο server.

PCM, Web e-mail clients PCM, Οι Ταχυδρόµοι του Web

Person

Activity

To some extent, they all attempt to replicate the features, look, and feel of Microsoft Outlook.

PCM, Web e-mail clients

353

Person

Person

Person

Activity

Activity

Activity

Ως ένα σηµείο, όλες προσπαθούν να αντιγράψουν [εξοµοιώσουν] τα χαρακτηριστικά, την αίσθηση και τη συµπεριφορά του Microsoft Outlook - µε µόνη εξαίρεση το Gmail.

PCM, Οι Ταχυδρόµοι του Web

In essence, the Semantic Web is a place where machines can read Web pages much as we humans read them, a place where search engines and software agents can better troll the Net and find what we’re looking for. Το Semantic Web είναι ένα µέρος, όπου οι υπολογιστές µπορούν να διαβάσουν τις σελίδες Web µε τον ίδιο ακριβώς τρόπο που το κάνουν και οι χρήστες, ένα µέρος, όπου προγράµµατα και µηχανές αναζήτησης µπορούν πολύ ευκολότερα και καλύτερα να ψάχνουν στο Internet την πληροφορία που θέλουµε.

PCM, Web 3.0

This notion of a Web where machines can better read, understand, and process all that data floating through cyberspace – a concept many refer to as Web 3.0 – first entered the public consciousness in 2001, when a story appeared in Scientif c American. Η ιδέα ενός κόσµου όπου οι µηχανές µπορούν να πλοηγηθούν και να διαβάσουν σελίδες στο Internet όπως οι χρήστες, εµφανίστηκε για πρώτη φορά το 2001 σε άρθρο του Scientific American, το οποίο υπέγραφε και ο Berners-Lee. A Semantic Web agent could be programmed to do almost anything, from automatically booking your next vacation to researching a term paper. Ένα τέτοιο πρόγραµµα πλοήγησης στο Internet θα µπορούσε να κάνει πολλά διαφορετικά πράγµατα, από το να αναλάβει να κλείσει τις επόµενες διακοπές σας µέχρι και το να ψάξει στοιχεία στο ∆ίκτυο σχετικά µε κάποια διπλωµατική εργασία.

PCM, Έρχεται το Web 3.0

PCM, Web 3.0

PCM, Έρχεται το Web 3.0

PCM, Web 3.0 PCM, Έρχεται το Web 3.0

Person

Activity

A Web where machines can read sites as easily as humans read them (almost). Ένα Web στο οποίο οι υπολογιστές και οι εφαρµογές θα µπορούν να διαβάζουν τις σελίδες µε τον ίδιο περίπου τρόπο που το κάνουν και οι χρήστες.

PCM, Web 3.0 PCM, Έρχεται το Web 3.0

Person

Activity

You ask your machine to check your schedule against the schedules of all the dentists and doctors within a 10-mile radius—and it obeys. Απλώς ζητάτε από την εφαρµογή να ελέγξει το πρόγραµµά σας σε αντιπαραβολή µε το πρόγραµµα όσων γιατρών βρίσκονται σε ακτίνα µερικών χιλιοµέτρων από το σπίτι σας, κι αυτή υπακούει.

PCM, Web 3.0

Person

Activity

Rather than calling for an overhaul of Web formats, which would involve hundreds of thousands of independent sites, they’re building agents that can better understand Web pages as they exist today. Αντί να οραµατίζονται την αλλαγή εκατοντάδων χιλιάδων σελίδων στο Internet, προτείνουν και εργάζονται

PCM, Έρχεται το Web 3.0

PCM, Web 3.0 PCM, Έρχεται το Web 3.0

354

στη δηµιουργία καλύτερων προγραµµάτων που θα µπορούσαν να διαβάσουν τις σελίδες όπως είναι τώρα. Person

Person

Person

Activity

Activity

Activity

In certain situations, when you visit a Web page, this browser plug-in can understand what the page is about, automatically retrieving related information from other sites and services. Το πρόγραµµα είναι ουσιαστικά add-on για browsers και µπορεί κάτω από ορισµένες συνθήκες να αναγνωρίσει τη σελίδα που επισκέπτεστε και να σας παρουσιάσει σχετικές µε αυτήν πληροφορίες και από άλλα sites. “Web pages already contain semantic data. We can understand them, so why shouldn’t computers? Why not build a technology that can parse and process existing services and databases?” “Το Web περιέχει ήδη τα δεδοµένα που χρειαζόµαστε. Εµείς µπορούµε να τα διαβάσουµε, γιατί να µην µπορούν να κάνουν το ίδιο και οι υπολογιστές;” δηλώνει ο Alex Iskold CEO της AdaptiveBlue. Countless companies offer tools similar to BlueOrganizer – including Claria’s PersonalWeb – but these aren’t that different from the old Amazon.com “recommendation engine,” which suggests new products based on your surfing and buying habits. Αυτήν τη στιγµή υπάρχουν πάρα πολλές εταιρείες που προσφέρουν παρόµοιας φιλοσοφίας προγράµµατα, κανένα όµως από αυτά δεν ξεφεύγει από τη λογική που χρησιµοποιείται, για παράδειγµα, από το Amazon, το οποίο προτείνει προϊόντα βάσει των συνηθειών του χρήστη και των προϊόντων που αγόρασε αυτός στο παρελθόν.

PCM, Web 3.0 PCM, Έρχεται το Web 3.0

PCM, Web 3.0 PCM, Έρχεται το Web 3.0

PCM, Web 3.0

PCM, Έρχεται το Web 3.0

Person

Activity

We’re a long way from agents that can think on their own. Προς το παρόν, όπως φαίνεται, είµαστε ακόµα πολύ µακριά από τη δηµιουργία εφαρµογών που θα µπορούσαν να σκέφτονται µόνες τους.

PCM, Web 3.0 PCM, Έρχεται το Web 3.0

Person

Activity

“Right now, search engines can’t tell the difference between Paris Hilton and the Hilton in Paris,” says Jeff Bates, cofounder of Slashdot, one of the driving forces behind Web 2.0. “Αυτήν τη στιγµή, οι µηχανές αναζήτησης δεν είναι σε θέση να καταλάβουν τη διαφορά µεταξύ της Paris Hilton και του ξενοδοχείου Hilton στο Παρίσι [Paris]” δήλωσε ο Jeff Bates, ένας από τους ιδρυτές του Slashdot.

PCM, Web 3.0

Person

Activity

On any given image search, Google turns up countless photos completely unrelated to your query, even as it misses out on countless others that may be a perfect match Ως αποτέλεσµα αυτού του µη αποδοτικού τρόπου αναζήτησης, το Google θα επιστρέψει ανάµεσα στις σωστές εικόνες και κάποιες που δεν έχουν καµία απολύτως σχέση ενώ, αντίθετα, από τα αποτελέσµατα της

PCM, Έρχεται το Web 3.0

PCM, Web 3.0 PCM, Έρχεται το Web 3.0

355

αναζήτησης µπορούν να λείπει ακριβώς η φωτογραφία που ψάχνετε, επειδή ο διαχειριστής του site που τη φιλοξενεί, δεν είχε την ίδια έµπνευση µε εσάς. Person

Person

Activity

Activity

Last spring, Ojos unveiled a Web-based photo-sharing tool called Riya [website], which automatically tags your pictures using face recognition. Μέσα στο 2006 η Ojos παρουσίασε ένα site διαµοιρασµού εικόνων στο Web µε την ονοµασία Riya [www.riya.com]. Αντί να προσθέτετε εσείς tags στις εικόνες σας, το site το κάνει αυτόµατα χρησιµοποιώντας τεχνικές αναγνώρισης προσώπων. On his future Web, if you start typing an e-mail proposing a particular business deal with Apple, a window pops up, telling you that one of your colleagues is already in talks with Apple. If you miss an airplane flight and book a new one with your cell phone, it automatically sends messages to the friends you’re meeting for dinner, letting them know you’ll be late. Σε αυτό το µελλοντικό Web, αν, για παράδειγµα, θελήσετε να κάνετε µια επαγγελµατική πρόταση σε κάποια εταιρεία, και αρχίσετε να γράφετε ένα e-mail, θα ειδοποιήστε στην περίπτωση που κάποιος φίλος σας βρίσκεται ήδη στη διαδικασία των συνοµιλιών. Αν χάσετε την πτήση σας, το κινητό σας τηλέφωνο θα ειδοποιεί τους συνεργάτες σας και ίσως να ορίζει και νέα ώρα συνάντησης ανάλογα µε το ωράριό σας.

PCM, Web 3.0 PCM, Έρχεται το Web 3.0

PCM, Web 3.0

PCM, Έρχεται το Web 3.0

Person

Activity

Office helps to smooth and automate almost any task you can imagine when creating and editing documents, but it tries so hard to be helpful that it sometimes does more harm than good. Το Office µας βοηθά να κάνουµε ευκολότερα και ταχύτερα σχεδόν οτιδήποτε έχει σχέση µε δηµιουργία/επεξεργασία εγγράφων. Με σκοπό να γίνει όσο το δυνατόν πιο χρήσιµο, πολλές φορές κάνει περισσότερο κακό απ’ ό,τι καλό.

PCM, Office Problems, Solved! PCM, Προβλήµατα µε το Office; Τα Λύσαµε!

Person

Activity

If you’ve created macros that you store in documents or templates, you don’t want Word to prompt you, asking whether to enable macros every time you open one of those documents. Αν έχετε δηµιουργήσει αρκετές µακροεντολές, οι οποίες περιέχονται σε διάφορα έγγραφα ή πρότυπα, σίγουρα θα είναι ενοχλητικό να σας ρωτά το Word, κάθε φορά που τα ανοίγετε, αν θέλετε να επιτρέψετε την ενεργοποίησή τους.

PCM, Office Problems, Solved! PCM, Προβλήµατα µε το Office; Τα Λύσαµε!

Person

Activity

When Word asks if you want to continue replacing in the rest of the document, say No.

PCM, Office Problems, Solved! PCM, Προβλήµατα µε το Office; Τα Λύσαµε!

Όταν το Word σας ρωτήσει αν θέλετε να κάνει την ίδια αντικατάσταση σε όλο το έγγραφο, επιλέξτε No [Όχι].

356

Person

Activity

You can also get rid of multiple spaces by telling Word to find two spaces and replace them with one, and so on. Με ανάλογο τρόπο, µπορείτε να ζητήσετε από το Word να αντικαθιστά τα διπλά κενά µε µονά, έτσι ώστε να αποφύγετε περιττές γραµµές κ.ο.κ.

PCM, Office Problems, Solved! PCM, Προβλήµατα µε το Office; Τα Λύσαµε!

Person

Activity

This won’t prevent Excel from misinterpreting many fractions (like 3/16) as dates, though.

PCM, Office Problems, Solved! PCM, Προβλήµατα µε το Office; Τα Λύσαµε!

Βέβαια, αυτό δε θα πείσει το Excel να συµµορφωθεί πλήρως, αφού η στοίχιση θα γίνεται προς τα αριστερά, όπως το κείµενο και όχι προς τα δεξιά, όπως οι αριθµοί. Person

Activity

Because of the way it stores numbers, Excel doesn’t allow more than 15 significant digits in cells, and when you enter longer numbers, it usually reformats them or appends a zero. Ο τρόπος αυτός είναι ιδιαίτερα κατάλληλος για την πληκτρολόγηση αριθµών πιστωτικών καρτών, αφού ένα άλλο ενοχλητικό στοιχείο στο Excel είναι ότι προσθέτει µηδενικά σε αριθµούς που περιλαµβάνουν περισσότερα από 15 διαδοχικά σηµαντικά ψηφία.

PCM, Office Problems, Solved! PCM, Προβλήµατα µε το Office; Τα Λύσαµε!

Person

Activity

That’s because Excel interprets the asterisk as a wildcard symbol instead of a search character. Αυτό συµβαίνει γιατί εκλαµβάνει τον αστερίσκο ως µπαλαντέρ, ενώ στην πραγµατικότητα είναι στοιχείο αναζήτησης χαρακτήρα.

PCM, Office Problems, Solved! PCM, Προβλήµατα µε το Office; Τα Λύσαµε!

Person

Activity

PowerPoint lets you undo up to 20 actions by default, but if you want or need more, you can increase the number of reversible edits all the way up to 150. Εξ ορισµού, το PowerPoint επιτρέπει την αναίρεση έως και 20 ενεργειών. Αν χρειάζεστε µεγαλύτερο περιθώριο, µπορείτε να το αυξήσετε µέχρι το 150.

PCM, Office Problems, Solved! PCM, Προβλήµατα µε το Office; Τα Λύσαµε!

Person

Activity

Note that increasing the number of actions to track could also increase the amount of PC memory the program uses. Να θυµάστε µόνο ότι αυξάνοντας τον αριθµό των αναιρέσιµων ενεργειών, αυξάνεται και το ποσοστό µνήµης που απαιτεί το πρόγραµµα από το σύστηµά σας.

PCM, Office Problems, Solved! PCM, Προβλήµατα µε το Office; Τα Λύσαµε!

Person

Activity

Outlook’s security settings won’t let you detach many types of files from messages, including all executable files, scripts, and other potentially dangerous files. Οι ρυθµίσεις ασφαλείας του Outlook πολλές φορές δε σας επιτρέπουν να ανοίξετε ορισµένους τύπους συνηµµένων αρχείων, όπως εκτελέσιµα αρχεία και ό,τι άλλο µπορεί να είναι επικίνδυνο.

PCM, Office Problems, Solved! PCM, Προβλήµατα µε το Office; Τα Λύσαµε!

357

Person

Person

Activity

Activity

There’s no way around this limitation inside Outlook itself, but you can install the Attachment Options addin […] and use Tools | Options | Attachment Security & Options to make Outlook give you access to specific attachment file types. ∆εν υπάρχει τρόπος να παρακάµψετε αυτήν τη ρύθµιση µέσα από την ίδια την εφαρµογή, αλλά µπορείτε να εγκαταστήσετε ένα µικρό πρόγραµµα, όπως το Attachment Options [www.slovaktech.com] και να ανοίξετε το µενού Tools > Options > Security [Εργαλεία >Επιλογές > Ασφάλεια] για να… πείσετε το Outlook να σας δώσει πρόσβαση σε συγκεκριµένα αρχεία. Outlook puts its mail reading and writing options in two different places. Το Outlook διατηρεί σε δύο διαφορετικές τοποθεσίες τις ρυθµίσεις που αφορούν τις επιλογές ανάγνωσης και δηµιουργίας των µηνυµάτων.

Person

Person

Activity

Activity

Outlook replies to messages in the format of the original message (or in plain text if you read all mail as plain text), and you can’t set an option to reply in a specified format unless you install an add-in such as Bells & Whistles for Outlook [website]. Ακόµη, το Outlook χρησιµοποιεί τη µορφοποίηση που έχει επιλέξει ο αποστολέας ενός µηνύµατος, όταν απαντάτε σε αυτό, εκτός αν έχετε επιλέξει να λαµβάνετε όλα τα µηνύµατα σε απλό κείµενο. The second method is Auto-Resolution, which offers addresses from your contact list. Η δεύτερη µέθοδος είναι το AutoResolution, η οποία σας δίνει τη δυνατότητα να εισάγετε διευθύνσεις από το βιβλίο επαφών σας.

PCM, Office Solved!

Problems,

PCM, Προβλήµατα µε το Office; Τα Λύσαµε!

PCM, Office Problems, Solved! PCM, Προβλήµατα µε το Office; Τα Λύσαµε! PCM, Office Solved!

Problems,

PCM, Προβλήµατα µε το Office; Τα Λύσαµε! PCM, Office Problems, Solved! PCM, Προβλήµατα µε το Office; Τα Λύσαµε!

Person

Activity

After typing a few letters of a name, press Ctrl-K and Outlook either fills in an address if it finds only one match or presents a pop-up list of possible matches Μόλις πληκτρολογήσετε τα πρώτα γράµµατα ενός ονόµατος, πατήστε Ctrl+K και το Outlook είτε θα συµπληρώσει τη σχετική διεύθυνση [αν ταιριάζει µόνο µία] είτε θα εµφανίσει έναν κατάλογο µε αυτές που ταιριάζουν.

PCM, Office Problems, Solved! PCM, Προβλήµατα µε το Office; Τα Λύσαµε!

Person

Activity

When you send your message, Outlook will warn you that it doesn’t recognize “don’t,” giving you a chance to cancel sending, reread your message, make sure you want to send it, remove “don’t” from the To: field, and send safely. Έτσι, το Outlook θα σας ειδοποιήσει ότι δεν αναγνωρίζει αυτήν τη λέξη ως διεύθυνση ηλεκτρονικού

PCM, Office Solved!

Problems,

PCM, Προβλήµατα µε το

358

ταχυδροµείου, δίνοντάς σας την ευκαιρία να το ξανασκεφθείτε. Προσοχή, όµως! Αν τελικά αποφασίσετε να το στείλετε, µην ξεχάσετε να αφαιρέσετε την πρόσθετη λέξη από το πεδίο παραληπτών.

Office; Τα Λύσαµε!

Person

Activity

If Outlook pops up a message There is no address to map, that’s because you’ve typed in the address but haven’t saved it; press Ctrl-S and try again. Αν το Outlook εµφανίσει το µήνυµα There is no address to map, σηµαίνει ότι έχετε πληκτρολογήσει µια διεύθυνση, αλλά δεν την έχετε αποθηκεύσει. Πατήστε Ctrl+S και προσπαθήστε ξανά.

PCM, Office Problems, Solved! PCM, Προβλήµατα µε το Office; Τα Λύσαµε!

Person

Activity

If Word doesn’t start up with the viewing options that you prefer, force it to do so with macros that run automatically when you open or create a document. Αν ανοίγετε κάθε πρωί το Word και αυτό επιµένει να ξεκινά µε την προβολή που προτιµά, αναγκάστε το να σταµατήσει! Για να γίνει αυτό, θα χρειαστεί να δηµιουργήσετε µακροεντολές που θα ενεργοποιούνται αυτόµατα κάθε φορά που θα ανοίγετε ένα έγγραφο ή θα δηµιουργείτε ένα νέο.

PCM, Office Problems, Solved! PCM, Προβλήµατα µε το Office; Τα Λύσαµε!

Person

Activity

To stop the prompts, create a digital signature that lets you tell Word to trust your own macros.

PCM, Office Problems, Solved! PCM, Προβλήµατα µε το Office; Τα Λύσαµε!

Για να σταµατήσετε αυτές τις ερωτήσεις, θα πρέπει να δηµιουργήσετε µια ψηφιακή υπογραφή που να λέει στο πρόγραµµα ότι εµπιστεύεστε τις µακροεντολές που έχετε δηµιουργήσει οι ίδιοι. Person

Activity

We know what it’s like when gadgets stop working they way they’re supposed to – PCs slow to a crawl and we can’t get them back up to speed; incompatible software creates a tangled mess of conflicts.

Ξέρουµε πώς είναι όταν αυτά τα... µηχανάκια δε δουλεύουν µε τον τρόπο που θα έπρεπε – επιβραδύνονται µέχρι ακινησίας κι εµείς ψάχνουµε τρόπο να τα επαναφέρουµε.

Person

Activity

You can install patches that shore up vulnerabilities in your operating system.

Μπορεί να εγκαθιστάτε διορθωτικά πακέτα που καλύπτουν τα ευαίσθητα σηµεία του λειτουργικού σας συστήµατος.

PCM, The 10 Biggest Problems in Computing and How We’ll Solve Them PCM, Λύση στα 10 Μεγαλύτερα Προβλήµατα των Υπολογιστών PCM, The 10 Biggest Problems in Computing and How We’ll Solve Them PCM, Λύση στα 10 Μεγαλύτερα Προβλήµατα των Υπολογιστών

359

Person

Activity

The engine then compares the signature to all incoming code, and if it finds a match, it knows it’s caught a virus.

Στη συνέχεια, η µηχανή συγκρίνει την υπογραφή µε κάθε εισερχόµενο κοµµάτι κώδικα και, εάν διαπιστώσει ότι ταιριάζουν, γνωρίζει ότι έχει εντοπίσει έναν ιό.

Person

Activity

But the lag between the time a virus hits the Net and the time the world’s machines receive a signature gives viruses hours to run rampant—and that’s assuming people keep their signatures updated, which they don’t.

Ωστόσο, το διάστηµα που µεσολαβεί από τη στιγµή που ένας ιός εµφανίζεται στο ∆ιαδίκτυο, µέχρι τη στιγµή που οι µηχανές των προγραµµάτων κατά των ιών σε ολόκληρο τον κόσµο ενηµερώνονται για την υπογραφή του, δίνει στους ιούς την ευκαιρία για αρκετές ώρες να διαδοθούν ανεξέλεγκτα – και αυτό, εάν υποθέσουµε ότι όλοι οι χρήστες διατηρούν τα συστήµατά τους ενηµερωµένα, πράγµα που δεν κάνουν. Person

Activity

Antivirus companies such as Kaspersky already use so-called family signatures, which can spot new worms that operate like older ones.

Εταιρείες κατασκευής προγραµµάτων κατά των ιών, όπως η Kaspersky, χρησιµοποιούν ήδη τις αποκαλούµενες “οικογενειακές υπογραφές” [family signatures], οι οποίες µπορούν να εντοπίσουν νέους ιούς που λειτουργούν όπως κάποιοι παλιότεροι. Person

Activity

The ABI is what applications use to talk to various parts of the OS.

Το ABI είναι αυτό που χρησιµοποιούν οι εφαρµογές για να “συνοµιλήσουν” µε διάφορα τµήµατα του λειτουργικού συστήµατος.

Person

Activity

“And now, we’re looking to expand this and identify more patterns, fundamental things that viruses do, fundamental artefacts they leave.”

PCM, The 10 Biggest Problems in Computing and How We’ll Solve Them PCM, Λύση στα 10 Μεγαλύτερα Προβλήµατα των Υπολογιστών PCM, The 10 Biggest Problems in Computing and How We’ll Solve Them PCM, Λύση στα 10 Μεγαλύτερα Προβλήµατα των Υπολογιστών

PCM, The 10 Biggest Problems in Computing and How We’ll Solve Them PCM, Λύση στα 10 Μεγαλύτερα Προβλήµατα των Υπολογιστών PCM, The 10 Biggest Problems in Computing and How We’ll Solve Them PCM, Λύση στα 10 Μεγαλύτερα Προβλήµατα των Υπολογιστών PCM, The 10 Biggest Problems in Computing

360

“Και τώρα, προσπαθούµε να επεκτείνουµε αυτήν τη µέθοδο και να εντοπίσουµε περισσότερα µοτίβα, θεµελιώδη πράγµατα που κάνουν οι ιοί, θεµελιώδη ίχνη που αφήνουν.”

Person

Activity

Though many tools are able to block a large percentage of spam, the sheer volume of it means that a ridiculous number of unwanted messages still get through.

Παρ’ ότι πολλά εργαλεία είναι σε θέση να αναχαιτίσουν µεγάλο ποσοστό του spam, το µεγάλο πλήθος αυτών των µηνυµάτων σηµαίνει ότι ένας µικρός αριθµός τους θα καταφέρει να περάσει τα εµπόδια.

Person

Activity

But that’s true of any system that seeks to fight spam, viruses, and spyware.

Αλλά αυτό ισχύει για οποιοδήποτε σύστηµα που προσπαθεί να καταπολεµήσει το spam, τους ιούς και το spyware.

Person

Activity

“By building tools that look for antipatterns, we can find potential problems and give recommendations on how to fix them.”

“∆ηµιουργώντας εργαλεία που θα αναζητούν τα antipatterns, µπορούµε να εντοπίσουµε εν δυνάµει προβλήµατα και να συστήσουµε τρόπους για την αντιµετώπισή τους”.

Person

Activity

“The tools go through the code and ask questions like ‘What are the inputs you’re supplying?’, ‘What are you assuming about these inputs?’, and ‘Is some code down the line making an assumption about those inputs that is wrong?’,” says Steve Lipner, the director of security engineering strategy at Microsoft. “Τα εργαλεία διατρέχουν τον κώδικα και ρωτούν ερωτήσεις όπως ‘Ποια είναι τα στοιχεία που εισάγεις;’,

and How We’ll Solve Them PCM, Λύση στα 10 Μεγαλύτερα Προβλήµατα των Υπολογιστών PCM, The 10 Biggest Problems in Computing and How We’ll Solve Them PCM, Λύση στα 10 Μεγαλύτερα Προβλήµατα των Υπολογιστών PCM, The 10 Biggest Problems in Computing and How We’ll Solve Them PCM, Λύση στα 10 Μεγαλύτερα Προβλήµατα των Υπολογιστών PCM, The 10 Biggest Problems in Computing and How We’ll Solve Them PCM, Λύση στα 10 Μεγαλύτερα Προβλήµατα των Υπολογιστών PCM, The 10 Biggest Problems in Computing and How We’ll Solve Them PCM, Λύση στα 10

361

Person

Activity

‘Τι υποθέσεις κάνεις γι’ αυτά τα στοιχεία;’ και ‘Υπάρχει κάποιο σηµείο του κώδικα που κάνει λανθασµένες υποθέσεις για αυτά τα στοιχεία;’” λέει ο Steve Lipner, διευθυντής στρατηγικής προγραµµατισµού ασφαλείας της Microsoft.

Μεγαλύτερα Προβλήµατα των Υπολογιστών

Shao’s team is developing a system whereby software designers can create a mathematical proof that travels along with their code.

PCM, The 10 Biggest Problems in Computing and How We’ll Solve Them PCM, Λύση στα 10 Μεγαλύτερα Προβλήµατα των Υπολογιστών

Η οµάδα του Shao αναπτύσσει ένα σύστηµα, µέσω του οποίου οι σχεδιαστές software θα µπορούν να δηµιουργούν µια µαθηµατική απόδειξη που θα συνοδεύει τον κώδικά τους.

Person

Activity

In effect, the proof demonstrates that the software does what it’s supposed to do.

Ουσιαστικά, αυτή η απόδειξη δείχνει ότι το πρόγραµµα κάνει αυτό που υποτίθεται ότι πρέπει να κάνει.

Person

Activity

When you sign up for an account, the site typically asks you to fill in the answer to a common question, such as “What’s your mother’s maiden name?” or “What street did you grow up on?”

Όταν εγγράφεστε για να αποκτήσετε λογαριασµό, συνήθως το site σας ζητά να εισαγάγετε την απάντηση σε µια συνήθη ερώτηση όπως “Πώς είναι το πατρικό όνοµα της µητέρας σας;” ή “Σε ποιο δρόµο µεγαλώσατε;”.

Person

Activity

They’re developing a technology, code-named Nightingale, that lets sites verify answers to authentication questions without actually storing those answers on their servers.

Αναπτύσσουν µια τεχνολογία µε το κωδικό όνοµα Nightingale [αηδόνι], που επιτρέπει στα sites να επιβεβαιώνουν την ορθότητα µιας απάντησης χωρίς ουσιαστικά να αποθηκεύουν αυτές τις απαντήσεις στους servers τους.

PCM, The 10 Biggest Problems in Computing and How We’ll Solve Them PCM, Λύση στα 10 Μεγαλύτερα Προβλήµατα των Υπολογιστών PCM, The 10 Biggest Problems in Computing and How We’ll Solve Them PCM, Λύση στα 10 Μεγαλύτερα Προβλήµατα των Υπολογιστών PCM, The 10 Biggest Problems in Computing and How We’ll Solve Them PCM, Λύση στα 10 Μεγαλύτερα Προβλήµατα των Υπολογιστών

362

Person

Activity

“Two servers or even two different Web sites can work together to verify information like this, but without either one of them knowing enough to answer or find out the answers themselves,” says Dr. Burt Kaliski, chief scientist for RSA Labs. “∆ύο servers ή ακόµη και δύο διαφορετικά Web sites µπορούν να συνεργαστούν για να επιβεβαιώσουν πληροφορίες τέτοιου είδους, αλλά χωρίς κάποιο από τα δύο µέρη να γνωρίζει επαρκή στοιχεία ώστε να απαντήσει ή να βρει την απάντηση από µόνο του”, εξηγεί ο δρ. Burt Kaliski, επικεφαλής επιστήµονας των RSA Labs.

Person

Activity

This kind of chip encrypts files and passwords, making them readable only on your computer.

Αυτό το είδος chip κρυπτογραφεί αρχεία και passwords, έτσι ώστε να είναι προσβάσιµα µόνο στον υπολογιστή σας.

Person

Activity

Fingerprint readers capable of verifying your identity are already available for desktops and laptops.

Αναγνώστες δακτυλικών αποτυπωµάτων που είναι σε θέση να αναγνωρίσουν την ταυτότητά σας, είναι ήδη διαθέσιµοι για υπολογιστές desktop και notebook.

Person

Activity

These questions are then semantically analyzed and transformed into queries your computer can understand.

Αυτές οι ερωτήσεις αναλύονται στη συνέχεια σηµασιολογικά και µετατρέπονται σε ερωτήµατα [queries] που µπορεί να αντιληφθεί ο υπολογιστής.

Person

Activity

Once the computer finds an answer to your question, the answer can be translated back into natural language.

PCM, The 10 Biggest Problems in Computing and How We’ll Solve Them PCM, Λύση στα 10 Μεγαλύτερα Προβλήµατα των Υπολογιστών

PCM, The 10 Biggest Problems in Computing and How We’ll Solve Them PCM, Λύση στα 10 Μεγαλύτερα Προβλήµατα των Υπολογιστών PCM, The 10 Biggest Problems in Computing and How We’ll Solve Them PCM, Λύση στα 10 Μεγαλύτερα Προβλήµατα των Υπολογιστών PCM, The 10 Biggest Problems in Computing and How We’ll Solve Them PCM, Λύση στα 10 Μεγαλύτερα Προβλήµατα των Υπολογιστών PCM,

The 10 Biggest

363

Μόλις ο υπολογιστής βρει µια απάντηση στην ερώτησή σας, η απάντηση µπορεί να µεταφραστεί και πάλι σε φυσική γλώσσα.

Person

Activity

For example, rather than forcing us to deal with overlapping full-size windows, WinCuts dynamically grabs small regions of open windows and displays them without overlap, so you can move between apps more smoothly. Για παράδειγµα, αντί να µας αναγκάζει να αντιµετωπίζουµε αλληλεπικαλυπτόµενα παράθυρα πλήρους µεγέθους, το WinCuts παίρνει δυναµικά µικρές περιοχές των ανοικτών παραθύρων και τις εµφανίζει χωρίς επικάλυψη, ώστε να µπορείτε να µετακινείστε πιο εύκολα µεταξύ των εφαρµογών.

Person

Activity

Microsoft is even working on something called the brain interface, which uses your brain activity to mold a computer’s behaviour to your particular needs.

Η Microsoft εργάζεται µάλιστα και επάνω σε κάτι που ονοµάζεται “interface εγκεφάλου” και χρησιµοποιεί την εγκεφαλική σας δραστηριότητα για να προσαρµόσει τη συµπεριφορά του υπολογιστή στις συγκεκριµένες ανάγκες σας. Person

Activity

A machine that adjusts its behavior according to your thoughts?

Μια µηχανή που προσαρµόζει τη συµπεριφορά της στις σκέψεις σας;

Person

Activity

[…] the first commercial products will arrive in a year or two.

Problems in Computing and How We’ll Solve Them PCM, Λύση στα 10 Μεγαλύτερα Προβλήµατα των Υπολογιστών PCM, The 10 Biggest Problems in Computing and How We’ll Solve Them PCM, Λύση στα 10 Μεγαλύτερα Προβλήµατα των Υπολογιστών PCM, The 10 Biggest Problems in Computing and How We’ll Solve Them PCM, Λύση στα 10 Μεγαλύτερα Προβλήµατα των Υπολογιστών PCM, The 10 Biggest Problems in Computing and How We’ll Solve Them PCM, Λύση στα 10 Μεγαλύτερα Προβλήµατα των Υπολογιστών PCM, The 10 Biggest Problems in Computing and How We’ll Solve Them

364

Person

Activity

Τα πρώτα εµπορικά προϊόντα θα καταφθάσουν σε ένα ή δύο χρόνια.

PCM, Λύση στα 10 Μεγαλύτερα Προβλήµατα των Υπολογιστών

Holographic storage promises a new generation of drives that store data as a 3D image and pave the way for supersize drives with remarkably fast access times.

PCM, The 10 Biggest Problems in Computing and How We’ll Solve Them PCM, Λύση στα 10 Μεγαλύτερα Προβλήµατα των Υπολογιστών

Η ολογραφική αποθήκευση υπόσχεται µια νέα γενιά drives, που θα αποθηκεύουν δεδοµένα ως τρισδιάστατες εικόνες και θα ανοίξουν το δρόµο για υπερµεγέθη drives µε αξιοπρόσεκτα µικρούς χρόνους πρόσβασης. Person

Activity

InPhase Technologies has announced it will ship a holographic drive next year that can store 300GB of data on a CD-sized disc and deliver access times of less than 200 milliseconds.

Η εταιρεία InPhase Technologies [website] ανακοίνωσε ότι µέχρι το τέλος της χρονιάς που διανύουµε θα κυκλοφορήσει ένα ολογραφικό drive που θα αποθηκεύει 300GB δεδοµένων σε ένα δίσκο µεγέθους CD µε χρόνο πρόσβασης µικρότερο από 200 milliseconds. Person

Activity

ZettaCore, for example, has a prototype that uses customized molecules to store data.

Για παράδειγµα, η εταιρεία ZettaCore [website], έχει ένα πρωτότυπο που χρησιµοποιεί τροποποιηµένα µόρια για την αποθήκευση δεδοµένων.

Person

Activity

Today’s machines are particularly deficient at handling multiple tasks at the same time.

Τα σηµερινά συστήµατα µειονεκτούν κυρίως στην ταυτόχρονη διαχείριση πολλαπλών εργασιών.

PCM, The 10 Biggest Problems in Computing and How We’ll Solve Them PCM, Λύση στα 10 Μεγαλύτερα Προβλήµατα των Υπολογιστών PCM, The 10 Biggest Problems in Computing and How We’ll Solve Them PCM, Λύση στα 10 Μεγαλύτερα Προβλήµατα των Υπολογιστών PCM, The 10 Biggest Problems in Computing and How We’ll Solve Them PCM, Λύση στα 10 Μεγαλύτερα Προβλήµατα των Υπολογιστών

365

Person

Activity

We’re seeing the first awkward Wi-Fi/cellular devices now; by 2012, they’ll be small and cheap, thanks to software-definable radios and antennas, which will reconfigure themselves on the fly to receive signals on several bands. Βλέπουµε ήδη στην αγορά τις πρώτες συσκευές που συνδυάζουν Wi-Fi και κινητή τηλεφωνία. Έως το 2012 θα έχουν γίνει µικρές και φτηνές, χάρη σε ποµπούς και κεραίες που θα καθορίζονται από software και που θα αυτορυθµίζονται αυτόµατα για να λαµβάνουν σήµα σε διάφορες µπάντες.

Person

Activity

While 802.11-based wireless technologies carve out a particular portion of spectrum to operate in, UWB sends out tiny bursts of radio over many frequencies.

Ενώ οι ασύρµατες τεχνολογίες που βασίζονται στο 802.11 καταλαµβάνουν ένα συγκεκριµένο τµήµα του φάσµατος για να λειτουργήσουν, η UWB στέλνει µικροσκοπικά ραδιοσήµατα σε πολλές συχνότητες.

Person

Activity

Data goes out in millions of pulses per second, which the receiving UWB device then reassembles.

Τα δεδοµένα αποστέλλονται µε εκατοµµύρια παλµούς το δευτερόλεπτο και ανασυντίθενται από τη συσκευή-δέκτη.

Person

Activity

UWB promises to deliver hundreds of megabits per second in throughput initially, with gigabit-per-second rates possible.

Η UWB υπόσχεται να προσφέρει αρχικά ρυθµό διαµεταγωγής δεδοµένων εκατοντάδες megabits το δευτερόλεπτο, µε δυνατότητες για ρυθµούς της τάξης των gigabit ανά δευτερόλεπτο.

Person

Activity

A subset of UWB, Wireless USB, is expected to usher in short range applications, freeing us from our USB connectors.

PCM, The 10 Biggest Problems in Computing and How We’ll Solve Them PCM, Λύση στα 10 Μεγαλύτερα Προβλήµατα των Υπολογιστών PCM, The 10 Biggest Problems in Computing and How We’ll Solve Them PCM, Λύση στα 10 Μεγαλύτερα Προβλήµατα των Υπολογιστών PCM, The 10 Biggest Problems in Computing and How We’ll Solve Them PCM, Λύση στα 10 Μεγαλύτερα Προβλήµατα των Υπολογιστών PCM, The 10 Biggest Problems in Computing and How We’ll Solve Them PCM, Λύση στα 10 Μεγαλύτερα Προβλήµατα των Υπολογιστών PCM, The 10 Biggest Problems in Computing

366

Ένα υποσύνολο του UWB, το ασύρµατο USB, αναµένεται να βάλει τάξη στις εφαρµογές µικρής εµβέλειας και να µας απελευθερώσει από τους USB connectors.

Person

Activity

All this wireless technology on the horizon will help our devices communicate faster and more effectively.

Ανεξάρτητα από το ποια πρότυπα θα επικρατήσουν, όµως, είναι βέβαιο πως όλη αυτή η ασύρµατη τεχνολογία στον ορίζοντα θα βοηθήσει τις συσκευές µας να επικοινωνούν ταχύτερα και πιο αποδοτικά.

Person

Activity

Always-on indexing and searching tools eat CPU cycles for breakfast. Επιπλέον, εφαρµογές που πραγµατοποιούν διαρκώς indexing, και εργαλεία εύρεσης θα "µασουλάνε" κύκλους της CPU για... πρωινό.

Person

Activity

That includes not only CPUs, the chips at the heart of our PCs, but also graphics processors, that is, the chips that build the images on our PC displays, along with the chipsets and memory that handle the dirty work inside. Και αυτό συµπεριλαµβάνει κεντρικούς επεξεργαστές [CPUs], επεξεργαστές γραφικών [GPUs ή VPUs], "εξυπνότερα" και ικανότερα να διαχειριστούν την επιπλέον ισχύ και τις δυνατότητες που προσφέρει η τεχνολογία του πυριτίου κεντρικά chipsets αλλά και chips µνήµης.

and How We’ll Solve Them PCM, Λύση στα 10 Μεγαλύτερα Προβλήµατα των Υπολογιστών PCM, The 10 Biggest Problems in Computing and How We’ll Solve Them PCM, Λύση στα 10 Μεγαλύτερα Προβλήµατα των Υπολογιστών PCM, Why Microchips Matter (Again) PCM, AMD vs INTEL

PCM, Why Microchips Matter (Again) PCM, AMD vs INTEL

Person

Activity

In May AMD unveiled the Athlon 64 FX-62, a 64-bit dual-core CPU compatible with high-speed DDR2 memory. Το Μάιο, η AMD παρουσίασε τον AMD Athlon 64 FX-62, ένα µοντέλο 64-bit dual-core που, χάρη σε ένα νέο ενσωµατωµένο memory controller, είναι συµβατό µε τη µνήµη τύπου DDR2.

PCM, Why Microchips Matter (Again) PCM, AMD vs INTEL

Person

Activity

Branch prediction is improved, so chips can better determine which brand instructions to execute next.

PCM, Why Microchips Matter (Again) PCM, AMD vs INTEL

O σχεδιασµός για το branch prediction [µε τη χρήση τεσσάρων "έξυπνων" prefetchers] παρουσιάζεται επίσης ιδιαίτερα βελτιωµένος, ώστε οι επεξεργαστές του είδους να µπορούν να "µαντέψουν" και τελικώς να

367

"αποφασίσουν" ποια είναι η κατάλληλη εντολή που θα ακολουθήσει για εκτέλεση. Person

Activity

And in some cases, using a new feature called “macrofusion,” the chip can handle two instructions as one. Σε µερικές περιπτώσεις επίσης, χρησιµοποιώντας ένα νέο χαρακτηριστικό που ονοµάζεται "macrofusion", ο επεξεργαστής µπορεί να χειρίζεται δύο εντολές σαν µια, συγχωνεύοντας ορισµένα κοινά ζευγάρια εντολών.

Person

Activity

With the new Advanced Smart Cache, Intel has also improved the way these dual cores work together. Με το χαρακτηριστικό Intel Advanced Smart Cache, από την άλλη, η Intel έχει βελτιώσει σηµαντικά τον τρόπο που οι δύο πυρήνες σε έναν επεξεργαστή συνεργάζονται µεταξύ τους.

Person

Activity

Windows Vista is here at last. Τα Windows Vista είναι επιτέλους εδώ.

Person

Activity

Explorer makes file navigation easier, with breadcrumbs that let you jump to a specific level in the directory hierarchy, integrated search, live icons that show both a visual preview of a document and the app that it opens in, and buttons that make it easy to perform common context-appropriate tasks. Η περιήγηση στους καταλόγους είναι ευκολότερη χάρη στη breadcrumb address bar, η οποία σας επιτρέπει να µεταβείτε σε όποιο επίπεδο µιας δοµής καταλόγων εσείς θέλετε. Παράλληλα, οι ενσωµατωµένες δυνατότητες αναζήτησης, τα live icons που εµφανίζουν προεπισκοπήσεις των εγγράφων, και τα πλήκτρα ελέγχου που επιτελούν εργασίες ανάλογα µε το εκάστοτε επιλεγµένο αντικείµενο, θα κάνουν τη διαχείριση αρχείων πραγµατική απόλαυση και τη δουλειά σας πιο εύκολη.

PCM, Why Microchips Matter (Again) PCM, AMD vs INTEL

PCM, Why Microchips Matter (Again) PCM, AMD vs INTEL

PCM, Insider’s Guide to Vista PCM, Vista: Ο πληρέστερος οδηγός για ψαγµένους χρήστες PCM, Insider’s Guide to Vista PCM, Vista: Ο πληρέστερος οδηγός για ψαγµένους χρήστες

Person

Activity

Some of an operating system’s crucial responsibilities include managing hardware and drive storage and providing a set of APIs (application programming interfaces) that other software can rely on. Μεταξύ των σηµαντικότερων “καθηκόντων” ενός λειτουργικού συστήµατος είναι η διαχείριση του hardware και του αποθηκευτικού χώρου, καθώς και η παροχή ενός συνόλου API [Application Programming Interface] στο οποίο να βασίζεται αλλά και µέσω του οποίου να αξιοποιεί το υπόλοιπο software [προγράµµατα, βιβλιοθήκες συστήµατος κ.τ.λ.].

PCM, Insider’s Guide to Vista PCM, Vista: Ο πληρέστερος οδηγός για ψαγµένους χρήστες

Person

Activity

There’s also a low-priority I/O mechanism that lets programs such as Windows Defender run scans in the

PCM, Insider’s Guide to

368

background with less disruption to foreground activity; and Vista automatically schedules drive defragmentation Παράλληλα, στα Vista ενσωµατώνεται και ένας µηχανισµός Low Priority I/O που επιτρέπει σε εφαρµογές όπως π.χ ο Windows Defender να τρέχουν τους ελέγχους τους [scans] στο παρασκήνιο, δεσµεύοντας πολύ λιγότερους πόρους συστήµατος.

Vista PCM, Vista: Ο πληρέστερος οδηγός για ψαγµένους χρήστες

Person

Activity

In my testing, IE sometimes forgot my preferences for hiding add-on toolbars, and it consistently ate my first few keystrokes after I pressed Ctrl-T to open a new tab. Στις δοκιµές µας, o Internet Explorer 7 αρκετές φορές “ξέχασε” τις προτιµήσεις µας, όσον αφορά στην απόκρυψη των πρόσθετων toolbars, ενώ κατ’ επανάληψη αγνόησε τους πρώτους χαρακτήρες που πληκτρολογήσαµε αµέσως µετά το άνοιγµα µιας νέας καρτέλας [µε Ctrl-T].

PCM, Insider’s Guide to Vista PCM, Vista: Ο πληρέστερος οδηγός για ψαγµένους χρήστες

Person

Activity

Photo Gallery manages large numbers of digital photos with tags, incremental search, and basic editing such as cropping and red-eye reduction. Η Photo Gallery διαχειρίζεται µεγάλες σε αριθµό συλλογές φωτογραφιών αξιοποιώντας tags και προσφέροντας παράλληλα στιγµιαίες αναζητήσεις “as you type” και βασικές λειτουργίες επεξεργασίας [π.χ. απάλειψη του φαινοµένου των κόκκινων µατιών].

PCM, Insider’s Guide to Vista PCM, Vista: Ο πληρέστερος οδηγός για ψαγµένους χρήστες

User Account Control (UAC), IE7’s Protected Mode, and Service Hardening all slam doors on malicious software. Το User Account Control [UAC], το Protected Mode του Internet Explorer 7 και η “σκλήρυνση” των Services [Services Hardening] είναι µερικά µόνο από τα νέα στοιχεία ασφαλείας, που έχουν ως κοινό στόχο να κλείσουν τις “πόρτες” στο malware [κακεντρεχές software].

PCM, Insider’s Guide to Vista PCM, Vista: Ο πληρέστερος οδηγός για ψαγµένους χρήστες

Person

Activity

Person

Activity

The Vista firewall controls both inbound and outbound connections, Windows Defender keeps out spyware, and parental control is built right in. Το νέο firewall των Vista ελέγχει τόσο την εισερχόµενη [inbound] όσο και την εξερχόµενη [outbound] δικτυακή δραστηριότητα, ο Windows Defender θα φροντίσει ώστε το σύστηµά σας να είναι καθαρό από spyware [τουλάχιστον κατά ένα µεγάλο ποσοστό], ενώ τα στοιχεία γονικού ελέγχου [Parental Control] για πρώτη φορά είναι ενσωµατωµένα στο ίδιο το λειτουργικό σύστηµα.

PCM, Insider’s Guide to Vista PCM, Vista: Ο πληρέστερος οδηγός για ψαγµένους χρήστες

Person

Activity

PatchGuard completely locks down the core components of Vista, preventing any and all modifications.

PCM, Insider’s Guide to Vista PCM, Vista: Ο πληρέστερος οδηγός για

Ο PatchGuard κλειδώνει ολοκληρωτικά τον πυρήνα των Vista, εµποδίζοντας οποιαδήποτε τροποποίηση.

369

ψαγµένους χρήστες Person

Activity

If malware somehow breaches the containment vessel and taints the kernel, PatchGuard kills off the intrusion by deliberately crashing the system. Αν εντοπίσει δραστηριότητα κακεντρεχούς λογισµικού, ο PatchGuard θα την τερµατίσει ακόµα και αν χρειαστεί να προκαλέσει αναπάντεχη διακοπή της λειτουργίας του συστήµατος [δηλαδή crash].

PCM, Insider’s Guide to Vista PCM, Vista: Ο πληρέστερος οδηγός για ψαγµένους χρήστες

Person

Activity

Rootkits won’t be able to hide by subverting the Windows kernel.

PCM, Insider’s Guide to Vista PCM, Vista: Ο πληρέστερος οδηγός για ψαγµένους χρήστες

Χάρη σε αυτήν τη νέα προσέγγιση, τα rootkits δε θα είναι σε θέση να κρύψουν τον εαυτό τους τροποποιώντας τον kernel των Windows, ενώ τα Vista θα είναι πιο ασφαλή και σταθερά στη λειτουργία τους µε δεδοµένο ότι τα ζωτικής σηµασίας µέρη του συστήµατος απλά δεν µπορούν να τροποποιηθούν από κανέναν. Person

Activity

PatchGuard keeps out everyone – bad guys, good guys, even Microsoft apps. Ο PatchGuard απλά δεν επιτρέπει τέτοια παρέµβαση σε καµία εφαρµογή –είτε “καλή”, είτε “κακή”– ούτε καν στις ίδιες τις ενσωµατωµένες εφαρµογές των Windows.

Person

Activity

Vista may catch up to Tiger in a lot of ways, but Apple isn’t standing still. Τα Vista σίγουρα µείωσαν το χάσµα των Windows µε το Mac OS X, προσφέροντας σύγχρονες δυνατότητες µέσα από ένα σύγχρονο και όµορφο interface. Η Apple, όµως, δε µένει στάσιµη.

PCM, Insider’s Guide to Vista PCM, Vista: Ο πληρέστερος οδηγός για ψαγµένους χρήστες PCM, Insider’s Guide to Vista PCM, Vista: Ο πληρέστερος οδηγός για ψαγµένους χρήστες

Person

Activity

When Microsoft rolls out a new OS, things get more difficult for support organizations across the industry— at least initially—and this will surely be the case for them with Vista. Κάθε φορά που η Microsoft κυκλοφορεί ένα νέο λειτουργικό, δυσκολεύει η κατάσταση για τις εταιρείες που παρέχουν υπηρεσίες υποστήριξης – τουλάχιστον τους πρώτους µήνες.

PCM, Insider’s Guide to Vista PCM, Vista: Ο πληρέστερος οδηγός για ψαγµένους χρήστες

Person

Activity

When converting from VHS tapes, MyDVD must detect scene changes based upon content changes in the video.

PCM, From Video to DVD

370

Person

Activity

Το MyDVD βασίζεται στην αλλαγή περιεχοµένου για να χωρίσει σκηνές, για παράδειγµα, νυχτερινά πλάνα και λήψεις µε φως ηµέρας.

PCM, Σώστε Βιντεοκασέτες

For others, we’ll have to wait until the technology catches up with the imagination.

PCM, Keeping up with the Jetsons PCM, Έµπνευση και Τεχνολογία

Για κάποια άλλα, θα πρέπει να περιµένουµε µέχρι η τεχνολογία να φτάσει τη φαντασία.

τις

Person

Activity

Designed by a mother to keep the kids entertained during long trips, this portable DVD player/activity center conceals a digital scribble pad underneath the digital camera (the flat circular component). Σχεδιασµένο από µια µητέρα για να διασκεδάζει τα παιδιά κατά τη διάρκεια µεγάλων ταξιδιών, αυτό το φορητό DVD player/κέντρο δραστηριοτήτων κρύβει κάτω από την ψηφιακή κάµερα [το επίπεδο, κυκλικό στοιχείο] ένα ψηφιακό µπλοκ.

PCM, Keeping up with the Jetsons PCM, Έµπνευση και Τεχνολογία

Person

Activity

It also recognizes voices and gestures and has built-in RFID and broadband.

PCM, Keeping up with the Jetsons PCM, Έµπνευση και Τεχνολογία

Επίσης, αναγνωρίζει φωνές και χειρονοµίες και έχει ενσωµατωµένο RFID και broadband σύνδεση.

Person

Activity

Electronic ink is just the prescription for this smart pill bottle that does everything but take your pills for you. Πίσω από αυτό το έξυπνο µπουκαλάκι χαπιών που κάνει τα πάντα εκτός από το να παίρνει τα φάρµακα αντί για σας, κρύβεται το ηλεκτρονικό µελάνι.

PCM, Keeping up with the Jetsons PCM, Έµπνευση και Τεχνολογία

Person

Activity

The brains are built into the cap, which communicates wirelessly with your pharmacist.

PCM, Keeping up with the Jetsons PCM, Έµπνευση και Τεχνολογία

Ο "εγκέφαλος" είναι ενσωµατωµένος στο πώµα, το οποίο επικοινωνεί ασύρµατα µε το φαρµακοποιό σας.

Person

Person

Activity

Activity

Flexible display technology from E Ink lets this product speak more to the user’s necessities. Η τεχνολογία των εύκαµπτων οθονών από την E Ink επιτρέπει σε αυτό το προϊόν να ανταποκριθεί καλύτερα στις ανάγκες των καταναλωτών.

PCM, Keeping up with the Jetsons PCM, Έµπνευση και Τεχνολογία

Pluribus can seamlessly “tile” images from multiple projectors, fitting them together like pieces of a jigsaw

PCM,

Today’s

Ideas,

371

puzzle. Το Pluribus µπορεί να δηµιουργήσει ένα ψηφιδωτό [πραγµατοποιεί tile των images] από εικόνες πολλαπλών projectors, ταιριάζοντας τα “πλακάκια” των εικόνων σαν σε παζλ.

Tomorrow’s Tech’ PCM, ∆ιαβάζουµε Μέλλον!

το

Person

Activity

A camera takes a snapshot of the projectors' six overlapping images and sends it back to an ordinary PC workstation with an ordinary (but high-end) graphics card. Μια κάµερα καταγράφει τις έξι προβαλλόµενες από τους projectors εικόνες – προφανώς η µία πέφτει πάνω στην άλλη– και στέλνει τη λήψη σε ένα κοινό PC που ενσωµατώνει µια κοινή, αλλά high end, κάρτα γραφικών σαν αυτές που χρησιµεύουν για gaming.

PCM, Today’s Ideas, Tomorrow’s Tech’ PCM, ∆ιαβάζουµε το Μέλλον!

Person

Activity

With a classical computer, transistors store bits of information, and each bit has a value of either 1 or 0.

PCM, Today’s Ideas, Tomorrow’s Tech’ PCM, ∆ιαβάζουµε το Μέλλον!

Σε έναν τυπικό υπολογιστή τα transistors αποθηκεύουν bits πληροφορίας, και κάθε bit έχει είτε την τιµή “1” είτε την τιµή “0” [για παράδειγµα, ανοικτό ένα transistor αποθηκεύει την τιµή “1” και κλειστό την τιµή “0”]. Person

Activity

When a quantum system interacts with the classical world, it decoheres: It loses its ability to exist simultaneously in multiple states, collapsing into a single state. Όµως, εδώ υπάρχει ένα σοβαρό πρόβληµα: όταν ένας κβαντικός υπολογιστής βρεθεί σε ένα κλασικό σύστηµα, “κλασικοποιείται” [η µετάβαση από την κβαντική στην κλασική συµπεριφορά ονοµάζεται “decoherence”], δηλαδή χάνει τις ιδιότητες που του επιτρέπουν να υπάρχει σε πολλαπλές καταστάσεις, καταρρέοντας σε µια µοναδική κατάσταση […].

PCM, Today’s Ideas, Tomorrow’s Tech’ PCM, ∆ιαβάζουµε το Μέλλον!

Person

Activity

The first Memjet ink-based printers hit the market, delivering 60 pages per minute at a reasonable cost per page. Οι πρώτοι εκτυπωτές που βασίζονται στην τεχνολογία Memjet, φτάνουν στην αγορά, επιδεικνύοντας ταχύτητα εκτύπωσης 60 σελίδες το λεπτό και µε προσιτό κόστος ανά σελίδα.

PCM, Today’s Ideas, Tomorrow’s Tech’ PCM, ∆ιαβάζουµε το Μέλλον!

Person

Activity

Fourth-generation cellular networks debut in the United States.

PCM, Today’s Ideas, Tomorrow’s Tech’ PCM, ∆ιαβάζουµε το Μέλλον!

Η τέταρτη γενιά της τεχνολογίας κινητής τηλεφωνίας κάνει το ντεµπούτο της στις Ηνωµένες Πολιτείες.

Person

Activity

They’re building a networking system that revolves around the data itself, a system in which a router can actually identify that Bode Miller video and act accordingly. Οι αυθεντίες του PARC στα δίκτυα σκέφτηκαν να δηµιουργήσουν ένα σύστηµα δικτύωσης που να

PCM, Today’s Ideas, Tomorrow’s Tech’ PCM, ∆ιαβάζουµε το

372

Person

Activity

περιστρέφεται γύρω από τα ίδια τα δεδοµένα, ένα σύστηµα στο οποίο ο router θα µπορεί να αναγνωρίσει τα δεδοµένα –για παράδειγµα, ένα video της τηλεόρασης του PC Magazine– και να συµπεριφέρεται αναλόγως.

Μέλλον!

Under the CCN model, you don’t tell the network that you’re interested in connecting to a server. Στο µοντέλο δικτύωσης CCN, ο υπολογιστής σας δεν είναι απαραίτητο να πει στο δίκτυο ότι ενδιαφέρεται να συνδεθεί µε έναν server.

PCM, Today’s Ideas, Tomorrow’s Tech’ PCM, ∆ιαβάζουµε το Μέλλον!

Person

Activity

You broadcast a request to all the machines on the network, and if one of them has what you’re looking for, it responds. Εκπέµπετε την αίτησή σας σε όλους τους υπολογιστές του δικτύου και αν κάποιος από αυτούς – οποιοσδήποτε– διαθέτει τα δεδοµένα που ζητήσατε, σας απαντά αναλόγως.

PCM, Today’s Ideas, Tomorrow’s Tech’ PCM, ∆ιαβάζουµε το Μέλλον!

Person

Activity

ClearType Tuner: Dramatically improves font legibility on some LCD screens.

PCW, 35 Things Every PC Owner Should Know’ PCW, 35 Tips που Κάθε Χρήστης PC Πρέπει να Γνωρίζει

ClearType Tuner: Καθιστά πολύ πιο ευανάγνωστες τις γραµµατοσειρές σε ορισµένες οθόνος LCD.

Person

Activity

Image Resizer: Adds a new menu when you right-click a photo on your PC. Image Resizer: Προσθέτει ένα νέο µενού όταν κάνετε δεξί κλικ πάνω σε µια φωτογραφία του υπολογιστή σας.

PCW, 35 Things Every PC Owner Should Know’ PCW, 35 Tips που Κάθε Χρήστης PC Πρέπει να Γνωρίζει

Person

Activity

This essential OS tweaking tool offers more granular control over your privacy settings and operations, and even over the way you log in to your PC (plus much more). Το απαραίτητο αυτό εργαλείο προσφέρει ασύγκριτη συνολική διαχείριση των ρυθµίσεων ασφαλείας και των λειτουργιών τους, µπορεί δε να αλλάξει ακόµα και τον τρόπο που κάνετε login στο PC σας.

PCW, 35 Things Every PC Owner Should Know’ PCW, 35 Tips που Κάθε Χρήστης PC Πρέπει να Γνωρίζει

Person

Activity

Alt-Tab Replacement: Adds previews of each page when you switch between open applications using . Alt-Tab Replacement: Προσθέτει τη δυνατότητα προεπισκόπησης κάθε εφαρµογής που εκτελείτε

PCW, 35 Things Every PC Owner Should Know’ PCW, 35 Tips που Κάθε

373

Person

Activity

ταυτόχρονα, όταν φέρνετε στο προσκήνιο αυτή που θέλετε, µε το συνδυασµό πλήκτρων Alt+Tab.

Χρήστης PC Πρέπει να Γνωρίζει

The Image Resizer tool gives you a quick and easy way to resize your shots individually or in batches.

PCW, 35 Things Every PC Owner Should Know’ PCW, 35 Tips που Κάθε Χρήστης PC Πρέπει να Γνωρίζει

Το εργαλείο Image Resizer προσφέρει έναν γρήγορο και εύκολο τρόπο αλλαγής των διαστάσεων των εικόνων, ακόµα και µε αυτοµατοποιηµένες διαδικασίες (batches).

Person

Activity

Choose an SSID that doesn’t invite inquiry from passersby (like ‘broken’ instead of ‘janeswifi’ or ‘123mainstreet’). Επιλέξτε ένα SSID που να µην µπορεί να αναζητηθεί εύκολα. Για µεγαλύτερη ασφάλεια απενεργοποιήστε το SSID broadcasting.

PCW, 35 Things Every PC Owner Should Know’ PCW, 35 Tips που Κάθε Χρήστης PC Πρέπει να Γνωρίζει

Person

Activity

This can enhance security, but MAC addresses are easily spoofed, and using this feature means you’ll have to access your router’s admin page to add new PCs to your network. Κάτι τέτοιο θα βελτιώσει την ασφάλεια, αλλά θα χρειαστεί να προσθέσετε εσείς οι ίδιοι τους υπολογιστές του δικτύου σας στη σελίδα του administrator του router.

PCW, 35 Things Every PC Owner Should Know’ PCW, 35 Tips που Κάθε Χρήστης PC Πρέπει να Γνωρίζει

Person

Activity

Anytime your system crashes or an application freezes up, Event Viewer dutifully logs the error—but sorting through Event Viewer logs can be just as frustrating as dealing with the Blue Screen of Death. Κάθε φορά που το σύστηµά σας ή µια εφαρµογή «κολλάει», ο Event Viewer καταγράφει αυτόµατα το πρόβληµα, αλλά οι παρουσιάσεις του είναι τόσο διαφωτιστικές όσο είναι και οι περιβόητες «µπλε οθόνες» των Windows.

PCW, 35 Things Every PC Owner Should Know’ PCW, 35 Tips που Κάθε Χρήστης PC Πρέπει να Γνωρίζει

Person

Activity

But often the information you get will tell you little about the problem, either saying no more data is available or declaring there’s nothing you can do. Αρκετά συχνά, πάντως, οι πληροφορίες που θα λάβετε θα σας πουν πολύ λίγα για την επίλυση του προβλήµατος ή απλώς ότι δεν µπορείτε να κάνετε σχεδόν τίποτα.

PCW, 35 Things Every PC Owner Should Know’ PCW, 35 Tips που Κάθε Χρήστης PC Πρέπει να Γνωρίζει

Person

Activity

Make sure nothing else on your network is using the connection and stop any Internet processes on your PC.

PCW, 35 Things Every PC Owner Should Know’

374

Βεβαιωθείτε πρώτα ότι δεν χρησιµοποιείται από κάποια άλλη εφαρµογή ή κάποιο άλλο συνδεδεµένο υπολογιστή, κλείνοντας τα e-mails, τους browsers και τους download managers.

PCW, 35 Tips που Κάθε Χρήστης PC Πρέπει να Γνωρίζει

Person

Activity

Enter the changes noted in the Tweak Tester results in the Dr. TCP window, and the program will then make all of the appropriate Registry fixes for you. Εφαρµόστε άφοβα στη συνέχεια τις αλλαγές που σας προτείνονται από τη σελίδα αποτελεσµάτων του Tweak Tester στο Dr. TCP, αφήνοντας το πρόγραµµα να κάνει αυτό τις όποιες αλλαγές.

PCW, 35 Things Every PC Owner Should Know’ PCW, 35 Tips που Κάθε Χρήστης PC Πρέπει να Γνωρίζει

Person

Activity

By default, Windows limits you to a mere two downloads at a time, but you can bump that up to eight or ten.

PCW, 35 Things Every PC Owner Should Know’ PCW, 35 Tips που Κάθε Χρήστης PC Πρέπει να Γνωρίζει

Εξ ορισµού τα Windows σας περιορίζουν µε µόνο δύο ταυτόχρονα sessions τη φορά, αλλά εσείς µπορείτε να αυξήσετε σε οχτώ, ακόµη και σε δέκα.

Person

Activity

And you may not be able to anyway, since many ISPs place a cap on message size (often 10MB or less). […] ειδικά όταν πολλοί ISPs περιορίζουν το µέγιστο επιτρεπόµενο µέγεθος αρχείου συνήθως στα 10MB.

Person

Activity

GigaSize.com: Has a 1.5GB file-size limit and stores files for 90 days. GigaSize.com: έχει όριο 1,5GB για τα αρχεία που θέλετε να µεταφέρετε και τα αποθηκεύει για 90 µέρες.

PCW, 35 Things Every PC Owner Should Know’ PCW, 35 Tips που Κάθε Χρήστης PC Πρέπει να Γνωρίζει PCW, 35 Things Every PC Owner Should Know’ PCW, 35 Tips που Κάθε Χρήστης PC Πρέπει να Γνωρίζει

Person

Activity

Xdrive.com: Gives you 5GB of free storage space, accessible through the Web or a Windows Explorer plugin that also allows for sharing with others. Xdrive.com: σας προσφέρει 5GB δωρεάν αποθηκευτικού χώρου, προσβάσιµου από οποιονδήποτε υπολογιστή, καθώς και από τον Windows Explorer µε τη χρήση ενός plug-in.

PCW, 35 Things Every PC Owner Should Know’ PCW, 35 Tips που Κάθε Χρήστης PC Πρέπει να Γνωρίζει

Person

Activity

It searches as you type, and displays the results in your browser.

PCW,

101

Fantastic

375

Ψάχνει καθώς πληκτρολογείτε και εµφανίζει τα αποτελέσµατα στον web browser που χρησιµοποιείτε.

Person

Activity

Who says Microsoft can’t write great software? Ποιος λέει ότι η Microsoft δεν µπορεί να προσφέρει αξιόλογα εργαλεία;

Person

Το Tweak VI προσφέρει 100 διαφορετικούς τρόπους για να φέρετε τα Windows Vista στα µέτρα σας.

Activity

Microsoft seems to have gone out of its way to make Vista unfriendly to power users. Η Microsoft φαίνεται ότι έχει προσπαθήσει πολύ για να κάνει τα Windows Vista µη φιλικά στους power users, […].

Person

PCW, 101 Fantastic Freebies PCW, Ο “Κήπος” µε τα ∆ώρα

Activity Tweak VI offers 100 different ways to customize Windows Vista to your own taste.

Person

Freebies PCW, Ο “Κήπος” µε τα ∆ώρα

Activity

Fresh UI gives you the tools to mold Windows XP to look and act just as you want it. Το Fresh UI σας δίνει τα απαραίτητα εργαλεία για να κάνετε τα Windows XP να φαίνονται και να λειτουργούν σύµφωνα µε τα θέλω σας.

PCW, 101 Fantastic Freebies PCW, Ο “Κήπος” µε τα ∆ώρα PCW, 101 Fantastic Freebies PCW, Ο “Κήπος” µε τα ∆ώρα PCW, 101 Fantastic Freebies PCW, Ο “Κήπος” µε τα ∆ώρα

Person

Activity

This Windows version of the open-source client lets you log in to and communicate on multiple IM networks, including AIM, ICQ, IRC, Jabber, MSN Messenger, Yahoo, and more. Αυτή η έκδοση Windows ενός client ανοιχτής αρχιτεκτονικής σας επιτρέπει να κάνετε log-in και να επικοινωνείτε σε πολλαπλά δίκτυα instant messaging, συµπεριλαµβανοµένων των AIM, ICQ, IRC, Jabber, MSN Messenger, Yahoo! κ.ά.

PCW, 101 Fantastic Freebies PCW, Ο “Κήπος” µε τα ∆ώρα

Person

Activity

This program is one of the few free antivirus applications that do as good a job as any of the big boys.

PCW, 101 Fantastic Freebies PCW, Ο “Κήπος” µε τα ∆ώρα

Είναι ένα από τα λίγα antivirus που κάνουν εξίσου καλή δουλειά µε τις πιο γνωστές εφαρµογές του χώρου.

376

Person

Activity

The program downloads and installs updates automatically, and Avast works with both Windows Vista and XP. Επίσης, κατεβάζει και εγκαθιστά αυτόµατα τις αναβαθµίσεις του, ενώ δουλεύει και στα Windows Vista.

PCW, 101 Fantastic Freebies PCW, Ο “Κήπος” µε τα ∆ώρα

Person

Activity

ZoneAlarm [website] This free firewall still beats anything Microsoft puts into Windows, including the features in Windows Vista. ZoneAlarm [website]. Αυτό το δωρεάν firewall νικά οτιδήποτε έχει αναπτύξει η Microsoft για τα Windows, συµπεριλαµβανοµένων χαρακτηριστικών που υπάρχουν στα Windows Vista.

PCW, 101 Fantastic Freebies PCW, Ο “Κήπος” µε τα ∆ώρα

Person

Activity

It offers outbound as well as inbound protection.

PCW, 101 Fantastic Freebies PCW, Ο “Κήπος” µε τα ∆ώρα

Σηµειώστε ότι προσφέρει προστασία τόσο για τα εισερχόµενα όσο και για τα εξερχόµενα δεδοµένα.

Person

Activity

But remember—since no single antispyware program can detect and kill all spyware, Spybot should be just one piece of your security arsenal. Προσοχή όµως: δεδοµένου ότι κανένα antispyware ούτε εντοπίζει ούτε «σκοτώνει» µόνο του όλα τα spyware, το Spybot πρέπει να αποτελεί µέρος των «οπλικών συστηµάτων» του «οπλοστασίου» σας.

PCW, 101 Fantastic Freebies PCW, Ο “Κήπος” µε τα ∆ώρα

Person

Activity

SnapFire juggles all your image editing, management, and sharing tasks with ease. Το SnapFire διαχειρίζεται µε ευκολία όλα τα καθήκοντα που αφορούν στην επεξεργασία, τη διαχείριση και το διαµοιρασµό εικόνων και φωτογραφιών.

PCW, 101 Fantastic Freebies PCW, Ο “Κήπος” µε τα ∆ώρα

Person

Activity

Don’t let its size fool you, though: FastStone MaxView sports lots of photo manipulation tools, such as those for rotating, flipping, resizing, and blurring. […] που όµως δεν πρέπει να σας ξεγελάσει. Το FastStone MaxView διαθέτει πολλά και αρκετά χρήσιµα εργαλεία επεξεργασίας φωτογραφιών.

PCW, 101 Fantastic Freebies PCW, Ο “Κήπος” µε τα ∆ώρα

Person

Activity

Gmail allows you to create rules to handle incoming mail automatically. And you can easily search through your messages via Google. Επίσης, σας επιτρέπει να δηµιουργείτε κανόνες για να διαχειρίζεται αυτόµατα τα εισερχόµενα e-mails, ενώ σας δίνει τη δυνατότητα να ψάχνετε τα µηνύµατά σας µέσω του Google.

PCW, 101 Fantastic Freebies PCW, Ο “Κήπος” µε τα ∆ώρα

377

Person

Activity

This add-on for Outlook, Thunderbird, and Mozilla Mail does everything it can to eradicate the junk. Αυτό το add-on για το Outlook, το Thunderbird και το Mozilla Mail κάνει ό,τι µπορεί για να εξαλείψει τη…σαβούρα.

Person

Activity

After you examine the changes and tell the software to do its magic, it cleans the Registry for you. [Η εφαρµογή σαρώνει αυτόµατα το µητρώο και αναφέρει πιθανά προβλήµατα], τα οποία εξετάζετε, για να αποφασίσετε στη συνέχει αν θα την αφήσετε να σας απαλλάξει από αυτά.

Person

Activity

Though this site does the job, nontechies might be confused by the arcane interface.

PCW, 101 Fantastic Freebies PCW, Ο “Κήπος” µε τα ∆ώρα PCW, 101 Fantastic Freebies PCW, Ο “Κήπος” µε τα ∆ώρα

Παρ’ ότι κάνει τη δουλειά του µια χαρά, µπορεί να µπερδέψει εύκολα τους χρήστες του µε το «αρχαϊκό» interface του.

PCW, 101 Fantastic Freebies PCW, Ο “Κήπος” µε τα ∆ώρα

Person

Activity

This text editor opens multiple files (each in its own tab), opens files of any size, and allows you unlimited undo and redo—in other words, it has everything that Notepad doesn’t. Ένας επεξεργαστής κειµένου που ανοίγει πολλαπλά αρχεία (το καθένα στο δικό του tab) ασχέτως µεγέθους και σας επιτρέπει να κάνετε άπειρα undo και redo. Με άλλα λόγια, έχει όλα αυτά που δεν έχει το Notepad.

PCW, 101 Fantastic Freebies PCW, Ο “Κήπος” µε τα ∆ώρα

Person

Activity

Sage complements Firefox, marrying an RSS reader to the browser; this Firefox extension is both easy to use and great at managing feeds. Το Sage συµπληρώνει τον Firefox, «παντρεύοντας» έναν αναγνώστη RSS µε τον browser. Είναι εύχρηστο και θαυµάσιο για τη διαχείριση των feeds σας.

PCW, 101 Fantastic Freebies PCW, Ο “Κήπος” µε τα ∆ώρα

Person

Activity

A router and/or PC reboot will often solve this; but also check that manually assigned, static IP addresses haven’t been set on some systems in the same area the router uses to assign automatic IP addresses […]. Η επανεκκίνηση του router ή του PC συνήθως διορθώνει το πρόβληµα. Ωστόσο, καλό είναι –σε περίπτωση που οι υπολογιστές παίρνουν σταθερή διεύθυνση IP και όχι αυτόµατα – να ελέγχετε ότι οι υπολογιστές του δικτύου δεν έχουν την ίδια IP […].

PCW, How to Survive the Worst PC Disasters PCW, Οδηγός Επιβίωσης στις Θεοµηνίες του PC

Person

Activity

Some providers can test your network gear remotely, as well; in some cases the ISP may need to send a reset signal to your modem. Μερικοί ISPs έχουν τη δυνατότητα να ελέγξουν τη σύνδεσή σας από το κέντρο τους ή να στείλουν εξ’ αποστάσεως εντολή να γίνει reset στο modem σας.

PCW, How to Survive the Worst PC Disasters PCW, Οδηγός Επιβίωσης στις Θεοµηνίες του PC

378

Person

Activity

Then run both Ad-Aware [websiste] and Spybot [websiste], and fix all the problems these antispyware apps uncover. Στη συνέχεια τρέξτε το Ad-Aware [website] αλλά και το Spybot [website] και διορθώστε όλα τα προβλήµατα που αυτά αναφέρουν.

PCW, How to Survive the Worst PC Disasters PCW, Οδηγός Επιβίωσης στις Θεοµηνίες του PC

Person

Activity

(And some spyware can even wreak havoc in Safe Mode, preventing antispyware apps from running.)

PCW, How to Survive the Worst PC Disasters PCW, Οδηγός Επιβίωσης στις Θεοµηνίες του PC

Ενδέχεται κάποιο πρόγραµµα spyware να παρεµποδίζει τη λειτουργία προγραµµάτων καταπολέµησης ιών και κακόβουλου λογισµικού ακόµα και σε κατάσταση safe mode. Person

Activity

HijackThis [websiste] is your next step: It’s a specialized application for determining exactly what’s trying to gain control over your PC. Σε αυτή την περίπτωση το HijackThis [website] είναι το επόµενο «όπλο» σας. Πρόκειται για ένα εξειδικευµένο πρόγραµµα που καταγράφει οτιδήποτε προσπαθεί να ανακτήσει τον έλεγχο του υπολογιστή σας.

PCW, How to Survive the Worst PC Disasters PCW, Οδηγός Επιβίωσης στις Θεοµηνίες του PC

Person

Activity

QueTek’s File Scavenger [website] or Diskeeper’s Undelete [website] are affordable and can make quick work of scouring your drive for deleted files. ∆οκιµάστε ένα από τα QueTek’s File Scavenger [website] ή Diskeeper’s Undelete [website], τα οποία µπορούν να ψάξουν στα βάθη του δίσκου σας για χαµένα αρχεία.

PCW, How to Survive the Worst PC Disasters PCW, Οδηγός Επιβίωσης στις Θεοµηνίες του PC

Person

Activity

If an undelete tool doesn’t work, start thinking about alternate places where the file might live.

PCW, How to Survive the Worst PC Disasters PCW, Οδηγός Επιβίωσης στις Θεοµηνίες του PC

Αν δεν δουλέψει κάποιο από τα πιο πάνω προγράµµατα ή οποιοδήποτε πρόγραµµα ανάκτησης διαγραµµένων αρχείων, προσπαθήστε να θυµηθείτε πού αλλού µπορεί να βρίσκεται το αρχείο σας. Person

Activity

Also, once installed, programs like Undelete keep track of erased files until they are overwritten, and so make recovering them much easier. Επιπλέον, µετά την εγκατάστασή τους προγράµµατα όπως το ‘Undelete’ διατηρούν χνάρια διαγραµµένων αρχείων, επιτρέποντας την ανάκτησή τους µέχρι τη στιγµή που αυτά τα χνάρια θα καλυφθούν από άλλα δεδοµένα στο σκληρό δίσκο σας.

PCW, How to Survive the Worst PC Disasters PCW, Οδηγός Επιβίωσης στις Θεοµηνίες του PC

Person

Activity

Vista’s Shadow Copy feature lets you restore folders (and their files) to previous versions.

PCW, How to Survive the

379

[…] καθώς η λειτουργία Shadow Copy των πιο πρόσφατων Windows διατηρεί παλαιότερες εκδόσεις των φακέλων και του περιεχοµένου τους.

Worst PC Disasters PCW, Οδηγός Επιβίωσης στις Θεοµηνίες του PC

Person

Activity

Monitor your drive’s health with the free HDD Health utility [website], which uses SMART technology to predict impending crashes (though it won’t catch them all). Τέλος, ένα φθηνό βοήθηµα για την παρακολούθηση της «υγείας» του σκληρού δίσκου σας είναι το πρόγραµµα HDD health [website], το οποίο χρησιµοποιεί τεχνολογία SMART για την πρόβλεψη των επικείµενων αστοχιών (αν και δεν πρόκειται να ανακαλύψει τα πάντα).

PCW, How to Survive the Worst PC Disasters PCW, Οδηγός Επιβίωσης στις Θεοµηνίες του PC

Person

Activity

Boot from this CD and watch Ophcrack go to work.

PCW, How to Survive the Worst PC Disasters PCW, Οδηγός Επιβίωσης στις Θεοµηνίες του PC

Γράψτε το πρόγραµµα σε CD και κάνετε boot από αυτό, αφήνοντας το Ophcrack να κάνει όλη τη δουλειά.

Person

Activity

But BayTSP, which actually keeps watch on file-sharing networks like BitTorrent and eDonkey, is a tad less categorical in its assertions. Η αλήθεια είναι ότι ενδεχοµένως να τη γλυτώσετε µε ένα ή δύο τραγούδια, καθώς στέλεχος της BayTSP (µιας µεγάλης εταιρείας που είναι υπεύθυνη για την παρακολούθηση υπηρεσιών file-sharing, όπως τα BitTorrent και eDonkey) επισήµως δηλώνει ότι η παρακολούθηση των διευθύνσεων IP γίνεται για µεγαλύτερα downloads της τάξης µιας ταινίας ή µιας πλήρους εφαρµογής – ενώ µαζί µε την IP ανιχνεύονται στοιχεία όπως η ώρα και η ηµέρα µεταφοράς του αρχείου και πληροφορίες για τον ISP του χρήστη,

PCW, Technology: Truth or fiction’ PCW, Μύθος ή Πραγµατικότητα;

Person

Activity

According to A/V review site CrutchfieldAdvisor.com, plasmas and some CRTs can suffer burn-in when “a static image such as a video game, stock or news ticker, or station logo remains on-screen for an extended period. Κι όµως οι plasma, όπως και οι CRT, ενδέχεται να εµφανίσουν το λεγόµενο burn-in (φωτεινά ίχνη στην οθόνη) µετά τη µακρόχρονη προβολή στατικής εικόνας.

PCW, Technology: Truth or fiction’

Person

Person

Activity

Activity

Google finds everything – and once it has your information, you can’t remove it.

PCW, Μύθος Πραγµατικότητα;

ή

Το Google βρίσκει τα πάντα και από τη στιγµή που έχει τα στοιχεία µου, δεν µπορώ µε τίποτα να του τα αφαιρέσω.

PCW, Technology: Truth or fiction’ PCW, Μύθος ή Πραγµατικότητα;

Although it may feel as if Google’s invisible fingers are touching everything, that isn’t really the case.

PCW,

Technology: Truth

380

Μπορεί το Google να µοιάζει πανταχού παρόν, ωστόσο δεν υπάρχει τίποτε… µαγικό πίσω του.

or fiction’ PCW, Μύθος Πραγµατικότητα;

ή

Person

Activity

Google will find something on the Web only if another site links to that page, notes Danny Sullivan, editor in chief of the Search Engine Land Web site. Απλώς δεν µπορεί να βρει τίποτε στο Web το οποίο δεν συνδέεται µε άλλη σελίδα.

PCW, Technology: Truth or fiction’ PCW, Μύθος ή Πραγµατικότητα;

Person

Activity

If hackers have turned your computer into a spambot, for example, your system tray might warn you that your computer is sending hundreds of e-mail messages – but only if you have security software in place to scan your outgoing mail. Για παράδειγµα, υπάρχει δυνατότητα ένας hacker να κάνει το σύστηµά σας να στέλνει αυτόµατα spam mails σε δεκάδες παραλήπτες, δηλαδή να το µετατρέψει σε spambot. Μόνο ένα πρόγραµµα ασφάλειας µπορεί να επισηµάνει την κίνηση αυτή ενηµερώνοντάς σας µε µήνυµα στο tray του desktop.

PCW, Technology: Truth or fiction’ PCW, Μύθος Πραγµατικότητα;

ή

Person

Activity

Malware often shuts down your antivirus software, firewall, or Windows Update service so it can operate unfettered on your system. Οι τελευταίου τύπου απειλές το πρώτο σηµείο που χτυπούν είναι οι ίδιες οι εφαρµογές antivirus, µπλοκάροντας είτε κάποιες λειτουργίες τους είτε και την ανανέωση των ενηµερώσεών τους.

PCW, Technology: Truth or fiction’ PCW, Μύθος ή Πραγµατικότητα;

Person

Activity

To restore files, simply connect the drive directly to the PC that needs the data, and you’re in business. Για να ανακτήσετε τα αρχεία σας, απλώς συνδέστε το drive απευθείας µε το PC που χρειάζεται τα δεδοµένα.

PCW, Hardware Tips PCW, Τα Καλύτερα 40 Hardware Κόλπα

Person

Activity

The latest DVD burners handle the popular DVD+R/RW and DVD-R/RW formats, support both singleand dual-layer recordable discs, and can store up to 8GB of data on a blank dual-layer DVD (browse to [website] for more on DVD formats). Οι πιο σύγχρονες συσκευές του είδους διαχειρίζονται τόσο τα formats DVD-R/-W όσο και τα formats DVD+R/+W, υποστηρίζουν δίσκους µε ένα ή δύο στρώµατα εγγραφής (single/dual later) και αποθηκεύουν έως 8GB δεδοµένων σε ένα κενό dual-layer DVD.

PCW, Hardware Tips

Person

Activity

Set Your Peripherals Free Απελευθερώστε τα περιφερειακά σας!

PCW, Τα Καλύτερα 40 Hardware Κόλπα

PCW, Hardware Tips PCW, Τα Καλύτερα 40 Hardware Κόλπα

381

Person

Activity

And yes, the earphones deliver on the promise of their name, giving tunes a mighty bass boost (though you’ll have to contend with some cord noise). Αυτά τα ακουστικά προσφέρουν επαρκή ακουστική ηχοµόνωση, χωρίς να µπαίνουν βαθιά στα αυτιά, ενώ υλοποιούν την υπόσχεσή τους για εντυπωσιακά βαθύ µπάσο.

PCW, Hardware Tips PCW, Τα Καλύτερα 40 Hardware Κόλπα

Person

Activity

The RAM on most laptops resides behind a removable panel. Στα περισσότερα laptops η µνήµη «κάθεται» πίσω από ένα αφαιρούµενο πάνελ.

PCW, Laptops User Guide PCW, Άθραυστος! Χρήσιµες Συµβουλές για Laptop Πάντα σε Φόρµα

Person

Activity

These tips and products will keep your laptop going and going. Τα παρακάτω tips θα σας βοηθήσουν να κρατήσετε το laptop σας σε φόρµα.

PCW, Laptops User Guide PCW, Άθραυστος! Χρήσιµες Συµβουλές για Laptop Πάντα σε Φόρµα

Person

Activity

The Creative Live! Cam Notebook Pro is about the size of an AA battery, it features an advanced rotating lens that can swivel back to capture an image behind it - plus smart software that adjusts the picture to keep it the right way up! Η Creative Live! Cam Notebook Pro έχει περίπου το µέγεθος µιας µπαταρίας ΑΑ, ενσωµατώνει έναν προηγµένο περιστρεφόµενο φακό, ο οποίος µπορεί να «κλειδώσει» ακόµα και στο θέµα που βρίσκεται πίσω του, ενώ συνοδεύεται από µια έξυπνη εφαρµογή που ρυθµίζει την εικόνα, ώστε να την κρατά πάντα στη σωστή φορά.

PCW, Laptops User Guide

PCW, Άθραυστος! Χρήσιµες Συµβουλές για Laptop Πάντα σε Φόρµα

Person

Activity

DNS servers are the PCs on which your ISP stores the databases that it uses to translate individual URLs (like [website]) into their corresponding numerical IP addresses on the Internet. Οι DNS servers είναι PCs στα οποία ο πάροχος (ISP) αποθηκεύει τις βάσεις δεδοµένων που χρησιµοποιεί για τη µετάφραση των URLs του Internet (π.χ. website) στις ανάλογες διευθύνσεις IP.

PCW, Make Your Network Better’ PCW, Κάντε το ∆ίκτυό Σας Καλύτερο!

Person

Activity

If your shared USB printer seems to come and go with a mind of its own, make sure the computer it is attached to isn’t hibernating. Εάν µέρος του δικτύου σας εµφανίζεται και εξαφανίζεται κατά βούληση εξαιτίας του εκτυπωτή USB που διαθέτετε, βεβαιωθείτε ότι ο συνδεδεµένος µε αυτόν υπολογιστής δεν µπαίνει σε κατάσταση χειµερίας νάρκης.

PCW, Make Your Network Better’ PCW, Κάντε το ∆ίκτυό Σας Καλύτερο!

382

Person

Activity

The new operating system’s Networking and Sharing Center lets you know which sharing features are enabled and makes configuring them easy. Το κέντρο ελέγχου Networking and Sharing Center του νέου λειτουργικού συστήµατος σας επιτρέπει να βλέπετε ανά πάσα στιγµή ποια χαρακτηριστικά είναι ενεργοποιηµένα και κάνει εύκολη υπόθεση την παραµετροποίησή τους.

PCW, Make Your Network Better’ PCW, Κάντε το ∆ίκτυό Σας Καλύτερο!

Person

Activity

Vista’s Link Layer Topology Discovery automatically detects network devices and allows you to see their locations on a Network Map. Εν τω µεταξύ, η λειτουργία Link Layer Topology Discovery αναγνωρίζει αυτόµατα τις δικτυακές συσκευές και απεικονίζει τις τοποθεσίες τους σε έναν δικτυακό χάρτη.

PCW, Make Your Network Better’ PCW, Κάντε το ∆ίκτυό Σας Καλύτερο!

Person

Activity

Vista’s firewall is smart enough to permit sharing within a workgroup.

PCW, Make Your Network Better’ PCW, Κάντε το ∆ίκτυό Σας Καλύτερο!

Το τείχος της ασφάλειας (firewall) των Vista είναι αρκετά έξυπνο, ώστε να επιτρέπει το διαµοιρασµό δεδοµένων στα όρια του workgroup. Person

Activity

ZoneAlarm’s Trusted Zone feature lets workgroup computers communicate. […] όπως το Zone Alarm Trusted Zone, που επιτρέπει στους υπολογιστές του workgroup να επικοινωνούν µεταξύ τους.

PCW, Make Your Network Better’ PCW, Κάντε το ∆ίκτυό Σας Καλύτερο!

Person

Activity

Like Windows Vista, Network Magic (one of our 100 best products of 2006; see [website]) puts all sharing and networking functions in one place, and it simplifies sharing folders and printers. Όπως τα Windows Vista, έτσι και το Network Magic βάζει όλες τις λειτουργίες που αφορούν στη δικτύωση σε ένα σηµείο και απλοποιεί το διαµοιρασµό αρχείων και εκτυπωτών.

PCW, Make Your Network Better’ PCW, Κάντε το ∆ίκτυό Σας Καλύτερο!

Person

Activity

Most routers have one, but those built into some inexpensive routers rely on NAT (network address translation) alone rather than using SPI (stateful packet inspection) Technology – a superior approach designed to ensure that your computers receive only data they have specifically requested. Οι περισσότεροι routers διαθέτουν ένα, ωστόσο οι υλοποιήσεις των πιο φθηνών µοντέλων αρκούνται στο NAT (network address translation) και δε χρησιµοποιούν SPI (stateful packet inspection) – µία πολύ πιο αποτελεσµατική τεχνική που εξασφαλίζει ότι µόνο τα ελεγµένα πακέτα πληροφορίας θα προσπελάσουν τον υπολογιστή.

PCW, Make Your Network Better’

Person

Activity

Whichever approach you take, don’t rely on Windows XP’s Windows Firewall for your protection, because

PCW, Κάντε το ∆ίκτυό Σας Καλύτερο!

PCW, Make Your Network

383

it can filter incoming data only. Οποιαδήποτε προσέγγιση επιλέξετε, µη βασιστείτε στο firewall των Windows XP για την προστασία σας, διότι φιλτράρει µόνο τα εισερχόµενα δεδοµένα.

Better’ PCW, Κάντε το ∆ίκτυό Σας Καλύτερο!

Person

Activity

Cover the airwaves: Firewalls and security suites are futile against packet sniffers that capture wireless traffic on a given frequency. Καλύψτε τα κύµατα: τα firewalls και οι σουίτες ασφάλειας είναι ανίσχυρα απέναντι στα packet sniffer, τα οποία είναι ικανά να υποκλέψουν τµήµατα πληροφορίας.

PCW, Make Your Network Better’ PCW, Κάντε το ∆ίκτυό Σας Καλύτερο!

Person

Activity

But anyone listening in can spoof your authorized MAC addresses on their own equipment. Ωστόσο, κάποιος που έχει τις γνώσεις είναι σχετικά εύκολο να ξεγελάσει τις διευθύνσεις MAC, προκειµένου να συνδέσει το δικό του υλικό.

PCW, Make Your Network Better’ PCW, Κάντε το ∆ίκτυό Σας Καλύτερο!

Person

Activity

In Windows Vista, turn off the Vista Network Discovery feature (which allows other computers to see you on a network) when you’re at hotspots. Στα Windows Vista κλείστε τη λειτουργία ‘Vista Network Discovery’ (επιτρέπει σε άλλους υπολογιστές να σας «βλέπουν» σε ένα δίκτυο), όταν βρίσκεστε σε περιοχή µε hotspots.

PCW, Make Your Network Better’ PCW, Κάντε το ∆ίκτυό Σας Καλύτερο!

Person

Activity

In fact, the latest 802.11n draft effectively mandates a 50 percent reduction in performance when your network is in the presence of other active Wi-Fi networks. Μάλιστα, το τελευταίο πρότυπο 802.11n µειώνει κατά 50% τις επιδόσεις του δικτύου σας, όταν εντοπίζει άλλα ενεργά δίκτυα Wi-Fi στη γύρω περιοχή.

PCW, Make Your Network Better’ PCW, Κάντε το ∆ίκτυό Σας Καλύτερο!

Person

Activity

(A router’s automatic channel selection feature does this for you.)

PCW, Make Your Network Better’ PCW, Κάντε το ∆ίκτυό Σας Καλύτερο!

(το χαρακτηριστικό αυτόµατης επιλογής καναλιού ενός router µπορεί να κάνει το ίδιο για εσάς).

Person

Person

Activity

Activity

Or the system to be backed up is turned off, asleep, or on the road. Or the backup is interrupted. Μπορεί το σύστηµα πάνω στο οποίο να πρόκειται να γίνει το back-up να είναι κλειστό, σε «ύπνωση» ή – αν µιλάµε για laptop – να βρίσκεται στο δρόµο. Μπορεί για κάποιον άγνωστο λόγο, το back-up να διακοπεί.

PCW, Make Your Network Better’ PCW, Κάντε το ∆ίκτυό Σας Καλύτερο!

Cobian Backup [website] can perform full or incremental backups with or without compression, and can

PCW, Make Your Network

384

encrypt your data for better security on shared network drives. Το Cobian Backup [website] εκτελεί πλήρη ή αυξητικά back-ups µε ή χωρίς συµπίεση και επιπλέον κρυπτογραφεί τα δεδοµένα σας για µεγαλύτερη ασφάλεια.

Better’ PCW, Κάντε το ∆ίκτυό Σας Καλύτερο!

Person

Activity

If it can’t, use XP’s Scheduled Tasks wizard (under Programs•Accessories•System Tools) to wake it up at backup time; for more on how to set this up, see [website]. ∆ιαφορετικά, χρησιµοποιήστε το βοηθό των Scheduled Tasks που παρέχουν τα Windows XP (θα τον βρείτε στο Programs>Accessories>System Tools) και «ξυπνήστε» τον συγκεκριµένη ώρα.

PCW, Make Your Network Better’ PCW, Κάντε το ∆ίκτυό Σας Καλύτερο!

Person

Activity

The Mac operating system carries all the software it needs to join a Windows network and use a networkconnected printer. Το λειτουργικό σύστηµα του Mac διαθέτει όλο το λογισµικό που απαιτείται για τη σύνδεσή του µε δίκτυο των Windows και χρησιµοποιεί δικτυακούς εκτυπωτές.

PCW, Make Your Network Better’ PCW, Κάντε το ∆ίκτυό Σας Καλύτερο!

Person

Activity

It promises to do for the Macs on your network what its Windows counterpart does for PCs.

PCW, Make Your Network Better’ PCW, Κάντε το ∆ίκτυό Σας Καλύτερο!

[…] το οποίο υπόσχεται για τα Mac ό,τι κάνει το αντίστοιχο software για τα PCs.

Person

Person

Activity

Activity

And standard computer building blocks are growing ever more powerful, as processor makers squeeze more cores onto each chip and drive makers pack more bits into each platter – guaranteeing that even ordinary PCs of the future will be anything but ordinary. Οι υπολογιστές θα συνεχίσουν να αυξάνουν την ισχύ τους, καθώς οι κατασκευαστές επεξεργαστών θα στριµώχνουν περισσότερους πυρήνες σε κάθε τσιπ και οι σκληροί δίσκοι θα αποθηκεύουν περισσότερα δεδοµένα. Tiny screens just don’t cut it when you want to do real work. Οι οθόνες µικρών διαστάσεων απλώς δεν επαρκούν, εάν θέλετε να κάνετε σοβαρή δουλειά.

Person

Activity

The first actually rollable displays, created by the labs of Philips’s Holland-based spin-off Polymer Vision (website), will reach the market in 2008: A cell phone from Telecom Italia will carry the world’s first Polymer Vision roll-up display. Οι πρώτες οθόνες που µπορούν να τυλιχτούν σε ρολό θα διατεθούν στην αγορά το 2008 από την εταιρεία

PCW, Your PC in 2008 and Beyond PCW, Τεχνολογίες 2008…και αργότερα

του

PCW, Your PC in 2008 and Beyond PCW, Τεχνολογίες του 2008…και αργότερα PCW, Your PC in 2008 and Beyond PCW,

Τεχνολογίες

του

385

Polymer Vision [website]. Η πρώτη από αυτές θα «ντύσει» ένα νέο κινητό τηλέφωνο της Telecom Italia, το κόστος του οποίου είναι ακόµη άγνωστο.

2008…και αργότερα

Person

Activity

That not only means that you’ll be able to talk and text at the same time, but also that your 4G device will be able to do far more on the network than it can today. Με άλλα λόγια, όχι µόνο θα µιλάτε και θα στέλνετε µηνύµατα κειµένου ταυτόχρονα, αλλά το κινητό τηλέφωνό σας θα κάνει πολύ περισσότερα από όσα κάνει σήµερα.

PCW, Your PC in 2008 and Beyond PCW, Τεχνολογίες του 2008…και αργότερα

Person

Activity

We’ve heard for years about the smart home – a house chock-full of computer-driven appliances that cater to your every need. Χρόνια τώρα ακούµε για το «έξυπνο» σπίτι, δηλαδή για ένα σπίτι «πνιγµένο» από συσκευές ελεγχόµενες από υπολογιστές, που φροντίζουν για κάθε ανάγκη µας.

PCW, Your PC in 2008 and Beyond PCW, Τεχνολογίες του 2008…και αργότερα

Person

Activity

The four major U.S. wireless carriers are just scratching the surface of what their 3G networks can do, and most consumers seem uninterested in more-advanced data streaming. Προς το παρόν οι εταιρείες κινητής τηλεφωνίας εξερευνούν τις δυνατότητες των δικτύων 3G, οι δε καταναλωτές δεν δείχνουν ιδιαίτερο ενδιαφέρον για τις προχωρηµένες υπηρεσίες µετάδοσης δεδοµένων, κυρίως εξαιτίας του υψηλού κόστους τους.

PCW, Your PC in 2008 and Beyond PCW, Τεχνολογίες του 2008…και αργότερα

Person

Activity

Regardless of what Moore’s Law has to say, there’s not much point in increasing processor speeds or doubling the bit paths in a CPU if the system bus can’t carry the traffic anyway. Ανεξάρτητα από το τι λέει ο νόµος του Μουρ, η αύξηση της συχνότητας λειτουργίας ή ο διπλασιασµός των διόδων µετάδοσης δεδοµένων των επεξεργαστών δεν έχει νόηµα, εάν ο δίαυλος συστήµατος δεν µπορεί να διαχειριστεί την επιπλέον κίνηση.

PCW, Your PC in 2008 and Beyond PCW, Τεχνολογίες του 2008…και αργότερα

Person

Activity

The centerpiece of any given CPU is the processor core, which is responsible for the actual calculations that make all of your software run. Η «καρδιά» οποιουδήποτε σύγχρονου επεξεργαστή είναι ο πυρήνας του, καθώς είναι υπεύθυνος για όλους τους υπολογισµούς που απαιτούνται για την εκτέλεση των software.

PCW, Your PC in 2008 and Beyond PCW, Τεχνολογίες του 2008…και αργότερα

Person

Activity

As the drive’s read/write head goes about its business, it briefly fires its laser at the surface, destabilizing the iron-platinum particles for reading and writing. Καθώς η κεφαλή θα γράφει/διαβάζει τα δεδοµένα, δέσµη λέιζερ θα χτυπά την επιφάνεια αποθήκευσης, αποσταθεροποιώντας τα µόριά της.

PCW, Your PC in 2008 and Beyond PCW, Τεχνολογίες του 2008…και αργότερα

386

Person

Activity

With the platter heated, the read/write head can manipulate the surface on a very fine scale – in just tens of nanometers – letting it cram enormous amounts of information into a small space. Αφού αυτή θερµανθεί, η διαδικασία εγγραφής/ανάγνωσης που εκτελείται από την κεφαλή γίνεται πολύ πιο ακριβής (σε επίπεδο νανοµέτρων), επιτρέποντας έτσι την αύξηση των δεδοµένων που µπορούν να χωρέσουν σε µία δεδοµένη επιφάνεια.

PCW, Your PC in 2008 and Beyond PCW, Τεχνολογίες του 2008…και αργότερα

Person

Activity

The old technology suffers from some serious limitations – including a shortage of addresses for all the computers that use it. Η τρέχουσα έκδοση του Internet Protocol, η IPv4, χρησιµοποιείται επί είκοσι πέντε και πλέον χρόνια και πάσχει από σοβαρούς περιορισµούς, µεταξύ των οποίων η ανεπάρκεια διευθύνσεων για όλους τους υπολογιστές που χρησιµοποιούν το Internet.

PCW, Your PC in 2008 and Beyond PCW, Τεχνολογίες του 2008…και αργότερα

Person

Activity

The Quero toolbar puts things everything from bookmarks to saved site log-ins back where you expect them to be. Η Quero Toolbar βάζει τα πράγµατα εκεί που τα περιµένετε!

PCW, Build the Perfect Browser PCW, “Κτίστε” τον Τέλειο Browser

Person

Activity

Unlike the preceding option, this one shows all ActiveX controls, which load only when you visit a Web page that calls on them. Αντίθετα µε την προηγούµενη επιλογή, αυτή εδώ δείχνει όλα τα στοιχεία ελέγχου ActiveX που φορτώνουν µόνο όταν επισκέπτεστε µια σελίδα που τα καλεί.

PCW, Build the Perfect Browser PCW, “Κτίστε” τον Τέλειο Browser

Person

Activity

Ideal for the inveterate power-downloader, LeechGet handles downloads in an external program that runs from the system tray. Ιδανικό για τους χρήστες που κατεβάζουν µανιωδώς οτιδήποτε από το Internet, το LeechGet διαχειρίζεται τα αρχεία που κατεβάζει µέσω µιας εξωτερικής εφαρµογής που τρέχει από το tray των Windows.

PCW, Build the Perfect Browser PCW, “Κτίστε” τον Τέλειο Browser

Person

Activity

It can accelerate downloads by splitting files into different parts and pulling them all down at the same time.

PCW, Build the Perfect Browser PCW, “Κτίστε” τον Τέλειο Browser

Μπορεί να επιταχύνει τα downloads, χωρίζοντας τα αρχεία σε διαφορετικά µέρη και «τραβώντας» τα όλα ταυτόχρονα. Person

Activity

Like LeechGet, this program adds a download manager that runs outside the browser in the system tray. Όπως και το LeechGet, αυτή η εφαρµογή προσθέτει στο tray έναν download manager που τρέχει έξω από

PCW, Build the Perfect Browser PCW, “Κτίστε” τον Τέλειο

387

τον browser.

Browser

Person

Activity

This excellent extension creates a cleaner Firefox interface by collecting the normally separate array of addons and download windows and pulling them into a highly functional sidebar. Αυτό το εξαιρετικό add-on «καθαρίζει» το περιβάλλον χρήσης του Firefox, συλλέγοντας τα ξεχωριστά addons και παράθυρα download και τοποθετώντας τα σε µία άκρως λειτουργική sidebar.

PCW, Build the Perfect Browser PCW, “Κτίστε” τον Τέλειο Browser

Person

Activity

Both IE 7 and Firefox 2 have welcome new built-in antiphishing features designed to block known phishing sites and (in the case of IE 7) to warn against unknown ones. Τόσο ο Internet Explorer 7 όσο και ο Firefox 2 διαθέτουν ευπρόσδεκτα νέα χαρακτηριστικά antiphishing, σχεδιασµένα έτσι ώστε να παρέχουν προστασία από phishing sites και στην περίπτωση του IE7 – να ειδοποιούν για τα «αγνώστου ταυτότητας».

PCW, Build the Perfect Browser PCW, “Κτίστε” τον Τέλειο Browser

Person

Activity

But no single solution can spot every ill-intentioned site, especially when phishing outposts go up and down more often than a bank of elevators, in an effort to evade blacklist blocking. Επειδή όµως δεν υπάρχει µια και µοναδική λύση για τον εντοπισµό κάθε εσκεµµένα µολυσµένου site, ειδικά όταν τα sites αυτά «ανεβοκατεβαίνουν» στο Internet ταχύτερα και από… ασανσέρ, πρέπει να χρησιµοποιείτε πολλά από τα ακόλουθα εργαλεία, αν θέλετε να απολαµβάνετε ολοκληρωµένη ασφάλεια.

PCW, Build the Perfect Browser PCW, “Κτίστε” τον Τέλειο Browser

Person

Activity

Much the same as SiteAdvisor, this add-on performs realtimesite scanning in search of active attacks.

PCW, Build the Perfect Browser PCW, “Κτίστε” τον Τέλειο Browser

Περίπου το ίδιο µε το SiteAdvisor, αυτό το add-on πραγµατοποιεί real-time σάρωση, προκειµένου να εντοπίζει ενεργές επιθέσεις. Person

Activity

Use this plug-in to block sites from running JavaScript in Firefox until you explicitly say it’s okay. Χρησιµοποιήστε αυτό το plug-in για να εµποδίσετε τα sites να τρέχουν JavaScripts στον Firefox, µέχρι να τους δώσετε το ΟΚ.

Person

Person

Activity

Activity

This password manager will fill in forms for you and automatically log you in to sites.

PCW, Build the Perfect Browser PCW, “Κτίστε” τον Τέλειο Browser

Ένας διαχειριστής passwords, ο οποίος συµπληρώνει για λογαριασµό σας τις φόρµες που θέλετε µε τα στοιχεία σας και σας κάνει αυτόµατα log-on σε sites.

PCW, Build the Perfect Browser PCW, “Κτίστε” τον Τέλειο Browser

Yahoo Mail Notifier This app tucks a small icon into the lower-right corner of your browser to identify the

PCW, Build the Perfect

388

number of unread Yahoo e-mail messages you have. Αυτή η εφαρµογή εισάγει ένα µικρό εικονίδιο στην κάτω δεξιά γωνία του browser, το οποίο δίνει τον αριθµό των e-mails που δεν έχετε διαβάσει, εφόσον βεβαίως χρησιµοποιείτε το mail του Yahoo!.

Browser PCW, “Κτίστε” τον Τέλειο Browser

Person

Activity

IE 7 Menu-on-Top Tweak This one-trick pony modifies the Registry so that the classic Menu bar goes back to the top your screen. Add-on που τροποποιεί το µητρώο των Windows, ώστε η κλασική µπάρα του µενού να εµφανίζεται ξανά πίσω στην κορυφή της οθόνης.

PCW, Build the Perfect Browser PCW, “Κτίστε” τον Τέλειο Browser

Person

Activity

Whenever you click a PDF link, you’ll get a pop-up asking whether you want to open the PDF as usual in the browser or save it. Κάθε φορά που θα κάνετε κλικ σε ένα link που θα υποδεικνύει αρχείο PDF, θα εµφανίζεται ένα pop-up που θα σας ρωτά αν θέλετε να ανοίξετε το PDF όπως συνηθίζετε στον browser ή αν το αποθηκεύσετε […].

PCW, Build the Perfect Browser PCW, “Κτίστε” τον Τέλειο Browser

Person

Activity

With this tool, unlike with the Bloglines Browser Plug-In, your feeds remain stored in IE’s Favorites, and a separate program that runs from the system tray handles the synchronization. Αντίθετα µε το Bloglines Browser Plug-In, µε αυτό το εργαλείο τα feeds παραµένουν αποθηκευµένα στα αγαπηµένα του Explorer, η δε διαχείριση του συγχρονισµού γίνεται από µια ξεχωριστή εφαρµογή που τρέχει από το tray.

PCW, Build the Perfect Browser PCW, “Κτίστε” τον Τέλειο Browser

Person

Activity

This program helps you navigate by introducing colored tabs that signal the particular site being loaded; you assign the tab colors initially, and Chromatab does the rest. Εφαρµογή που σας βοηθά στο σερφάρισµα, εισάγοντας πολύχρωµα tabs που σηµατοδοτούν το εκάστοτε site που φορτώνεται. Εσείς ορίζετε τα χρώµατα και το Chromatab αναλαµβάνει όλα τα υπόλοιπα.

PCW, Build the Perfect Browser PCW, “Κτίστε” τον Τέλειο Browser

Person

Activity

Also, some add-ons don’t play nicely together.

PCW, Build the Perfect Browser PCW, “Κτίστε” τον Τέλειο Browser

Αυτό που επίσης διαπιστώσαµε είναι ότι µερικά add-ons δεν συνεργάζονται αρµονικά.

Person

Activity

One of this application’s many features is the ability to create Web-based bookmarks (separate from your system-based bookmarks) that are accessible from any of your other browsers that have the toolbar installed. Ένα από τα κύρια χαρακτηριστικά αυτής της εφαρµογής είναι η δυνατότητά της να δηµιουργεί bookmarks, στα οποία µπορείτε να αποκτάτε πρόσβαση από οποιονδήποτε browser περιλαµβάνει τη συγκεκριµένη toolbar.

PCW, Build the Perfect Browser PCW, “Κτίστε” τον Τέλειο Browser

389

Person

Activity

Undisputed champ? Αδιαµφισβήτητος πρωταθλητής;

Person

Activity

Which led us to wonder: Does Google deserve all that traffic, or is it living off its reputation? […] που µας κάνει να αναρωτιόµαστε: αξίζει πράγµατι τόσο πολύ ως µηχανή αναζήτησης ή απλώς χρησιµοποιείται τόσο πολύ απολαµβάνοντας τη φήµη που έχει αποκτήσει τα τελευταία χρόνια;

Person

Activity

Maybe you’ve heard that search engines all spit out the same list of hits. Μπορεί να έχετε ακούσει ότι όλες οι µηχανές αναζήτησης βγάζουν τα ίδια αποτελέσµατα.

Person

Activity

Ask.com does the best job of displaying related information and links. Το Ask.com κάνει την καλύτερη δουλειά στην εµφάνιση σχετικών πληροφοριών και links.

Person

Activity

Many of the smaller search engines license their indices from larger players and then massage the results with their own home-brewed algorithms, or via human indexing, a technique pioneered by Ask.com but now used by several search services. Πολλές από τις µικρότερες µηχανές αναζήτησης δανείζονται τα ευρετήριά τους από µεγαλύτερους «παίκτες» και στη συνέχεια εφαρµόζουν είτε τους δικούς τους αλγόριθµους για να βγάλουν τις σελίδες των αποτελεσµάτων είτε την τεχνική του «ανθρώπινου ευρετηρίου», στην οποία πρωτοπόρος ήταν η Ask.com.

PCW, Search Engine Shoot-Out PCW, Μηχανές Αναζήτησης σε…Πόλεµο! PCW, Search Engine Shoot-Out PCW, Μηχανές Αναζήτησης σε…Πόλεµο! PCW, Search Engine Shoot-Out PCW, Μηχανές Αναζήτησης σε…Πόλεµο! PCW, Search Engine Shoot-Out PCW, Μηχανές Αναζήτησης σε…Πόλεµο! PCW, Search Shoot-Out

Engine

PCW, Μηχανές Αναζήτησης σε…Πόλεµο!

Person

Activity

The Yahoo-owned AlltheWeb and AltaVista, for instance, each use their parent company’s index, while Lycos hooks into Ask.com, and AOL Search is really Google in disguise. Για παράδειγµα, το AlltheWeb και το AltaVista, που ανήκουν στο Yahoo!, χρησιµοποιούν το ευρετήριο του τελευταίου, ενώ το Lycos «αγκιστρώνεται» στο Ask.com.

PCW, Search Engine Shoot-Out PCW, Μηχανές Αναζήτησης σε…Πόλεµο!

Person

Activity

Both Ask.com and Live Search mimic Google’s minimalist motif, although the former spices things up a bit by adding a handy Search Tools column on the right side of the screen, giving you easy access to useful

PCW, Search Shoot-Out

Engine

390

search helpers that you might otherwise miss, such as the service’s encyclopedia, dictionary, and maps. Το µινιµαλιστικό µοτίβο του Google το ακολουθούν τόσο το Ask.com όσο και το Live Search, αν και το πρώτο κάνει τα πράγµατα λίγο πιο ενδιαφέροντα µε την προσθήκη της στήλης ‘Search Tools’ στα δεξιά της οθόνης.

PCW, Μηχανές Αναζήτησης σε…Πόλεµο!

Person

Activity

Blogdigger adheres to Google’s less-is-more rule, while Bloglines uses its home page to pitch its RSS newsreader and blog-publishing tools. Το πρώτο [Blogdigger] ακολουθεί τον κανόνα «λιγότερο-ίσον-περισσότερο» του Google, ενώ το δεύτερο [Bloglines] χρησιµοποιεί την κεντρική σελίδα του για να βάλει σφήνα τον RSS newsreader και εργαλεία δηµοσίευσης blogs.

PCW, Search Engine Shoot-Out PCW, Μηχανές Αναζήτησης σε…Πόλεµο!

Person

Activity

Think Microsoft’s free Windows Defender will save you from attacks?

PCW, Die, Spyware, Die

Υπάρχει πρόγραµµα που µπορεί να σας προστατεύσει από τους κινδύνους του spyware;

PCW, Επόµενος Στόχος: Spyware

You’ll want your antispyware product to recognize it—based on a match to a signature database of known threats—before the sample unpacks itself and activates in various areas of your PC. Σε αυτό το στάδιο αξιολογείται η βάση µε τις «υπογραφές», η οποία χρησιµοποιείται από κάθε εφαρµογή για την αναγνώριση του malware.

PCW, Die, Spyware, Die

Person

Person

Person

Person

Activity

Activity

Activity

Activity

To learn how the tools would react in such a case, AV-Test also measured each product’s ability to recognize the behavior of and subsequently clean up 20 active pieces of adware and spyware. Τον εντοπισµό και τον καθαρισµό των ενεργών απειλών, αφού δηλαδή το malware έχει εγκατασταθεί στο PC και έχει αρχίσει τη δράση του σε διάφορα σηµεία του συστήµατος. We also looked at the programs’ behavior-based capabilities for detecting and blocking changes to key areas of an infected system without having to recognize anything about a specific invader. Τέλος, τα «τεστ συµπεριφοράς», δηλαδή τη δυνατότητα να εντοπίζει και να διορθώνει η εκάστοτε εφαρµογή τις πιο συνηθισµένες ενέργειες που εκτελούν τα προγράµµατα adware/spyware στο σύστηµα (π.χ. αλλαγή στις home page και search pages του Internet Explorer ή και σε κλειδιά της Registry).

PCW, Επόµενος Στόχος: Spyware PCW, Die, Spyware, Die PCW, Επόµενος Στόχος: Spyware PCW, Die, Spyware, Die PCW, Επόµενος Στόχος: Spyware

In tests performed by AV-Test.org, Spyware Doctor did an excellent job identifying and uprooting adware.

PCW, Die, Spyware, Die

Στις δοκιµές του AV-Test.org το Spyware Doctor 5.0 απέδειξε ότι µπορεί να κάνει εξαιρετική δουλειά

PCW, Επόµενος Στόχος:

391

Person

Activity

Person

Activity

Person

Activity

Person

Person

Person

Activity

Activity

Activity

στην ανίχνευση και το «ξερίζωµα» του adware.

Spyware

When it came to other intruders, however, Spyware Doctor spotted only 27 percent of our inactive bankingrelated spyware and 43 percent of password-stealing spyware. Οι µόνες αδυναµίες του παρατηρήθηκαν στην αντιµετώπιση ειδικά του spyware που έχει στόχο τραπεζικούς λογαριασµούς µε επιδόσεις της τάξης του 27%, καθώς και στο spyware υποκλοπής κωδικών µε σκορ 43%.

PCW, Die, Spyware, Die

It detected all of our active spyware samples except the password-stealing Trojan horse PSW.Maran, and successfully cleaned up 70 percent of those infestations. Από την άλλη, καταφέρνοντας να καθαρίσει το 70% των δειγµάτων spyware, τοποθετείται άνετα στην κορυφή των ανταγωγιστικών εφαρµογών. Spyware Doctor held up well in behavior-based detection tests, too, detecting additions to HKCU and HKLM ‘Run’ Registry keys and preventing adware and spyware programs from changing Internet Explorer search and start pages. Σε ό,τι αφορά την ανίχνευση ύποπτων κινήσεων στο σύστηµα, το Spyware Doctor επιτυγχάνει µεν να εντοπίσει επεµβάσεις τον Internet Explorer και τη Registry, αδυνατεί δε […]. On the other hand, it didn’t detect changes to the Hosts file, which spyware can use to redirect you to a malicious Web site. […] αδυνατεί δε να αποκαλύψει αλλαγές του αρχείου Hosts, το οποίο βάζουν στόχο διάφορα spyware µε σκοπό το redirect του browser σε «µολυσµένα» sites. We also didn’t like its habit of flagging ad-tracking cookies as “infections”; the overzealous Doctor diagnosed 387 “infections” that turned out to be cookies from Google, the New York Times’ Web site, and other reputable sites. Επίσης, το «υπερπροστατευτικό» Spyware Doctor έχει την κακή συνήθεια να χαρακτηρίζει απειλές πολλά αθώα cookies. Στο δικό µας τεστ αναγνώρισε ως τέτοια 387 cookies, µεταξύ των οποίων αρκετά από το Google, από sites γνωστών εφηµερίδων, κ.ά. The sleek-looking program recognized, on average, the largest percentage of threats. Unfortunately, it suffers from poor behavior-based protection and a high false-positive rate. Το ιδιαίτερα καλαίσθητο AVG Anti-Spyware πετυχαίνει κατά µέσο όρο τις καλύτερες επιδόσεις στην ανίχνευση και την αντιµετώπιση των απειλών. Από την άλλη, υστερεί στην απόδοση σε ό,τι αφορά την

PCW, Επόµενος Στόχος: Spyware

PCW, Die, Spyware, Die PCW, Επόµενος Στόχος: Spyware PCW, Die, Spyware, Die

PCW, Επόµενος Στόχος: Spyware PCW, Die, Spyware, Die PCW, Επόµενος Στόχος: Spyware PCW, Die, Spyware, Die

PCW, Επόµενος Στόχος: Spyware

PCW, Die, Spyware, Die PCW, Επόµενος Στόχος: Spyware

392

ανίχνευση ύποπτης συµπεριφοράς (αλλαγές στη Registry κλπ.) και επιπλέον ταυτοποιεί αθώες διεργασίες ως επικίνδυνες. Person

Person

Activity

Activity

The utility detected 19 of 20 active samples (ones installed on the test PC)—missing only the Banbra Trojan horse, which attempts to collect online banking credentials. Σε ό,τι αφορά το τεστ σε ενεργό s